# Posts published in “Search”

You are given a 0-indexed array of strings words. Each string consists of lowercase English letters only. No letter occurs more than once in any string of words.

Two strings s1 and s2 are said to be connected if the set of letters of s2 can be obtained from the set of letters of s1 by any one of the following operations:

• Adding exactly one letter to the set of the letters of s1.
• Deleting exactly one letter from the set of the letters of s1.
• Replacing exactly one letter from the set of the letters of s1 with any letter, including itself.

The array words can be divided into one or more non-intersecting groups. A string belongs to a group if any one of the following is true:

• It is connected to at least one other string of the group.
• It is the only string present in the group.

Note that the strings in words should be grouped in such a manner that a string belonging to a group cannot be connected to a string present in any other group. It can be proved that such an arrangement is always unique.

Return an array ans of size 2 where:

• ans[0] is the total number of groups words can be divided into, and
• ans[1] is the size of the largest group.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["a","b","ab","cde"]
Output: [2,3]
Explanation:
- words[0] can be used to obtain words[1] (by replacing 'a' with 'b'), and words[2] (by adding 'b'). So words[0] is connected to words[1] and words[2].
- words[1] can be used to obtain words[0] (by replacing 'b' with 'a'), and words[2] (by adding 'a'). So words[1] is connected to words[0] and words[2].
- words[2] can be used to obtain words[0] (by deleting 'b'), and words[1] (by deleting 'a'). So words[2] is connected to words[0] and words[1].
- words[3] is not connected to any string in words.
Thus, words can be divided into 2 groups ["a","b","ab"] and ["cde"]. The size of the largest group is 3.


Example 2:

Input: words = ["a","ab","abc"]
Output: [1,3]
Explanation:
- words[0] is connected to words[1].
- words[1] is connected to words[0] and words[2].
- words[2] is connected to words[1].
Since all strings are connected to each other, they should be grouped together.
Thus, the size of the largest group is 3.


Constraints:

• 1 <= words.length <= 2 * 104
• 1 <= words[i].length <= 26
• words[i] consists of lowercase English letters only.
• No letter occurs more than once in words[i].

Use a bitmask to represent a string. Use dfs to find connected components.

Time complexity: O(n*262)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

There are two types of persons:

• The good person: The person who always tells the truth.
• The bad person: The person who might tell the truth and might lie.

You are given a 0-indexed 2D integer array statements of size n x n that represents the statements made by n people about each other. More specifically, statements[i][j] could be one of the following:

• 0 which represents a statement made by person i that person j is a bad person.
• 1 which represents a statement made by person i that person j is a good person.
• 2 represents that no statement is made by person i about person j.

Additionally, no person ever makes a statement about themselves. Formally, we have that statements[i][i] = 2 for all 0 <= i < n.

Return the maximum number of people who can be good based on the statements made by the n people.

Example 1:

Input: statements = [[2,1,2],[1,2,2],[2,0,2]]
Output: 2
Explanation: Each person makes a single statement.
- Person 0 states that person 1 is good.
- Person 1 states that person 0 is good.
- Person 2 states that person 1 is bad.
Let's take person 2 as the key.
- Assuming that person 2 is a good person:
- Based on the statement made by person 2, person 1 is a bad person.
- Now we know for sure that person 1 is bad and person 2 is good.
- Based on the statement made by person 1, and since person 1 is bad, they could be:
- telling the truth. There will be a contradiction in this case and this assumption is invalid.
- lying. In this case, person 0 is also a bad person and lied in their statement.
- Following that person 2 is a good person, there will be only one good person in the group.
- Assuming that person 2 is a bad person:
- Based on the statement made by person 2, and since person 2 is bad, they could be:
- telling the truth. Following this scenario, person 0 and 1 are both bad as explained before.
- Following that person 2 is bad but told the truth, there will be no good persons in the group.
- lying. In this case person 1 is a good person.
- Since person 1 is a good person, person 0 is also a good person.
- Following that person 2 is bad and lied, there will be two good persons in the group.
We can see that at most 2 persons are good in the best case, so we return 2.
Note that there is more than one way to arrive at this conclusion.


