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Posts tagged as “math”

花花酱 LeetCode 640. Solve the Equation

Solve a given equation and return the value of x in the form of string “x=#value”. The equation contains only ‘+’, ‘-‘ operation, the variable x and its coefficient.

If there is no solution for the equation, return “No solution”.

If there are infinite solutions for the equation, return “Infinite solutions”.

If there is exactly one solution for the equation, we ensure that the value of x is an integer.

Example 1:

Input: "x+5-3+x=6+x-2"
Output: "x=2"

Example 2:

Input: "x=x"
Output: "Infinite solutions"

Example 3:

Input: "2x=x"
Output: "x=0"

Example 4:

Input: "2x+3x-6x=x+2"
Output: "x=-1"

Example 5:

Input: "x=x+2"
Output: "No solution"

Solution: Parse the equation

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 50. Pow(x, n)

Implement pow(xn), which calculates x raised to the power n (xn).

Example 1:

Input: 2.00000, 10
Output: 1024.00000

Example 2:

Input: 2.10000, 3
Output: 9.26100

Example 3:

Input: 2.00000, -2
Output: 0.25000
Explanation: 2-2 = 1/22 = 1/4 = 0.25

Note:

  • -100.0 < x < 100.0
  • n is a 32-bit signed integer, within the range [−231, 231 − 1]

Solution: Recursion

square x and cut n in half.
if n is negative, compute 1.0 / pow(x, |n|)

pow(x, n) := pow(x * x, n / 2) * (x if n % 2 else 1)
pow(x, 0) := 1
Example:
pow(x, 5) = pow(x^2, 2) * x
= pow(x^4, 1) * x
= pow(x^8, 0) * x^4 * x
= 1 * x^4 * x = x^5

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(logn)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 279. Perfect Squares

Given a positive integer n, find the least number of perfect square numbers (for example, 1, 4, 9, 16, ...) which sum to n.

Example 1:

Input: n = 12
Output: 3 
Explanation: 12 = 4 + 4 + 4.

Example 2:

Input: n = 13
Output: 2
Explanation: 13 = 4 + 9.

Solution 1: DP

dp[i] := ans
dp[0] = 0
dp[i] = min{dp[i – j * j] + 1} 1 <= j * j <= i

dp[5] = min{
dp[5 – 2 * 2] + 1 = dp[1] + 1 = (dp[1 – 1 * 1] + 1) + 1 = dp[0] + 1 + 1 = 2,
dp[5 – 1 * 1] + 1 = dp[3] + 1 = (dp[3 – 1 * 1] + 1) + 1 = dp[1] + 2 = dp[1 – 1*1] + 1 + 2 = dp[0] + 3 = 3
};

dp[5] = 2

Time complexity: O(n * sqrt(n))
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 67. Add Binary

Given two binary strings, return their sum (also a binary string).

The input strings are both non-empty and contains only characters 1 or 0.

Example 1:

Input: a = "11", b = "1"
Output: "100"

Example 2:

Input: a = "1010", b = "1011"
Output: "10101"

Solution: Big integer

Similar to https://zxi.mytechroad.com/blog/math/leetcode-66-plus-one/

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 66. Plus One

Given a non-empty array of digits representing a non-negative integer, plus one to the integer.

The digits are stored such that the most significant digit is at the head of the list, and each element in the array contain a single digit.

You may assume the integer does not contain any leading zero, except the number 0 itself.

Example 1:

Input: [1,2,3]
Output: [1,2,4]
Explanation: The array represents the integer 123.

Example 2:

Input: [4,3,2,1]
Output: [4,3,2,2]
Explanation: The array represents the integer 4321.

Solution: Big Integer

Process from right to left (lest significant to most signification). Use carry to indicate whether need +1 for next digit or not.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

c++