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Posts tagged as “simulation”

花花酱 LeetCode 232. Implement Queue using Stacks

Implement the following operations of a queue using stacks.

  • push(x) — Push element x to the back of queue.
  • pop() — Removes the element from in front of queue.
  • peek() — Get the front element.
  • empty() — Return whether the queue is empty.


MyQueue queue = new MyQueue();

queue.peek();  // returns 1
queue.pop();   // returns 1
queue.empty(); // returns false


  • You must use only standard operations of a stack — which means only push to toppeek/pop from topsize, and is empty operations are valid.
  • Depending on your language, stack may not be supported natively. You may simulate a stack by using a list or deque (double-ended queue), as long as you use only standard operations of a stack.
  • You may assume that all operations are valid (for example, no pop or peek operations will be called on an empty queue).

Solution: Use two stacks

amortized cost: O(1)


花花酱 LeetCode 1073. Adding Two Negabinary Numbers

Given two numbers arr1 and arr2 in base -2, return the result of adding them together.

Each number is given in array format:  as an array of 0s and 1s, from most significant bit to least significant bit.  For example, arr = [1,1,0,1] represents the number (-2)^3 + (-2)^2 + (-2)^0 = -3.  A number arr in array format is also guaranteed to have no leading zeros: either arr == [0] or arr[0] == 1.

Return the result of adding arr1 and arr2 in the same format: as an array of 0s and 1s with no leading zeros.

Example 1:

Input: arr1 = [1,1,1,1,1], arr2 = [1,0,1]
Output: [1,0,0,0,0]
Explanation: arr1 represents 11, arr2 represents 5, the output represents 16.


  1. 1 <= arr1.length <= 1000
  2. 1 <= arr2.length <= 1000
  3. arr1 and arr2 have no leading zeros
  4. arr1[i] is 0 or 1
  5. arr2[i] is 0 or 1

Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)


花花酱 LeetCode 1041. Robot Bounded In Circle

On an infinite plane, a robot initially stands at (0, 0) and faces north.  The robot can receive one of three instructions:

  • "G": go straight 1 unit;
  • "L": turn 90 degrees to the left;
  • "R": turn 90 degress to the right.

The robot performs the instructions given in order, and repeats them forever.

Return true if and only if there exists a circle in the plane such that the robot never leaves the circle.

Example 1:

Input: "GGLLGG"
Output: true
The robot moves from (0,0) to (0,2), turns 180 degrees, and then returns to (0,0).
When repeating these instructions, the robot remains in the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin.

Example 2:

Input: "GG"
Output: false
The robot moves north indefinitely.

Example 3:

Input: "GL"
Output: true
The robot moves from (0, 0) -> (0, 1) -> (-1, 1) -> (-1, 0) -> (0, 0) -> ...


  1. 1 <= instructions.length <= 100
  2. instructions[i] is in {'G', 'L', 'R'}

Solution: Simulation

When instructions end, if the robot is back to (0,0) or is not facing north (which guarantees it will come back to 0, 0 for another 1 or 3 rounds)

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)


花花酱 LeetCode 838. Push Dominoes

here are N dominoes in a line, and we place each domino vertically upright.

In the beginning, we simultaneously push some of the dominoes either to the left or to the right.

After each second, each domino that is falling to the left pushes the adjacent domino on the left.

Similarly, the dominoes falling to the right push their adjacent dominoes standing on the right.

When a vertical domino has dominoes falling on it from both sides, it stays still due to the balance of the forces.

For the purposes of this question, we will consider that a falling domino expends no additional force to a falling or already fallen domino.

Given a string “S” representing the initial state. S[i] = 'L', if the i-th domino has been pushed to the left; S[i] = 'R', if the i-th domino has been pushed to the right; S[i] = '.', if the i-th domino has not been pushed.

Return a string representing the final state. 

Example 1:

Input: ".L.R...LR..L.."
Output: "LL.RR.LLRRLL.."

Example 2:

Input: "RR.L"
Output: "RR.L"
Explanation: The first domino expends no additional force on the second domino.


  1. 0 <= N <= 10^5
  2. String dominoes contains only 'L‘, 'R' and '.'

Solution: Simulation

Simulate the push process, record the steps from L and R for each domino.
steps(L) == steps(R) => “.”
steps(L) < steps(R) => “L”
steps(L) > steps(R) => “R”

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)


花花酱 LeetCode 38. Count and Say


The count-and-say sequence is the sequence of integers with the first five terms as following:

1.     1
2.     11
3.     21
4.     1211
5.     111221

1 is read off as "one 1" or 11.
11 is read off as "two 1s" or 21.
21 is read off as "one 2, then one 1" or 1211.

Given an integer n where 1 ≤ n ≤ 30, generate the nth term of the count-and-say sequence.

Note: Each term of the sequence of integers will be represented as a string.

Example 1:

Input: 1
Output: "1"

Example 2:

Input: 4
Output: "1211"

Solution: Recursion + Simulation