# Posts published in September 2019

With respect to a given puzzle string, a word is valid if both the following conditions are satisfied:

• word contains the first letter of puzzle.
• For each letter in word, that letter is in puzzle.
For example, if the puzzle is “abcdefg”, then valid words are “faced”, “cabbage”, and “baggage”; while invalid words are “beefed” (doesn’t include “a”) and “based” (includes “s” which isn’t in the puzzle).

Return an array answer, where answer[i] is the number of words in the given word list words that are valid with respect to the puzzle puzzles[i].

Example :

Input:
words = ["aaaa","asas","able","ability","actt","actor","access"],
puzzles = ["aboveyz","abrodyz","abslute","absoryz","actresz","gaswxyz"]
Output: [1,1,3,2,4,0]
Explanation:
1 valid word for "aboveyz" : "aaaa"
1 valid word for "abrodyz" : "aaaa"
3 valid words for "abslute" : "aaaa", "asas", "able"
2 valid words for "absoryz" : "aaaa", "asas"
4 valid words for "actresz" : "aaaa", "asas", "actt", "access"
There're no valid words for "gaswxyz" cause none of the words in the list contains letter 'g'.


Constraints:

• 1 <= words.length <= 10^5
• 4 <= words[i].length <= 50
• 1 <= puzzles.length <= 10^4
• puzzles[i].length == 7
• words[i][j]puzzles[i][j] are English lowercase letters.
• Each puzzles[i] doesn’t contain repeated characters.

## Solution: Subsets

Preprocessing:
Compress each word to a bit map, and compute the frequency of each bit map.
Since there are at most |words| bitmaps while its value ranging from 0 to 2^26, thus it’s better to use a hashtable instead of an array.

Query:
Use the same way to compress a puzzle into a bit map.
Try all subsets (at most 128) of the puzzle (the bit of the first character is be must), and check how many words match each subset.

words = [“aaaa”,”asas”,”able”,”ability”,”actt”,”actor”,”access”],
puzzle = “abslute”
bitmap(“aaaa”) = {0}
bitmap(“asas”) = {0, 18}
bitmap(“able”) = {0,1,4,11}
bitmap(“actt”) = {0, 2, 19}
bitmap(“actor”) = {0, 2, 14, 17, 19}
bitmap(“access”) = {0, 2, 4, 18}

bitmap(“abslute”) = {0, 1, 4, 11, 18, 19, 20}

Time complexity: O(sum(len(w_i)) + |puzzles|)
Space complexity: O(|words|)

## C++

Given a string s, we make queries on substrings of s.

For each query queries[i] = [left, right, k], we may rearrange the substring s[left], ..., s[right], and then choose up to k of them to replace with any lowercase English letter.

If the substring is possible to be a palindrome string after the operations above, the result of the query is true. Otherwise, the result is false.

Return an array answer[], where answer[i] is the result of the i-th query queries[i].

Note that: Each letter is counted individually for replacement so if for example s[left..right] = "aaa", and k = 2, we can only replace two of the letters.  (Also, note that the initial string s is never modified by any query.)

Example :

Input: s = "abcda", queries = [[3,3,0],[1,2,0],[0,3,1],[0,3,2],[0,4,1]]
Output: [true,false,false,true,true]
Explanation:
queries : substring = "d", is palidrome.
queries : substring = "bc", is not palidrome.
queries : substring = "abcd", is not palidrome after replacing only 1 character.
queries : substring = "abcd", could be changed to "abba" which is palidrome. Also this can be changed to "baab" first rearrange it "bacd" then replace "cd" with "ab".
queries : substring = "abcda", could be changed to "abcba" which is palidrome.


Constraints:

• 1 <= s.length, queries.length <= 10^5
• 0 <= queries[i] <= queries[i] < s.length
• 0 <= queries[i] <= s.length
• s only contains lowercase English letters.

## Solution: Prefix frequency

Compute the prefix frequency of each characters, then we can efficiently compute the frequency of each characters in the substring in O(1) time. Count the number odd frequency characters o, we can convert it to a palindrome if o / 2 <= k.

Time complexity:
preprocessing: O(n)
Query: O(1)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

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