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Posts tagged as “DFS”

花花酱 LeetCode 306. Additive Number

Additive number is a string whose digits can form additive sequence.

A valid additive sequence should contain at least three numbers. Except for the first two numbers, each subsequent number in the sequence must be the sum of the preceding two.

Given a string containing only digits '0'-'9', write a function to determine if it’s an additive number.

Note: Numbers in the additive sequence cannot have leading zeros, so sequence 1, 2, 03 or 1, 02, 3 is invalid.

Example 1:

Input: "112358"
Output: true
Explanation: The digits can form an additive sequence: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8. 
             1 + 1 = 2, 1 + 2 = 3, 2 + 3 = 5, 3 + 5 = 8

Example 2:

Input: "199100199"
Output: true
Explanation: The additive sequence is: 1, 99, 100, 199. 
             1 + 99 = 100, 99 + 100 = 199

Constraints:

  • num consists only of digits '0'-'9'.
  • 1 <= num.length <= 35

Solution: DFS

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 529. Minesweeper

Let’s play the minesweeper game (Wikipediaonline game)!

You are given a 2D char matrix representing the game board. ‘M’ represents an unrevealed mine, ‘E’ represents an unrevealed empty square, ‘B’ represents a revealed blank square that has no adjacent (above, below, left, right, and all 4 diagonals) mines, digit (‘1’ to ‘8’) represents how many mines are adjacent to this revealed square, and finally ‘X’ represents a revealed mine.

Now given the next click position (row and column indices) among all the unrevealed squares (‘M’ or ‘E’), return the board after revealing this position according to the following rules:

  1. If a mine (‘M’) is revealed, then the game is over – change it to ‘X’.
  2. If an empty square (‘E’) with no adjacent mines is revealed, then change it to revealed blank (‘B’) and all of its adjacent unrevealed squares should be revealed recursively.
  3. If an empty square (‘E’) with at least one adjacent mine is revealed, then change it to a digit (‘1’ to ‘8’) representing the number of adjacent mines.
  4. Return the board when no more squares will be revealed.

Example 1:

Input: 

[['E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'E'],
 ['E', 'E', 'M', 'E', 'E'],
 ['E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'E'],
 ['E', 'E', 'E', 'E', 'E']]

Click : [3,0]

Output: 

[['B', '1', 'E', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', '1', 'M', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', '1', '1', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', 'B', 'B', 'B', 'B']]

Explanation:

Example 2:

Input: 

[['B', '1', 'E', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', '1', 'M', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', '1', '1', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', 'B', 'B', 'B', 'B']]

Click : [1,2]

Output: 

[['B', '1', 'E', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', '1', 'X', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', '1', '1', '1', 'B'],
 ['B', 'B', 'B', 'B', 'B']]

Explanation:

Note:

  1. The range of the input matrix’s height and width is [1,50].
  2. The click position will only be an unrevealed square (‘M’ or ‘E’), which also means the input board contains at least one clickable square.
  3. The input board won’t be a stage when game is over (some mines have been revealed).
  4. For simplicity, not mentioned rules should be ignored in this problem. For example, you don’t need to reveal all the unrevealed mines when the game is over, consider any cases that you will win the game or flag any squares.

Solution: DFS

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m* n)

C++

Solution 2: BFS

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1376. Time Needed to Inform All Employees

A company has n employees with a unique ID for each employee from 0 to n - 1. The head of the company has is the one with headID.

Each employee has one direct manager given in the manager array where manager[i] is the direct manager of the i-th employee, manager[headID] = -1. Also it’s guaranteed that the subordination relationships have a tree structure.

The head of the company wants to inform all the employees of the company of an urgent piece of news. He will inform his direct subordinates and they will inform their subordinates and so on until all employees know about the urgent news.

The i-th employee needs informTime[i] minutes to inform all of his direct subordinates (i.e After informTime[i] minutes, all his direct subordinates can start spreading the news).

Return the number of minutes needed to inform all the employees about the urgent news.

Example 1:

Input: n = 1, headID = 0, manager = [-1], informTime = [0]
Output: 0
Explanation: The head of the company is the only employee in the company.

