# Posts tagged as “sort”

sentence is a list of words that are separated by a single space with no leading or trailing spaces. Each word consists of lowercase and uppercase English letters.

A sentence can be shuffled by appending the 1-indexed word position to each word then rearranging the words in the sentence.

• For example, the sentence "This is a sentence" can be shuffled as "sentence4 a3 is2 This1" or "is2 sentence4 This1 a3".

Given a shuffled sentence s containing no more than 9 words, reconstruct and return the original sentence.

Example 1:

Input: s = "is2 sentence4 This1 a3"
Output: "This is a sentence"
Explanation: Sort the words in s to their original positions "This1 is2 a3 sentence4", then remove the numbers.


Example 2:

Input: s = "Myself2 Me1 I4 and3"
Output: "Me Myself and I"
Explanation: Sort the words in s to their original positions "Me1 Myself2 and3 I4", then remove the numbers.


Constraints:

• 2 <= s.length <= 200
• s consists of lowercase and uppercase English letters, spaces, and digits from 1 to 9.
• The number of words in s is between 1 and 9.
• The words in s are separated by a single space.
• s contains no leading or trailing spaces.

## Solution: String

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Python3

You are given an array of positive integers arr. Perform some operations (possibly none) on arr so that it satisfies these conditions:

• The value of the first element in arr must be 1.
• The absolute difference between any 2 adjacent elements must be less than or equal to 1. In other words, abs(arr[i] - arr[i - 1]) <= 1 for each i where 1 <= i < arr.length (0-indexed). abs(x) is the absolute value of x.

There are 2 types of operations that you can perform any number of times:

• Decrease the value of any element of arr to a smaller positive integer.
• Rearrange the elements of arr to be in any order.

Return the maximum possible value of an element in arr after performing the operations to satisfy the conditions.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [2,2,1,2,1]
Output: 2
Explanation:
We can satisfy the conditions by rearranging arr so it becomes [1,2,2,2,1].
The largest element in arr is 2.


Example 2:

Input: arr = [100,1,1000]
Output: 3
Explanation:
One possible way to satisfy the conditions is by doing the following:
1. Rearrange arr so it becomes [1,100,1000].
2. Decrease the value of the second element to 2.
3. Decrease the value of the third element to 3.
Now arr = [1,2,3], which satisfies the conditions.
The largest element in arr is 3.


Example 3:

Input: arr = [1,2,3,4,5]
Output: 5
Explanation: The array already satisfies the conditions, and the largest element is 5.


Constraints:

• 1 <= arr.length <= 105
• 1 <= arr[i] <= 109

## Solution: Sort

arr = 1,
arr[i] = min(arr[i], arr[i – 1] + 1)

ans = arr[n – 1]

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

The frequency of an element is the number of times it occurs in an array.

You are given an integer array nums and an integer k. In one operation, you can choose an index of nums and increment the element at that index by 1.

Return the maximum possible frequency of an element after performing at most k operations.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,4], k = 5
Output: 3
Explanation: Increment the first element three times and the second element two times to make nums = [4,4,4].
4 has a frequency of 3.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,4,8,13], k = 5
Output: 2
Explanation: There are multiple optimal solutions:
- Increment the first element three times to make nums = [4,4,8,13]. 4 has a frequency of 2.
- Increment the second element four times to make nums = [1,8,8,13]. 8 has a frequency of 2.
- Increment the third element five times to make nums = [1,4,13,13]. 13 has a frequency of 2.


Example 3:

Input: nums = [3,9,6], k = 2
Output: 1


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 105
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 105
• 1 <= k <= 105

## Solution: Sliding Window

Sort the elements, maintain a window such that it takes at most k ops to make the all the elements equal to nums[i].

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given n​​​​​​ tasks labeled from 0 to n - 1 represented by a 2D integer array tasks, where tasks[i] = [enqueueTimei, processingTimei] means that the i​​​​​​th​​​​ task will be available to process at enqueueTimei and will take processingTimeito finish processing.

You have a single-threaded CPU that can process at most one task at a time and will act in the following way:

• If the CPU is idle and there are no available tasks to process, the CPU remains idle.
• If the CPU is idle and there are available tasks, the CPU will choose the one with the shortest processing time. If multiple tasks have the same shortest processing time, it will choose the task with the smallest index.
• Once a task is started, the CPU will process the entire task without stopping.
• The CPU can finish a task then start a new one instantly.

Return the order in which the CPU will process the tasks.

Example 1:

Input: tasks = [[1,2],[2,4],[3,2],[4,1]]
Output: [0,2,3,1]
Explanation: The events go as follows:
- At time = 1, task 0 is available to process. Available tasks = {0}.
- Also at time = 1, the idle CPU starts processing task 0. Available tasks = {}.
- At time = 2, task 1 is available to process. Available tasks = {1}.
- At time = 3, task 2 is available to process. Available tasks = {1, 2}.
- Also at time = 3, the CPU finishes task 0 and starts processing task 2 as it is the shortest. Available tasks = {1}.
- At time = 4, task 3 is available to process. Available tasks = {1, 3}.
- At time = 5, the CPU finishes task 2 and starts processing task 3 as it is the shortest. Available tasks = {1}.
- At time = 6, the CPU finishes task 3 and starts processing task 1. Available tasks = {}.
- At time = 10, the CPU finishes task 1 and becomes idle.


Example 2:

Input: tasks = [[7,10],[7,12],[7,5],[7,4],[7,2]]
Output: [4,3,2,0,1]
Explanation: The events go as follows:
- At time = 7, all the tasks become available. Available tasks = {0,1,2,3,4}.
- Also at time = 7, the idle CPU starts processing task 4. Available tasks = {0,1,2,3}.
- At time = 9, the CPU finishes task 4 and starts processing task 3. Available tasks = {0,1,2}.
- At time = 13, the CPU finishes task 3 and starts processing task 2. Available tasks = {0,1}.
- At time = 18, the CPU finishes task 2 and starts processing task 0. Available tasks = {1}.
- At time = 28, the CPU finishes task 0 and starts processing task 1. Available tasks = {}.
- At time = 40, the CPU finishes task 1 and becomes idle.


Constraints:

• tasks.length == n
• 1 <= n <= 105
• 1 <= enqueueTimei, processingTimei <= 109

## Solution: Simulation w/ Sort + PQ

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

It is a sweltering summer day, and a boy wants to buy some ice cream bars.

At the store, there are n ice cream bars. You are given an array costs of length n, where costs[i] is the price of the ith ice cream bar in coins. The boy initially has coins coins to spend, and he wants to buy as many ice cream bars as possible.

Return the maximum number of ice cream bars the boy can buy with coins coins.

Note: The boy can buy the ice cream bars in any order.

Example 1:

Input: costs = [1,3,2,4,1], coins = 7
Output: 4
Explanation: The boy can buy ice cream bars at indices 0,1,2,4 for a total price of 1 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 7.


Example 2:

Input: costs = [10,6,8,7,7,8], coins = 5
Output: 0
Explanation: The boy cannot afford any of the ice cream bars.


Example 3:

Input: costs = [1,6,3,1,2,5], coins = 20
Output: 6
Explanation: The boy can buy all the ice cream bars for a total price of 1 + 6 + 3 + 1 + 2 + 5 = 18.


Constraints:

• costs.length == n
• 1 <= n <= 105
• 1 <= costs[i] <= 105
• 1 <= coins <= 108

## Solution: Greedy

Sort by price in ascending order, buy from the lowest price to the highest price.

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)