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Posts tagged as “simulation”

花花酱 LeetCode 1041. Robot Bounded In Circle

On an infinite plane, a robot initially stands at (0, 0) and faces north.  The robot can receive one of three instructions:

  • "G": go straight 1 unit;
  • "L": turn 90 degrees to the left;
  • "R": turn 90 degress to the right.

The robot performs the instructions given in order, and repeats them forever.

Return true if and only if there exists a circle in the plane such that the robot never leaves the circle.

Example 1:

Input: "GGLLGG"
Output: true
Explanation: 
The robot moves from (0,0) to (0,2), turns 180 degrees, and then returns to (0,0).
When repeating these instructions, the robot remains in the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin.

Example 2:

Input: "GG"
Output: false
Explanation: 
The robot moves north indefinitely.

Example 3:

Input: "GL"
Output: true
Explanation: 
The robot moves from (0, 0) -> (0, 1) -> (-1, 1) -> (-1, 0) -> (0, 0) -> ...

Note:

  1. 1 <= instructions.length <= 100
  2. instructions[i] is in {'G', 'L', 'R'}

Solution: Simulation

When instructions end, if the robot is back to (0,0) or is not facing north (which guarantees it will come back to 0, 0 for another 1 or 3 rounds)

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 838. Push Dominoes

here are N dominoes in a line, and we place each domino vertically upright.

In the beginning, we simultaneously push some of the dominoes either to the left or to the right.

After each second, each domino that is falling to the left pushes the adjacent domino on the left.

Similarly, the dominoes falling to the right push their adjacent dominoes standing on the right.

When a vertical domino has dominoes falling on it from both sides, it stays still due to the balance of the forces.

For the purposes of this question, we will consider that a falling domino expends no additional force to a falling or already fallen domino.

Given a string “S” representing the initial state. S[i] = 'L', if the i-th domino has been pushed to the left; S[i] = 'R', if the i-th domino has been pushed to the right; S[i] = '.', if the i-th domino has not been pushed.

Return a string representing the final state. 

Example 1:

Input: ".L.R...LR..L.."
Output: "LL.RR.LLRRLL.."

Example 2:

Input: "RR.L"
Output: "RR.L"
Explanation: The first domino expends no additional force on the second domino.

Note:

  1. 0 <= N <= 10^5
  2. String dominoes contains only 'L‘, 'R' and '.'

Solution: Simulation

Simulate the push process, record the steps from L and R for each domino.
steps(L) == steps(R) => “.”
steps(L) < steps(R) => “L”
steps(L) > steps(R) => “R”

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 38. Count and Say

Problem

https://leetcode.com/problems/count-and-say/

The count-and-say sequence is the sequence of integers with the first five terms as following:

1.     1
2.     11
3.     21
4.     1211
5.     111221

1 is read off as "one 1" or 11.
11 is read off as "two 1s" or 21.
21 is read off as "one 2, then one 1" or 1211.

Given an integer n where 1 ≤ n ≤ 30, generate the nth term of the count-and-say sequence.

Note: Each term of the sequence of integers will be represented as a string.

Example 1:

Input: 1
Output: "1"

Example 2:

Input: 4
Output: "1211"

Solution: Recursion + Simulation

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 54. Spiral Matrix

Given a matrix of m x n elements (m rows, n columns), return all elements of the matrix in spiral order.

Example 1:

Input:
[
 [ 1, 2, 3 ],
 [ 4, 5, 6 ],
 [ 7, 8, 9 ]
]
Output: [1,2,3,6,9,8,7,4,5]

Example 2:

Input:
[
  [1, 2, 3, 4],
  [5, 6, 7, 8],
  [9,10,11,12]
]
Output: [1,2,3,4,8,12,11,10,9,5,6,7]

Solution: Simulation

Keep track of the current bounds (left, right, top, bottom).

Init: left = 0, right = n – 1, top = 0, bottom = m – 1

Each time we move in one direction and shrink the bounds and turn 90 degrees:
1. go right => –top
2. go down => –right
3. go left => ++bottom
4. go up => ++left

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1014. Capacity To Ship Packages Within D Days

A conveyor belt has packages that must be shipped from one port to another within D days.

The i-th package on the conveyor belt has a weight of weights[i].  Each day, we load the ship with packages on the conveyor belt (in the order given by weights). We may not load more weight than the maximum weight capacity of the ship.

Return the least weight capacity of the ship that will result in all the packages on the conveyor belt being shipped within D days.

Example 1:

Example 2:

Example 3:

Note:

  1. 1 <= D <= weights.length <= 50000
  2. 1 <= weights[i] <= 500

Solution: Binary Search

Find the smallest capacity such that can finish in D days.

Time complexity: O(n * log(sum(weights))
Space complexity: O(1)

C++