# Posts tagged as “simulation”

Given the array restaurants where  restaurants[i] = [idi, ratingi, veganFriendlyi, pricei, distancei]. You have to filter the restaurants using three filters.

The veganFriendly filter will be either true (meaning you should only include restaurants with veganFriendlyi set to true) or false (meaning you can include any restaurant). In addition, you have the filters maxPrice and maxDistance which are the maximum value for price and distance of restaurants you should consider respectively.

Return the array of restaurant IDs after filtering, ordered by rating from highest to lowest. For restaurants with the same rating, order them by id from highest to lowest. For simplicity veganFriendlyi and veganFriendly take value 1 when it is true, and 0 when it is false.

Example 1:

Input: restaurants = [[1,4,1,40,10],[2,8,0,50,5],[3,8,1,30,4],[4,10,0,10,3],[5,1,1,15,1]], veganFriendly = 1, maxPrice = 50, maxDistance = 10
Output: [3,1,5]
Explanation:
The restaurants are:
Restaurant 1 [id=1, rating=4, veganFriendly=1, price=40, distance=10]
Restaurant 2 [id=2, rating=8, veganFriendly=0, price=50, distance=5]
Restaurant 3 [id=3, rating=8, veganFriendly=1, price=30, distance=4]
Restaurant 4 [id=4, rating=10, veganFriendly=0, price=10, distance=3]
Restaurant 5 [id=5, rating=1, veganFriendly=1, price=15, distance=1]
After filter restaurants with veganFriendly = 1, maxPrice = 50 and maxDistance = 10 we have restaurant 3, restaurant 1 and restaurant 5 (ordered by rating from highest to lowest).


Example 2:

Input: restaurants = [[1,4,1,40,10],[2,8,0,50,5],[3,8,1,30,4],[4,10,0,10,3],[5,1,1,15,1]], veganFriendly = 0, maxPrice = 50, maxDistance = 10
Output: [4,3,2,1,5]
Explanation: The restaurants are the same as in example 1, but in this case the filter veganFriendly = 0, therefore all restaurants are considered.


Example 3:

Input: restaurants = [[1,4,1,40,10],[2,8,0,50,5],[3,8,1,30,4],[4,10,0,10,3],[5,1,1,15,1]], veganFriendly = 0, maxPrice = 30, maxDistance = 3
Output: [4,5]


Constraints:

• 1 <= restaurants.length <= 10^4
• restaurants[i].length == 5
• 1 <= idi, ratingi, pricei, distancei <= 10^5
• 1 <= maxPrice, maxDistance <= 10^5
• veganFriendlyi and veganFriendly are 0 or 1.
• All idi are distinct.

## Solution

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

We are given a list nums of integers representing a list compressed with run-length encoding.

Consider each adjacent pair of elements [a, b] = [nums[2*i], nums[2*i+1]] (with i >= 0).  For each such pair, there are a elements with value b in the decompressed list.

Return the decompressed list.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4]
Output: [2,4,4,4]


Constraints:

• 2 <= nums.length <= 100
• nums.length % 2 == 0
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 100

## Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(sum(n_i))
Space complexity: O(sum(n_i)) or O(1)

## C++

You are given two non-empty linked lists representing two non-negative integers. The digits are stored in reverse order and each of their nodes contain a single digit. Add the two numbers and return it as a linked list.

You may assume the two numbers do not contain any leading zero, except the number 0 itself.

Example:

Input: (2 -> 4 -> 3) + (5 -> 6 -> 4)
Output: 7 -> 0 -> 8
Explanation: 342 + 465 = 807.

## Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(max(n,m))
Space complexity: O(max(n,m))

## Python3

Given an integer, write an algorithm to convert it to hexadecimal. For negative integer, two’s complement method is used.

Note:

All letters in hexadecimal (a-f) must be in lowercase.
The hexadecimal string must not contain extra leading 0s. If the number is zero, it is represented by a single zero character ‘0’; otherwise, the first character in the hexadecimal string will not be the zero character.
The given number is guaranteed to fit within the range of a 32-bit signed integer.
You must not use any method provided by the library which converts/formats the number to hex directly.
Example 1:

Input:
26

Output:
“1a”
Example 2:

Input:
-1

Output:
“ffffffff”

## Solution: Simulation

if input is negative, add 2^32 to it (e.g. set the highest bit to 1)
while num is non zero, mod it by 16 and prepend the remainder to ans string, then divide num by 16.

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(logn)

## C++

Tic-tac-toe is played by two players A and B on a 3 x 3 grid.

Here are the rules of Tic-Tac-Toe:

• Players take turns placing characters into empty squares (” “).
• The first player A always places “X” characters, while the second player B always places “O” characters.
• “X” and “O” characters are always placed into empty squares, never on filled ones.
• The game ends when there are 3 of the same (non-empty) character filling any row, column, or diagonal.
• The game also ends if all squares are non-empty.
• No more moves can be played if the game is over.

Given an array moves where each element is another array of size 2 corresponding to the row and column of the grid where they mark their respective character in the order in which A and B play.

Return the winner of the game if it exists (A or B), in case the game ends in a draw return “Draw”, if there are still movements to play return “Pending”.

You can assume that moves is valid (It follows the rules of Tic-Tac-Toe), the grid is initially empty and A will play first.

Example 1:

Input: moves = [[0,0],[2,0],[1,1],[2,1],[2,2]]
Output: "A"
Explanation: "A" wins, he always plays first.
"X  "    "X  "    "X  "    "X  "    "X  "
"   " -> "   " -> " X " -> " X " -> " X "
"   "    "O  "    "O  "    "OO "    "OOX"


Example 2:

Input: moves = [[0,0],[1,1],[0,1],[0,2],[1,0],[2,0]]
Output: "B"
Explanation: "B" wins.
"X  "    "X  "    "XX "    "XXO"    "XXO"    "XXO"
"   " -> " O " -> " O " -> " O " -> "XO " -> "XO "
"   "    "   "    "   "    "   "    "   "    "O  "


Example 3:

Input: moves = [[0,0],[1,1],[2,0],[1,0],[1,2],[2,1],[0,1],[0,2],[2,2]]
Output: "Draw"
Explanation: The game ends in a draw since there are no moves to make.
"XXO"
"OOX"
"XOX"


Example 4:

Input: moves = [[0,0],[1,1]]
Output: "Pending"
Explanation: The game has not finished yet.
"X  "
" O "
"   "


Constraints:

• 1 <= moves.length <= 9
• moves[i].length == 2
• 0 <= moves[i][j] <= 2
• There are no repeated elements on moves.
• moves follow the rules of tic tac toe.

## Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

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