Example 2:

Input: statements = [[2,0],[0,2]]
Output: 1
Explanation: Each person makes a single statement.
- Person 0 states that person 1 is bad.
- Person 1 states that person 0 is bad.
Let's take person 0 as the key.
- Assuming that person 0 is a good person:
- Based on the statement made by person 0, person 1 is a bad person and was lying.
- Following that person 0 is a good person, there will be only one good person in the group.
- Assuming that person 0 is a bad person:
- Based on the statement made by person 0, and since person 0 is bad, they could be:
- telling the truth. Following this scenario, person 0 and 1 are both bad.
- Following that person 0 is bad but told the truth, there will be no good persons in the group.
- lying. In this case person 1 is a good person.
- Following that person 0 is bad and lied, there will be only one good person in the group.
We can see that at most, one person is good in the best case, so we return 1.
Note that there is more than one way to arrive at this conclusion.


Constraints:

• n == statements.length == statements[i].length
• 2 <= n <= 15
• statements[i][j] is either 01, or 2.
• statements[i][i] == 2

Enumerate all subsets of n people and assume they are good people. Check whether their statements have any conflicts. We can ignore the statements from bad people since those can be either true or false and does not affect our checks.

Time complexity: O(n22n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given a 0-indexed 2D integer array grid of size m x n that represents a map of the items in a shop. The integers in the grid represent the following:

• 0 represents a wall that you cannot pass through.
• 1 represents an empty cell that you can freely move to and from.
• All other positive integers represent the price of an item in that cell. You may also freely move to and from these item cells.

It takes 1 step to travel between adjacent grid cells.

You are also given integer arrays pricing and start where pricing = [low, high] and start = [row, col] indicates that you start at the position (row, col) and are interested only in items with a price in the range of [low, high] (inclusive). You are further given an integer k.

You are interested in the positions of the k highest-ranked items whose prices are within the given price range. The rank is determined by the first of these criteria that is different:

1. Distance, defined as the length of the shortest path from the start (shorter distance has a higher rank).
2. Price (lower price has a higher rank, but it must be in the price range).
3. The row number (smaller row number has a higher rank).
4. The column number (smaller column number has a higher rank).

Return the k highest-ranked items within the price range sorted by their rank (highest to lowest). If there are fewer than k reachable items within the price range, return all of them.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[1,2,0,1],[1,3,0,1],[0,2,5,1]], pricing = [2,5], start = [0,0], k = 3
Output: [[0,1],[1,1],[2,1]]
Explanation: You start at (0,0).
With a price range of [2,5], we can take items from (0,1), (1,1), (2,1) and (2,2).
The ranks of these items are:
- (0,1) with distance 1
- (1,1) with distance 2
- (2,1) with distance 3
- (2,2) with distance 4
Thus, the 3 highest ranked items in the price range are (0,1), (1,1), and (2,1).


Example 2:

Input: grid = [[1,2,0,1],[1,3,3,1],[0,2,5,1]], pricing = [2,3], start = [2,3], k = 2
Output: [[2,1],[1,2]]
Explanation: You start at (2,3).
With a price range of [2,3], we can take items from (0,1), (1,1), (1,2) and (2,1).
The ranks of these items are:
- (2,1) with distance 2, price 2
- (1,2) with distance 2, price 3
- (1,1) with distance 3
- (0,1) with distance 4
Thus, the 2 highest ranked items in the price range are (2,1) and (1,2).


Example 3:

Input: grid = [[1,1,1],[0,0,1],[2,3,4]], pricing = [2,3], start = [0,0], k = 3
Output: [[2,1],[2,0]]
Explanation: You start at (0,0).
With a price range of [2,3], we can take items from (2,0) and (2,1).
The ranks of these items are:
- (2,1) with distance 5
- (2,0) with distance 6
Thus, the 2 highest ranked items in the price range are (2,1) and (2,0).
Note that k = 3 but there are only 2 reachable items within the price range.


