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花花酱 LeetCode 1734. Decode XORed Permutation

There is an integer array perm that is a permutation of the first n positive integers, where n is always odd.

It was encoded into another integer array encoded of length n - 1, such that encoded[i] = perm[i] XOR perm[i + 1]. For example, if perm = [1,3,2], then encoded = [2,1].

Given the encoded array, return the original array perm. It is guaranteed that the answer exists and is unique.

Example 1:

Input: encoded = [3,1]
Output: [1,2,3]
Explanation: If perm = [1,2,3], then encoded = [1 XOR 2,2 XOR 3] = [3,1]

Example 2:

Input: encoded = [6,5,4,6]
Output: [2,4,1,5,3]

Constraints:

  • 3 <= n < 105
  • n is odd.
  • encoded.length == n - 1

Solution: XOR

The key is to find p[0]. p[i] = p[i – 1] ^ encoded[i – 1]

  1. p[0] ^ p[1] ^ … ^ p[n-1] = 1 ^ 2 ^ … ^ n
  2. encoded[1] ^ encode[3] ^ … ^ encoded[n-2] = (p[1] ^ p[2]) ^ (p[3] ^ p[4]) ^ … ^ (p[n-2] ^ p[n-1])

1) xor 2) = p[0]

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1720. Decode XORed Array

There is a hidden integer array arr that consists of n non-negative integers.

It was encoded into another integer array encoded of length n - 1, such that encoded[i] = arr[i] XOR arr[i + 1]. For example, if arr = [1,0,2,1], then encoded = [1,2,3].

You are given the encoded array. You are also given an integer first, that is the first element of arr, i.e. arr[0].

Return the original array arr. It can be proved that the answer exists and is unique.

Example 1:

Input: encoded = [1,2,3], first = 1
Output: [1,0,2,1]
Explanation: If arr = [1,0,2,1], then first = 1 and encoded = [1 XOR 0, 0 XOR 2, 2 XOR 1] = [1,2,3]

Example 2:

Input: encoded = [6,2,7,3], first = 4
Output: [4,2,0,7,4]

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 104
  • encoded.length == n - 1
  • 0 <= encoded[i] <= 105
  • 0 <= first <= 105

Solution: XOR

encoded[i] = arr[i] ^ arr[i + 1]
encoded[i] ^ arr[i] = arr[i] ^ arr[i] ^ arr[i + 1]
arr[i+1] = encoded[i]^arr[i]

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1680. Concatenation of Consecutive Binary Numbers

Given an integer n, return the decimal value of the binary string formed by concatenating the binary representations of 1 to n in order, modulo 10+ 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 1
Output: 1
Explanation: "1" in binary corresponds to the decimal value 1. 

Example 2:

Input: n = 3
Output: 27
Explanation: In binary, 1, 2, and 3 corresponds to "1", "10", and "11".
After concatenating them, we have "11011", which corresponds to the decimal value 27.

Example 3:

Input: n = 12
Output: 505379714
Explanation: The concatenation results in "1101110010111011110001001101010111100".
The decimal value of that is 118505380540.
After modulo 109 + 7, the result is 505379714.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 105

Solution: Bit Operation

f(n) = (f(n – 1) << length(n)) | n

length(n) increase by 1 whenever n is power of 2.
n = 1, YES, len = 1
n = 2, YES, len = 2
n = 3, NO, len = 2
n = 4, YES, len = 3
n = 5, NO, len = 3
n = 6, NO, len = 3
n = 7, NO, len = 3
n = 8, YES, len = 4

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1286. Iterator for Combination

Design an Iterator class, which has:

  • A constructor that takes a string characters of sorted distinct lowercase English letters and a number combinationLength as arguments.
  • A function next() that returns the next combination of length combinationLength in lexicographical order.
  • A function hasNext() that returns True if and only if there exists a next combination.

Example:

CombinationIterator iterator = new CombinationIterator("abc", 2); // creates the iterator.

iterator.next(); // returns "ab"
iterator.hasNext(); // returns true
iterator.next(); // returns "ac"
iterator.hasNext(); // returns true
iterator.next(); // returns "bc"
iterator.hasNext(); // returns false

Constraints:

  • 1 <= combinationLength <= characters.length <= 15
  • There will be at most 10^4 function calls per test.
  • It’s guaranteed that all calls of the function next are valid.

Solution: Bitmask

Use a bitmask to represent the chars selected.
start with (2^n – 1), decrease the mask until there are c bit set.
stop when mask reach to 0.

mask: 111 => abc
mask: 110 => ab
mask: 101 => ac
mask: 011 => bc
mask: 000 => “” Done

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1611. Minimum One Bit Operations to Make Integers Zero

Given an integer n, you must transform it into 0 using the following operations any number of times:

  • Change the rightmost (0th) bit in the binary representation of n.
  • Change the ith bit in the binary representation of n if the (i-1)th bit is set to 1 and the (i-2)th through 0th bits are set to 0.

Return the minimum number of operations to transform n into 0.

Example 1:

Input: n = 0
Output: 0

Example 2:

Input: n = 3
Output: 2
Explanation: The binary representation of 3 is "11".
"11" -> "01" with the 2nd operation since the 0th bit is 1.
"01" -> "00" with the 1st operation.

Example 3:

Input: n = 6
Output: 4
Explanation: The binary representation of 6 is "110".
"110" -> "010" with the 2nd operation since the 1st bit is 1 and 0th through 0th bits are 0.
"010" -> "011" with the 1st operation.
"011" -> "001" with the 2nd operation since the 0th bit is 1.
"001" -> "000" with the 1st operation.

Example 4:

Input: n = 9
Output: 14

Example 5:

Input: n = 333
Output: 393

Constraints:

  • 0 <= n <= 109

Solution 1: Graycode

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

Ans is the order of n in graycode.

C++