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Posts tagged as “permutation”

花花酱 LeetCode 1359. Count All Valid Pickup and Delivery Options

Given n orders, each order consist in pickup and delivery services. 

Count all valid pickup/delivery possible sequences such that delivery(i) is always after of pickup(i). 

Since the answer may be too large, return it modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 1
Output: 1
Explanation: Unique order (P1, D1), Delivery 1 always is after of Pickup 1.

Example 2:

Input: n = 2
Output: 6
Explanation: All possible orders: 
(P1,P2,D1,D2), (P1,P2,D2,D1), (P1,D1,P2,D2), (P2,P1,D1,D2), (P2,P1,D2,D1) and (P2,D2,P1,D1).
This is an invalid order (P1,D2,P2,D1) because Pickup 2 is after of Delivery 2.

Example 3:

Input: n = 3
Output: 90

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 500

Solution: Combination

Let dp[i] denote the number of valid sequence of i nodes.

For i-1 nodes, the sequence length is 2(i-1).
For the i-th nodes,
If we put Pi at index = 0, then we can put Di at 1, 2, …, 2i – 2 => 2i-1 options.
If we put Pi at index = 1, then we can put Di at 2,3,…, 2i – 2 => 2i – 2 options.

If we put Pi at index = 2i-1, then we can put Di at 2i – 1=> 1 option.
There are total (2i – 1 + 1) / 2 * (2i – 1) = i * (2*i – 1) options

dp[i] = dp[i – 1] * i * (2*i – 1)

or

dp[i] = 2n! / 2^n

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 46. Permutations

Given a collection of distinct integers, return all possible permutations.

Example:

Input: [1,2,3]
Output:
[
  [1,2,3],
  [1,3,2],
  [2,1,3],
  [2,3,1],
  [3,1,2],
  [3,2,1]
]

Solution: DFS

Time complexity: O(n!)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 60. Permutation Sequence

The set [1,2,3,...,n] contains a total of n! unique permutations.

By listing and labeling all of the permutations in order, we get the following sequence for n = 3:

  1. "123"
  2. "132"
  3. "213"
  4. "231"
  5. "312"
  6. "321"

Given n and k, return the kth permutation sequence.

Note:

  • Given n will be between 1 and 9 inclusive.
  • Given k will be between 1 and n! inclusive.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, k = 3
Output: "213"

Example 2:

Input: n = 4, k = 9
Output: "2314"

Solution: Math

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1175. Prime Arrangements

Return the number of permutations of 1 to n so that prime numbers are at prime indices (1-indexed.)

(Recall that an integer is prime if and only if it is greater than 1, and cannot be written as a product of two positive integers both smaller than it.)

Since the answer may be large, return the answer modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 5
Output: 12
Explanation: For example [1,2,5,4,3] is a valid permutation, but [5,2,3,4,1] is not because the prime number 5 is at index 1.

Example 2:

Input: n = 100
Output: 682289015

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 100

Solution: Permutation

Count the number of primes in range [1, n], assuming there are p primes and n – p non-primes, we can permute each group separately.
ans = p! * (n – p)!

Time complexity: O(nsqrt(n))
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 31. Next Permutation

Problem

Implement next permutation, which rearranges numbers into the lexicographically next greater permutation of numbers.

If such arrangement is not possible, it must rearrange it as the lowest possible order (ie, sorted in ascending order).

The replacement must be in-place and use only constant extra memory.

Here are some examples. Inputs are in the left-hand column and its corresponding outputs are in the right-hand column.

1,2,3 → 1,3,2
3,2,1 → 1,2,3
1,1,5 → 1,5,1

Solution

Find the last acceding element x, swap with the smallest number y, y is after x that and y is greater than x.

Reverse the elements after x.

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Python3