Constraints:

• m == grid.length
• n == grid[i].length
• 1 <= m, n <= 105
• 1 <= m * n <= 105
• 0 <= grid[i][j] <= 105
• pricing.length == 2
• 2 <= low <= high <= 105
• start.length == 2
• 0 <= row <= m - 1
• 0 <= col <= n - 1
• grid[row][col] > 0
• 1 <= k <= m * n

## Solution: BFS + Sorting

Use BFS to collect reachable cells and sort afterwards.

Time complexity: O(mn + KlogK) where K = # of reachable cells.

Space complexity: O(mn)

## C++

You are given an m x n matrix maze (0-indexed) with empty cells (represented as '.') and walls (represented as '+'). You are also given the entrance of the maze, where entrance = [entrancerow, entrancecol] denotes the row and column of the cell you are initially standing at.

In one step, you can move one cell updownleft, or right. You cannot step into a cell with a wall, and you cannot step outside the maze. Your goal is to find the nearest exit from the entrance. An exit is defined as an empty cell that is at the border of the maze. The entrance does not count as an exit.

Return the number of steps in the shortest path from the entrance to the nearest exit, or -1 if no such path exists.

Example 1:

Input: maze = [["+","+",".","+"],[".",".",".","+"],["+","+","+","."]], entrance = [1,2]
Output: 1
Explanation: There are 3 exits in this maze at [1,0], [0,2], and [2,3].
Initially, you are at the entrance cell [1,2].
- You can reach [1,0] by moving 2 steps left.
- You can reach [0,2] by moving 1 step up.
It is impossible to reach [2,3] from the entrance.
Thus, the nearest exit is [0,2], which is 1 step away.


Example 2:

Input: maze = [["+","+","+"],[".",".","."],["+","+","+"]], entrance = [1,0]
Output: 2
Explanation: There is 1 exit in this maze at [1,2].
[1,0] does not count as an exit since it is the entrance cell.
Initially, you are at the entrance cell [1,0].
- You can reach [1,2] by moving 2 steps right.
Thus, the nearest exit is [1,2], which is 2 steps away.


Example 3:

Input: maze = [[".","+"]], entrance = [0,0]
Output: -1
Explanation: There are no exits in this maze.


Constraints:

• maze.length == m
• maze[i].length == n
• 1 <= m, n <= 100
• maze[i][j] is either '.' or '+'.
• entrance.length == 2
• 0 <= entrancerow < m
• 0 <= entrancecol < n
• entrance will always be an empty cell.

## Solution: BFS

Use BFS to find the shortest path. We can re-use the board for visited array.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

k-mirror number is a positive integer without leading zeros that reads the same both forward and backward in base-10 as well as in base-k.

• For example, 9 is a 2-mirror number. The representation of 9 in base-10 and base-2 are 9 and 1001 respectively, which read the same both forward and backward.
• On the contrary, 4 is not a 2-mirror number. The representation of 4 in base-2 is 100, which does not read the same both forward and backward.

Given the base k and the number n, return the sum of the n smallest k-mirror numbers.

Example 1:

Input: k = 2, n = 5
Output: 25
Explanation:
The 5 smallest 2-mirror numbers and their representations in base-2 are listed as follows:
base-10    base-2
1          1
3          11
5          101
7          111
9          1001
Their sum = 1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 9 = 25.


Example 2:

Input: k = 3, n = 7
Output: 499
Explanation:
The 7 smallest 3-mirror numbers are and their representations in base-3 are listed as follows:
base-10    base-3
1          1
2          2
4          11
8          22
121        11111
151        12121
212        21212
Their sum = 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 121 + 151 + 212 = 499.


Example 3:

Input: k = 7, n = 17
Output: 20379000
Explanation: The 17 smallest 7-mirror numbers are:
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 121, 171, 242, 292, 16561, 65656, 2137312, 4602064, 6597956, 6958596


Constraints:

• 2 <= k <= 9
• 1 <= n <= 30