# Posts tagged as “DFS”

You are given an integer n. There is an undirected graph with n nodes, numbered from 0 to n - 1. You are given a 2D integer array edges where edges[i] = [ai, bi] denotes that there exists an undirected edge connecting nodes ai and bi.

Return the number of pairs of different nodes that are unreachable from each other.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, edges = [[0,1],[0,2],[1,2]]
Output: 0
Explanation: There are no pairs of nodes that are unreachable from each other. Therefore, we return 0.


Example 2:

Input: n = 7, edges = [[0,2],[0,5],[2,4],[1,6],[5,4]]
Output: 14
Explanation: There are 14 pairs of nodes that are unreachable from each other:
[[0,1],[0,3],[0,6],[1,2],[1,3],[1,4],[1,5],[2,3],[2,6],[3,4],[3,5],[3,6],[4,6],[5,6]].
Therefore, we return 14.


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 105
• 0 <= edges.length <= 2 * 105
• edges[i].length == 2
• 0 <= ai, bi < n
• ai != bi
• There are no repeated edges.

## Solution 1: DFS

Use DFS to find all CCs

Time complexity: O(V+E)
Space complexity: O(V+E)

## Solution 2: Union Find

Time complexity: O(V+E)
Space complexity: O(V)

## C++

You are given a positive integer n representing the number of nodes of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). The nodes are numbered from 0 to n - 1 (inclusive).

You are also given a 2D integer array edges, where edges[i] = [fromi, toi] denotes that there is a unidirectional edge from fromi to toi in the graph.

Return a list answer, where answer[i] is the list of ancestors of the ith node, sorted in ascending order.

A node u is an ancestor of another node v if u can reach v via a set of edges.

Example 1:

Input: n = 8, edgeList = [[0,3],[0,4],[1,3],[2,4],[2,7],[3,5],[3,6],[3,7],[4,6]]
Output: [[],[],[],[0,1],[0,2],[0,1,3],[0,1,2,3,4],[0,1,2,3]]
Explanation:
The above diagram represents the input graph.
- Nodes 0, 1, and 2 do not have any ancestors.
- Node 3 has two ancestors 0 and 1.
- Node 4 has two ancestors 0 and 2.
- Node 5 has three ancestors 0, 1, and 3.
- Node 6 has five ancestors 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
- Node 7 has four ancestors 0, 1, 2, and 3.


Example 2:

Input: n = 5, edgeList = [[0,1],[0,2],[0,3],[0,4],[1,2],[1,3],[1,4],[2,3],[2,4],[3,4]]
Output: [[],,[0,1],[0,1,2],[0,1,2,3]]
Explanation:
The above diagram represents the input graph.
- Node 0 does not have any ancestor.
- Node 1 has one ancestor 0.
- Node 2 has two ancestors 0 and 1.
- Node 3 has three ancestors 0, 1, and 2.
- Node 4 has four ancestors 0, 1, 2, and 3.


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 1000
• 0 <= edges.length <= min(2000, n * (n - 1) / 2)
• edges[i].length == 2
• 0 <= fromi, toi <= n - 1
• fromi != toi
• There are no duplicate edges.
• The graph is directed and acyclic.

## Solution: DFS

For each source node S, add it to all its reachable nodes by traversing the entire graph.
In one pass, only traverse each child node at most once.

Time complexity: O(VE)
Space complexity: (V+E)

## C++

There is a family tree rooted at 0 consisting of n nodes numbered 0 to n - 1. You are given a 0-indexed integer array parents, where parents[i] is the parent for node i. Since node 0 is the rootparents == -1.

There are 105 genetic values, each represented by an integer in the inclusive range [1, 105]. You are given a 0-indexed integer array nums, where nums[i] is a distinct genetic value for node i.

Return an array ans of length n where ans[i] is the smallest genetic value that is missing from the subtree rooted at node i.

The subtree rooted at a node x contains node x and all of its descendant nodes.

Example 1:

Input: parents = [-1,0,0,2], nums = [1,2,3,4]
Output: [5,1,1,1]
Explanation: The answer for each subtree is calculated as follows:
- 0: The subtree contains nodes [0,1,2,3] with values [1,2,3,4]. 5 is the smallest missing value.
- 1: The subtree contains only node 1 with value 2. 1 is the smallest missing value.
- 2: The subtree contains nodes [2,3] with values [3,4]. 1 is the smallest missing value.
- 3: The subtree contains only node 3 with value 4. 1 is the smallest missing value.


Example 2:

Input: parents = [-1,0,1,0,3,3], nums = [5,4,6,2,1,3]
Output: [7,1,1,4,2,1]
Explanation: The answer for each subtree is calculated as follows:
- 0: The subtree contains nodes [0,1,2,3,4,5] with values [5,4,6,2,1,3]. 7 is the smallest missing value.
- 1: The subtree contains nodes [1,2] with values [4,6]. 1 is the smallest missing value.
- 2: The subtree contains only node 2 with value 6. 1 is the smallest missing value.
- 3: The subtree contains nodes [3,4,5] with values [2,1,3]. 4 is the smallest missing value.
- 4: The subtree contains only node 4 with value 1. 2 is the smallest missing value.
- 5: The subtree contains only node 5 with value 3. 1 is the smallest missing value.


