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花花酱 LeetCode 1467. Probability of a Two Boxes Having The Same Number of Distinct Balls

Given 2n balls of k distinct colors. You will be given an integer array balls of size k where balls[i] is the number of balls of color i

All the balls will be shuffled uniformly at random, then we will distribute the first n balls to the first box and the remaining n balls to the other box (Please read the explanation of the second example carefully).

Please note that the two boxes are considered different. For example, if we have two balls of colors a and b, and two boxes [] and (), then the distribution [a] (b) is considered different than the distribution [b] (a) (Please read the explanation of the first example carefully).

We want to calculate the probability that the two boxes have the same number of distinct balls.

Example 1:

Input: balls = [1,1]
Output: 1.00000
Explanation: Only 2 ways to divide the balls equally:
- A ball of color 1 to box 1 and a ball of color 2 to box 2
- A ball of color 2 to box 1 and a ball of color 1 to box 2
In both ways, the number of distinct colors in each box is equal. The probability is 2/2 = 1

Example 2:

Input: balls = [2,1,1]
Output: 0.66667
Explanation: We have the set of balls [1, 1, 2, 3]
This set of balls will be shuffled randomly and we may have one of the 12 distinct shuffles with equale probability (i.e. 1/12):
[1,1 / 2,3], [1,1 / 3,2], [1,2 / 1,3], [1,2 / 3,1], [1,3 / 1,2], [1,3 / 2,1], [2,1 / 1,3], [2,1 / 3,1], [2,3 / 1,1], [3,1 / 1,2], [3,1 / 2,1], [3,2 / 1,1]
After that we add the first two balls to the first box and the second two balls to the second box.
We can see that 8 of these 12 possible random distributions have the same number of distinct colors of balls in each box.
Probability is 8/12 = 0.66667

Example 3:

Input: balls = [1,2,1,2]
Output: 0.60000
Explanation: The set of balls is [1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4]. It is hard to display all the 180 possible random shuffles of this set but it is easy to check that 108 of them will have the same number of distinct colors in each box.
Probability = 108 / 180 = 0.6

Example 4:

Input: balls = [3,2,1]
Output: 0.30000
Explanation: The set of balls is [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3]. It is hard to display all the 60 possible random shuffles of this set but it is easy to check that 18 of them will have the same number of distinct colors in each box.
Probability = 18 / 60 = 0.3

Example 5:

Input: balls = [6,6,6,6,6,6]
Output: 0.90327

Constraints:

  • 1 <= balls.length <= 8
  • 1 <= balls[i] <= 6
  • sum(balls) is even.
  • Answers within 10^-5 of the actual value will be accepted as correct.

Solution 0: Permutation (TLE)

Enumerate all permutations of the balls, count valid ones and divide that by the total.

Time complexity: O((8*6)!) = O(48!)
After deduplication: O(48!/(6!)^8) ~ 1.7e38
Space complexity: O(8*6)

C++

Solution 1: Combination

For each color, put n_i balls into box1, the left t_i – n_i balls go to box2.
permutations = fact(n//2) / PROD(fact(n_i)) * fact(n//2) * PROD(fact(t_i – n_i))
E.g
balls = [1×2, 2×6, 3×4]
One possible combination:
box1: 1 22 333
box2: 1 2222 3
permutations = 6! / (1! * 2! * 3!) * 6! / (1! * 4! * 1!) = 1800

Time complexity: O((t+1)^k) = O(7^8)
Space complexity: O(k + (t*k)) = O(8 + 48)

C++

vector version

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1439. Find the Kth Smallest Sum of a Matrix With Sorted Rows

You are given an m * n matrix, mat, and an integer k, which has its rows sorted in non-decreasing order.

You are allowed to choose exactly 1 element from each row to form an array. Return the Kth smallest array sum among all possible arrays.

Example 1:

Input: mat = [[1,3,11],[2,4,6]], k = 5
Output: 7
Explanation: Choosing one element from each row, the first k smallest sum are:
[1,2], [1,4], [3,2], [3,4], [1,6]. Where the 5th sum is 7.  

Example 2:

Input: mat = [[1,3,11],[2,4,6]], k = 9
Output: 17

Example 3:

Input: mat = [[1,10,10],[1,4,5],[2,3,6]], k = 7
Output: 9
Explanation: Choosing one element from each row, the first k smallest sum are:
[1,1,2], [1,1,3], [1,4,2], [1,4,3], [1,1,6], [1,5,2], [1,5,3]. Where the 7th sum is 9.  

Example 4:

Input: mat = [[1,1,10],[2,2,9]], k = 7
Output: 12

Constraints:

  • m == mat.length
  • n == mat.length[i]
  • 1 <= m, n <= 40
  • 1 <= k <= min(200, n ^ m)
  • 1 <= mat[i][j] <= 5000
  • mat[i] is a non decreasing array.

Solution 1: Priority Queue

Generate the arrays in order.

