Given an integer array of digits, return the largest multiple of three that can be formed by concatenating some of the given digits in any order.

Since the answer may not fit in an integer data type, return the answer as a string.

If there is no answer return an empty string.

Example 1:

Input: digits = [8,1,9]
Output: "981"


Example 2:

Input: digits = [8,6,7,1,0]
Output: "8760"


Example 3:

Input: digits = [1]
Output: ""


Example 4:

Input: digits = [0,0,0,0,0,0]
Output: "0"


Constraints:

• 1 <= digits.length <= 10^4
• 0 <= digits[i] <= 9

Solution: Greedy + Math + Counting sort

Count the numbers of each digit.
if sum % 3 == 0, we can use all digits.
if sum % 1 == 0, we can remove one digits among {1, 4, 7} => sum % 3 == 0
if sum % 2 == 0, we can remove one digits among {2, 5, 8} => sum % 3 == 0
if sum % 2 == 0, we have to remove two digits among {1, 4, 7} => sum % 3 == 0
if sum % 1 == 0, we have to remove two digits among {2, 5, 8} => sum % 3 == 0

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n) w/ output, O(1) w/o output

Python3

Given an integer num, find the closest two integers in absolute difference whose product equals num + 1 or num + 2.

Return the two integers in any order.

Example 1:

Input: num = 8
Output: [3,3]
Explanation: For num + 1 = 9, the closest divisors are 3 & 3, for num + 2 = 10, the closest divisors are 2 & 5, hence 3 & 3 is chosen.


Example 2:

Input: num = 123
Output: [5,25]


Example 3:

Input: num = 999
Output: [40,25]


Constraints:

• 1 <= num <= 10^9

Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(sqrt(n))
Space complexity: O(1)

Python3

You have n binary tree nodes numbered from 0 to n - 1 where node i has two children leftChild[i] and rightChild[i], return true if and only if all the given nodes form exactly one valid binary tree.

If node i has no left child then leftChild[i] will equal -1, similarly for the right child.

Note that the nodes have no values and that we only use the node numbers in this problem.

Example 1:

Input: n = 4, leftChild = [1,-1,3,-1], rightChild = [2,-1,-1,-1]
Output: true


Example 2:

Input: n = 4, leftChild = [1,-1,3,-1], rightChild = [2,3,-1,-1]
Output: false


Example 3:

Input: n = 2, leftChild = [1,0], rightChild = [-1,-1]
Output: false


Example 4:

Input: n = 6, leftChild = [1,-1,-1,4,-1,-1], rightChild = [2,-1,-1,5,-1,-1]
Output: false


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 10^4
• leftChild.length == rightChild.length == n
• -1 <= leftChild[i], rightChild[i] <= n - 1

Solution: Count in-degrees for each node

in degree must <= 1 and there must be exact one node that has 0 in-degree.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Write a program to count the number of days between two dates.

The two dates are given as strings, their format is YYYY-MM-DD as shown in the examples.

Example 1:

Input: date1 = "2019-06-29", date2 = "2019-06-30"
Output: 1


Example 2:

Input: date1 = "2020-01-15", date2 = "2019-12-31"
Output: 15


Constraints:

• The given dates are valid dates between the years 1971 and 2100.

Solution: Convert to days since epoch

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Given n orders, each order consist in pickup and delivery services.

Count all valid pickup/delivery possible sequences such that delivery(i) is always after of pickup(i).

Since the answer may be too large, return it modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 1
Output: 1
Explanation: Unique order (P1, D1), Delivery 1 always is after of Pickup 1.


Example 2:

Input: n = 2
Output: 6
Explanation: All possible orders:
(P1,P2,D1,D2), (P1,P2,D2,D1), (P1,D1,P2,D2), (P2,P1,D1,D2), (P2,P1,D2,D1) and (P2,D2,P1,D1).
This is an invalid order (P1,D2,P2,D1) because Pickup 2 is after of Delivery 2.


Example 3:

Input: n = 3
Output: 90


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 500

Solution: Combination

Let dp[i] denote the number of valid sequence of i nodes.

For i-1 nodes, the sequence length is 2(i-1).
For the i-th nodes,
If we put Pi at index = 0, then we can put Di at 1, 2, …, 2i – 2 => 2i-1 options.
If we put Pi at index = 1, then we can put Di at 2,3,…, 2i – 2 => 2i – 2 options.

If we put Pi at index = 2i-1, then we can put Di at 2i – 1=> 1 option.
There are total (2i – 1 + 1) / 2 * (2i – 1) = i * (2*i – 1) options

dp[i] = dp[i – 1] * i * (2*i – 1)

or

dp[i] = 2n! / 2^n

C++

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