Example 3:

Input: parents = [-1,2,3,0,2,4,1], nums = [2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
Output: [1,1,1,1,1,1,1]
Explanation: The value 1 is missing from all the subtrees.


Constraints:

• n == parents.length == nums.length
• 2 <= n <= 105
• 0 <= parents[i] <= n - 1 for i != 0
• parents == -1
• parents represents a valid tree.
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 105
• Each nums[i] is distinct.

## Solution: DFS on a single path

One ancestors of node with value of 1 will have missing values greater than 1. We do a dfs on the path that from node with value 1 to the root.

Time complexity: O(n + max(nums))
Space complexity: O(n + max(nums))

## C++

Given a string s, find two disjoint palindromic subsequences of s such that the product of their lengths is maximized. The two subsequences are disjoint if they do not both pick a character at the same index.

Return the maximum possible product of the lengths of the two palindromic subsequences.

subsequence is a string that can be derived from another string by deleting some or no characters without changing the order of the remaining characters. A string is palindromic if it reads the same forward and backward.

Example 1:

Input: s = "leetcodecom"
Output: 9
Explanation: An optimal solution is to choose "ete" for the 1st subsequence and "cdc" for the 2nd subsequence.
The product of their lengths is: 3 * 3 = 9.


Example 2:

Input: s = "bb"
Output: 1
Explanation: An optimal solution is to choose "b" (the first character) for the 1st subsequence and "b" (the second character) for the 2nd subsequence.
The product of their lengths is: 1 * 1 = 1.


Example 3:

Input: s = "accbcaxxcxx"
Output: 25
Explanation: An optimal solution is to choose "accca" for the 1st subsequence and "xxcxx" for the 2nd subsequence.
The product of their lengths is: 5 * 5 = 25.


Constraints:

• 2 <= s.length <= 12
• s consists of lowercase English letters only.

## Solution 1: DFS

Time complexity: O(3n*n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Solution: Subsets + Bitmask + All Pairs

Time complexity: O(22n)
Space complexity: O(2n)

## C++

There is an undirected graph with n nodes numbered from 0 to n - 1 (inclusive). You are given a 0-indexed integer array values where values[i] is the value of the ith node. You are also given a 0-indexed 2D integer array edges, where each edges[j] = [uj, vj, timej] indicates that there is an undirected edge between the nodes uj and vj,and it takes timej seconds to travel between the two nodes. Finally, you are given an integer maxTime.

valid path in the graph is any path that starts at node 0, ends at node 0, and takes at most maxTime seconds to complete. You may visit the same node multiple times. The quality of a valid path is the sum of the values of the unique nodes visited in the path (each node’s value is added at most once to the sum).

Return the maximum quality of a valid path.

Note: There are at most four edges connected to each node.

Example 1:

Input: values = [0,32,10,43], edges = [[0,1,10],[1,2,15],[0,3,10]], maxTime = 49
Output: 75
Explanation:
One possible path is 0 -> 1 -> 0 -> 3 -> 0. The total time taken is 10 + 10 + 10 + 10 = 40 <= 49.
The nodes visited are 0, 1, and 3, giving a maximal path quality of 0 + 32 + 43 = 75.


Example 2:

Input: values = [5,10,15,20], edges = [[0,1,10],[1,2,10],[0,3,10]], maxTime = 30
Output: 25
Explanation:
One possible path is 0 -> 3 -> 0. The total time taken is 10 + 10 = 20 <= 30.
The nodes visited are 0 and 3, giving a maximal path quality of 5 + 20 = 25.


Example 3:

Input: values = [1,2,3,4], edges = [[0,1,10],[1,2,11],[2,3,12],[1,3,13]], maxTime = 50
Output: 7
Explanation:
One possible path is 0 -> 1 -> 3 -> 1 -> 0. The total time taken is 10 + 13 + 13 + 10 = 46 <= 50.
The nodes visited are 0, 1, and 3, giving a maximal path quality of 1 + 2 + 4 = 7.

Example 4:

Input: values = [0,1,2], edges = [[1,2,10]], maxTime = 10
Output: 0
Explanation:
The only path is 0. The total time taken is 0.
The only node visited is 0, giving a maximal path quality of 0.


Constraints:

• n == values.length
• 1 <= n <= 1000
• 0 <= values[i] <= 108
• 0 <= edges.length <= 2000
• edges[j].length == 3
• 0 <= uj < vj <= n - 1
• 10 <= timej, maxTime <= 100
• All the pairs [uj, vj] are unique.
• There are at most four edges connected to each node.
• The graph may not be connected.

## Solution: DFS

Given time >= 10 and maxTime <= 100, the path length is at most 10, given at most four edges connected to each node.
Time complexity: O(410)
Space complexity: O(n)