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Posts tagged as “recursion”

花花酱 LeetCode 116. Populating Next Right Pointers in Each Node

You are given a perfect binary tree where all leaves are on the same level, and every parent has two children. The binary tree has the following definition:

Populate each next pointer to point to its next right node. If there is no next right node, the next pointer should be set to NULL.

Initially, all next pointers are set to NULL.


Input: {"$id":"1","left":{"$id":"2","left":{"$id":"3","left":null,"next":null,"right":null,"val":4},"next":null,"right":{"$id":"4","left":null,"next":null,"right":null,"val":5},"val":2},"next":null,"right":{"$id":"5","left":{"$id":"6","left":null,"next":null,"right":null,"val":6},"next":null,"right":{"$id":"7","left":null,"next":null,"right":null,"val":7},"val":3},"val":1}

Output: {"$id":"1","left":{"$id":"2","left":{"$id":"3","left":null,"next":{"$id":"4","left":null,"next":{"$id":"5","left":null,"next":{"$id":"6","left":null,"next":null,"right":null,"val":7},"right":null,"val":6},"right":null,"val":5},"right":null,"val":4},"next":{"$id":"7","left":{"$ref":"5"},"next":null,"right":{"$ref":"6"},"val":3},"right":{"$ref":"4"},"val":2},"next":null,"right":{"$ref":"7"},"val":1}

Explanation: Given the above perfect binary tree (Figure A), your function should populate each next pointer to point to its next right node, just like in Figure B.


  • You may only use constant extra space.
  • Recursive approach is fine, implicit stack space does not count as extra space for this problem.

Solution: Recursion

Do a preorder traversal:
1. return if self is empty or leaf
2. self.left->next = self.right
3. if =

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(log(n)) since it’s a perfect tree


花花酱 LeetCode 1110. Delete Nodes And Return Forest

Given the root of a binary tree, each node in the tree has a distinct value.

After deleting all nodes with a value in to_delete, we are left with a forest (a disjoint union of trees).

Return the roots of the trees in the remaining forest.  You may return the result in any order.

Example 1:

Input: root = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7], to_delete = [3,5]
Output: [[1,2,null,4],[6],[7]]


  • The number of nodes in the given tree is at most 1000.
  • Each node has a distinct value between 1 and 1000.
  • to_delete.length <= 1000
  • to_delete contains distinct values between 1 and 1000.

Solution: Recursion / Post-order traversal

Recursively delete nodes on left subtree and right subtree and return the trimmed tree.
if the current node needs to be deleted, then its non-null children will be added to output array.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(|d| + h)



花花酱 LeetCode 1140. Stone Game II

Alex and Lee continue their games with piles of stones.  There are a number of piles arranged in a row, and each pile has a positive integer number of stones piles[i].  The objective of the game is to end with the most stones. 

Alex and Lee take turns, with Alex starting first.  Initially, M = 1.

On each player’s turn, that player can take all the stones in the first X remaining piles, where 1 <= X <= 2M.  Then, we set M = max(M, X).

The game continues until all the stones have been taken.

Assuming Alex and Lee play optimally, return the maximum number of stones Alex can get.

Example 1:

Input: piles = [2,7,9,4,4]
Output: 10
Explanation:  If Alex takes one pile at the beginning, Lee takes two piles, then Alex takes 2 piles again. Alex can get 2 + 4 + 4 = 10 piles in total. If Alex takes two piles at the beginning, then Lee can take all three piles left. In this case, Alex get 2 + 7 = 9 piles in total. So we return 10 since it's larger. 


  • 1 <= piles.length <= 100
  • 1 <= piles[i] <= 10 ^ 4

Solution: Recursion + Memoization

def solve(s, m) = max diff score between two players starting from s for the given M.

cache[s][M] = max{sum(piles[s:s+x]) – solve(s+x, max(x, M)}, 1 <= x <= 2*M, s + x <= n

Time complexity: O(n^3)
Space complexity: O(n^2)


花花酱 LeetCode 226. Invert Binary Tree

Invert a binary tree.



   /   \
  2     7
 / \   / \
1   3 6   9


   /   \
  7     2
 / \   / \
9   6 3   1

This problem was inspired by this original tweet by Max Howell:

Google: 90% of our engineers use the software you wrote (Homebrew), but you can’t invert a binary tree on a whiteboard so f*** off.

Solution: Recursion

Recursive invert the left and right subtrees and swap them.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(h)



花花酱 LeetCode 1106. Parsing A Boolean Expression

Return the result of evaluating a given boolean expression, represented as a string.

An expression can either be:

  • "t", evaluating to True;
  • "f", evaluating to False;
  • "!(expr)", evaluating to the logical NOT of the inner expression expr;
  • "&(expr1,expr2,...)", evaluating to the logical AND of 2 or more inner expressions expr1, expr2, ...;
  • "|(expr1,expr2,...)", evaluating to the logical OR of 2 or more inner expressions expr1, expr2, ...

Example 1:

Input: expression = "!(f)"
Output: true

Example 2:

Input: expression = "|(f,t)"
Output: true

Example 3:

Input: expression = "&(t,f)"
Output: false

Example 4:

Input: expression = "|(&(t,f,t),!(t))"
Output: false

Solution: Recursion

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)