Example 2:

Input: n = 6, headID = 2, manager = [2,2,-1,2,2,2], informTime = [0,0,1,0,0,0]
Output: 1
Explanation: The head of the company with id = 2 is the direct manager of all the employees in the company and needs 1 minute to inform them all.
The tree structure of the employees in the company is shown.

Example 3:

Input: n = 7, headID = 6, manager = [1,2,3,4,5,6,-1], informTime = [0,6,5,4,3,2,1]
Output: 21
Explanation: The head has id = 6. He will inform employee with id = 5 in 1 minute.
The employee with id = 5 will inform the employee with id = 4 in 2 minutes.
The employee with id = 4 will inform the employee with id = 3 in 3 minutes.
The employee with id = 3 will inform the employee with id = 2 in 4 minutes.
The employee with id = 2 will inform the employee with id = 1 in 5 minutes.
The employee with id = 1 will inform the employee with id = 0 in 6 minutes.
Needed time = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 = 21.

Example 4:

Input: n = 15, headID = 0, manager = [-1,0,0,1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6], informTime = [1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
Output: 3
Explanation: The first minute the head will inform employees 1 and 2.
The second minute they will inform employees 3, 4, 5 and 6.
The third minute they will inform the rest of employees.

Example 5:

Input: n = 4, headID = 2, manager = [3,3,-1,2], informTime = [0,0,162,914]
Output: 1076

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 10^5
  • 0 <= headID < n
  • manager.length == n
  • 0 <= manager[i] < n
  • manager[headID] == -1
  • informTime.length == n
  • 0 <= informTime[i] <= 1000
  • informTime[i] == 0 if employee i has no subordinates.
  • It is guaranteed that all the employees can be informed.

Solution 1: Build the graph + DFS

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution 2: Recursion with memoization

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1319. Number of Operations to Make Network Connected

There are n computers numbered from 0 to n-1 connected by ethernet cables connections forming a network where connections[i] = [a, b] represents a connection between computers a and b. Any computer can reach any other computer directly or indirectly through the network.

Given an initial computer network connections. You can extract certain cables between two directly connected computers, and place them between any pair of disconnected computers to make them directly connected. Return the minimum number of times you need to do this in order to make all the computers connected. If it’s not possible, return -1. 

Example 1:

Input: n = 4, connections = [[0,1],[0,2],[1,2]]
Output: 1
Explanation: Remove cable between computer 1 and 2 and place between computers 1 and 3.

Example 2:

Input: n = 6, connections = [[0,1],[0,2],[0,3],[1,2],[1,3]]
Output: 2

Example 3:

Input: n = 6, connections = [[0,1],[0,2],[0,3],[1,2]]
Output: -1
Explanation: There are not enough cables.

Example 4:

Input: n = 5, connections = [[0,1],[0,2],[3,4],[2,3]]
Output: 0

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 10^5
  • 1 <= connections.length <= min(n*(n-1)/2, 10^5)
  • connections[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= connections[i][0], connections[i][1] < n
  • connections[i][0] != connections[i][1]
  • There are no repeated connections.
  • No two computers are connected by more than one cable.

Solution 1: Union-Find

Time complexity: O(V+E)
Space complexity: O(V)

C++

Solution 2: DFS

Time complexity: O(V+E)
Space complexity: O(V+E)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1306. Jump Game III

Given an array of non-negative integers arr, you are initially positioned at start index of the array. When you are at index i, you can jump to i + arr[i] or i - arr[i], check if you can reach to any index with value 0.

Notice that you can not jump outside of the array at any time.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [4,2,3,0,3,1,2], start = 5
Output: true
Explanation: 
All possible ways to reach at index 3 with value 0 are: 
index 5 -> index 4 -> index 1 -> index 3 
index 5 -> index 6 -> index 4 -> index 1 -> index 3 

Example 2:

Input: arr = [4,2,3,0,3,1,2], start = 0
Output: true 
Explanation: 
One possible way to reach at index 3 with value 0 is: 
index 0 -> index 4 -> index 1 -> index 3

Example 3:

Input: arr = [3,0,2,1,2], start = 2
Output: false
Explanation: There is no way to reach at index 1 with value 0.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= arr.length <= 5 * 10^4
  • 0 <= arr[i] < arr.length
  • 0 <= start < arr.length

Solution: BFS / DFS

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++