Each node is {sum, idx_0, idx_1, …, idx_m},

Start with {sum_0, 0, 0, …, 0}.

For expansion, pick one row and increase its index

Time complexity: O(k * m ^ 2* log k)
Space complexity: O(k)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1415. The k-th Lexicographical String of All Happy Strings of Length n

happy string is a string that:

  • consists only of letters of the set ['a', 'b', 'c'].
  • s[i] != s[i + 1] for all values of i from 1 to s.length - 1 (string is 1-indexed).

For example, strings “abc”, “ac”, “b” and “abcbabcbcb” are all happy strings and strings “aa”, “baa” and “ababbc” are not happy strings.

Given two integers n and k, consider a list of all happy strings of length n sorted in lexicographical order.

Return the kth string of this list or return an empty string if there are less than k happy strings of length n.

Example 1:

Input: n = 1, k = 3
Output: "c"
Explanation: The list ["a", "b", "c"] contains all happy strings of length 1. The third string is "c".

Example 2:

Input: n = 1, k = 4
Output: ""
Explanation: There are only 3 happy strings of length 1.

Example 3:

Input: n = 3, k = 9
Output: "cab"
Explanation: There are 12 different happy string of length 3 ["aba", "abc", "aca", "acb", "bab", "bac", "bca", "bcb", "cab", "cac", "cba", "cbc"]. You will find the 9th string = "cab"

Example 4:

Input: n = 2, k = 7
Output: ""

Example 5:

Input: n = 10, k = 100
Output: "abacbabacb"

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 10
  • 1 <= k <= 100

Solution: DFS

Generate the happy strings in lexical order, store the k-th one.
Time complexity: O(n + k)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1391. Check if There is a Valid Path in a Grid

Given a m x ngrid. Each cell of the grid represents a street. The street of grid[i][j] can be:

  • 1 which means a street connecting the left cell and the right cell.
  • 2 which means a street connecting the upper cell and the lower cell.
  • 3 which means a street connecting the left cell and the lower cell.
  • 4 which means a street connecting the right cell and the lower cell.
  • 5 which means a street connecting the left cell and the upper cell.
  • 6 which means a street connecting the right cell and the upper cell.

You will initially start at the street of the upper-left cell (0,0). A valid path in the grid is a path which starts from the upper left cell (0,0) and ends at the bottom-right cell (m - 1, n - 1)The path should only follow the streets.

Notice that you are not allowed to change any street.

Return true if there is a valid path in the grid or false otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[2,4,3],[6,5,2]]
Output: true
Explanation: As shown you can start at cell (0, 0) and visit all the cells of the grid to reach (m - 1, n - 1).

Example 2:

Input: grid = [[1,2,1],[1,2,1]]
Output: false
Explanation: As shown you the street at cell (0, 0) is not connected with any street of any other cell and you will get stuck at cell (0, 0)

Example 3:

Input: grid = [[1,1,2]]
Output: false
Explanation: You will get stuck at cell (0, 1) and you cannot reach cell (0, 2).

Example 4:

Input: grid = [[1,1,1,1,1,1,3]]
Output: true

Example 5:

Input: grid = [[2],[2],[2],[2],[2],[2],[6]]
Output: true

Constraints:

  • m == grid.length
  • n == grid[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 300
  • 1 <= grid[i][j] <= 6

Solution: BFS

Need to check both sides (x, y) -> (tx, ty) and (tx, ty) -> (x, y) to make sure a path exist.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 87. Scramble String

Given a string s1, we may represent it as a binary tree by partitioning it to two non-empty substrings recursively.

Below is one possible representation of s1 = "great":

    great
   /    \
  gr    eat
 / \    /  \
g   r  e   at
           / \
          a   t

To scramble the string, we may choose any non-leaf node and swap its two children.

For example, if we choose the node "gr" and swap its two children, it produces a scrambled string "rgeat".

    rgeat
   /    \
  rg    eat
 / \    /  \
r   g  e   at
           / \
          a   t

We say that "rgeat" is a scrambled string of "great".

Similarly, if we continue to swap the children of nodes "eat" and "at", it produces a scrambled string "rgtae".

    rgtae
   /    \
  rg    tae
 / \    /  \
r   g  ta  e
       / \
      t   a

We say that "rgtae" is a scrambled string of "great".

Given two strings s1 and s2 of the same length, determine if s2 is a scrambled string of s1.

Example 1:

Input: s1 = "great", s2 = "rgeat"
Output: true

Example 2:

Input: s1 = "abcde", s2 = "caebd"
Output: false

Solution: Recursion

isScramble(s1, s2)
if s1 == s2: return true
if sorted(s1) != sroted(s2): return false
We try all possible partitions:

  1. s1[0:l] v.s s2[0:l] && s1[l:] vs s2[l:]
  2. s1[0:l] vs s2[L-l:l] && s1[l:] vs s2[0:L-l]

Time complexity: O(n^5)
Space complexity: O(n^4)

C++

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