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Posts tagged as “prefix”

花花酱 LeetCode 1829. Maximum XOR for Each Query

You are given a sorted array nums of n non-negative integers and an integer maximumBit. You want to perform the following query n times:

  1. Find a non-negative integer k < 2maximumBit such that nums[0] XOR nums[1] XOR ... XOR nums[nums.length-1] XOR k is maximizedk is the answer to the ith query.
  2. Remove the last element from the current array nums.

Return an array answer, where answer[i] is the answer to the ith query.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [0,1,1,3], maximumBit = 2
Output: [0,3,2,3]
Explanation: The queries are answered as follows:
1st query: nums = [0,1,1,3], k = 0 since 0 XOR 1 XOR 1 XOR 3 XOR 0 = 3.
2nd query: nums = [0,1,1], k = 3 since 0 XOR 1 XOR 1 XOR 3 = 3.
3rd query: nums = [0,1], k = 2 since 0 XOR 1 XOR 2 = 3.
4th query: nums = [0], k = 3 since 0 XOR 3 = 3.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,3,4,7], maximumBit = 3
Output: [5,2,6,5]
Explanation: The queries are answered as follows:
1st query: nums = [2,3,4,7], k = 5 since 2 XOR 3 XOR 4 XOR 7 XOR 5 = 7.
2nd query: nums = [2,3,4], k = 2 since 2 XOR 3 XOR 4 XOR 2 = 7.
3rd query: nums = [2,3], k = 6 since 2 XOR 3 XOR 6 = 7.
4th query: nums = [2], k = 5 since 2 XOR 5 = 7.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [0,1,2,2,5,7], maximumBit = 3
Output: [4,3,6,4,6,7]

Constraints:

  • nums.length == n
  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • 1 <= maximumBit <= 20
  • 0 <= nums[i] < 2maximumBit
  • nums​​​ is sorted in ascending order.

Solution: Prefix XOR

Compute s = nums[0] ^ nums[1] ^ … nums[n-1] first

to remove nums[i], we just need to do s ^= nums[i]

We can always maximize the xor of s and k to (2^maxbit – 1)
k = (2 ^ maxbit – 1) ^ s

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1764. Form Array by Concatenating Subarrays of Another Array

You are given a 2D integer array groups of length n. You are also given an integer array nums.

You are asked if you can choose n disjoint subarrays from the array nums such that the ith subarray is equal to groups[i] (0-indexed), and if i > 0, the (i-1)th subarray appears before the ith subarray in nums (i.e. the subarrays must be in the same order as groups).

Return true if you can do this task, and false otherwise.

Note that the subarrays are disjoint if and only if there is no index k such that nums[k] belongs to more than one subarray. A subarray is a contiguous sequence of elements within an array.

Example 1:

Input: groups = [[1,-1,-1],[3,-2,0]], nums = [1,-1,0,1,-1,-1,3,-2,0]
Output: true
Explanation: You can choose the 0th subarray as [1,-1,0,1,-1,-1,3,-2,0] and the 1st one as [1,-1,0,1,-1,-1,3,-2,0].
These subarrays are disjoint as they share no common nums[k] element.

Example 2:

Input: groups = [[10,-2],[1,2,3,4]], nums = [1,2,3,4,10,-2]
Output: false
Explanation: Note that choosing the subarrays [1,2,3,4,10,-2] and [1,2,3,4,10,-2] is incorrect because they are not in the same order as in groups.
[10,-2] must come before [1,2,3,4].

Example 3:

Input: groups = [[1,2,3],[3,4]], nums = [7,7,1,2,3,4,7,7]
Output: false
Explanation: Note that choosing the subarrays [7,7,1,2,3,4,7,7] and [7,7,1,2,3,4,7,7] is invalid because they are not disjoint.
They share a common elements nums[4] (0-indexed).

Constraints:

  • groups.length == n
  • 1 <= n <= 103
  • 1 <= groups[i].length, sum(groups[i].length) <= 103
  • 1 <= nums.length <= 103
  • -107 <= groups[i][j], nums[k] <= 107

Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n^2?)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1744. Can You Eat Your Favorite Candy on Your Favorite Day?

You are given a (0-indexed) array of positive integers candiesCount where candiesCount[i] represents the number of candies of the ith type you have. You are also given a 2D array queries where queries[i] = [favoriteTypei, favoriteDayi, dailyCapi].

You play a game with the following rules:

  • You start eating candies on day 0.
  • You cannot eat any candy of type i unless you have eaten all candies of type i - 1.
  • You must eat at least one candy per day until you have eaten all the candies.

Construct a boolean array answer such that answer.length == queries.length and answer[i] is true if you can eat a candy of type favoriteTypei on day favoriteDayi without eating more than dailyCapi candies on any day, and false otherwise. Note that you can eat different types of candy on the same day, provided that you follow rule 2.

Return the constructed array answer.

Example 1:

Input: candiesCount = [7,4,5,3,8], queries = [[0,2,2],[4,2,4],[2,13,1000000000]]
Output: [true,false,true]
Explanation:
1- If you eat 2 candies (type 0) on day 0 and 2 candies (type 0) on day 1, you will eat a candy of type 0 on day 2.
2- You can eat at most 4 candies each day.
   If you eat 4 candies every day, you will eat 4 candies (type 0) on day 0 and 4 candies (type 0 and type 1) on day 1.
   On day 2, you can only eat 4 candies (type 1 and type 2), so you cannot eat a candy of type 4 on day 2.
3- If you eat 1 candy each day, you will eat a candy of type 2 on day 13.

Example 2:

Input: candiesCount = [5,2,6,4,1], queries = [[3,1,2],[4,10,3],[3,10,100],[4,100,30],[1,3,1]]
Output: [false,true,true,false,false]

Constraints:

  • 1 <= candiesCount.length <= 105
  • 1 <= candiesCount[i] <= 105
  • 1 <= queries.length <= 105
  • queries[i].length == 3
  • 0 <= favoriteTypei < candiesCount.length
  • 0 <= favoriteDayi <= 109
  • 1 <= dailyCapi <= 109

Solution: Prefix Sum

  1. We must have enough capacity to eat all candies before the current type.
  2. We must have at least prefix sum candies than days, since we have to eat at least one each day.

sum[i] = sum(candyCount[0~i])
ans = {days * cap > sum[type – 1] && days <= sum[type])

Time complexity:O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1658. Minimum Operations to Reduce X to Zero

You are given an integer array nums and an integer x. In one operation, you can either remove the leftmost or the rightmost element from the array nums and subtract its value from x. Note that this modifies the array for future operations.

Return the minimum number of operations to reduce x to exactly 0 if it’s possible, otherwise, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,1,4,2,3], x = 5
Output: 2
Explanation: The optimal solution is to remove the last two elements to reduce x to zero.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,6,7,8,9], x = 4
Output: -1

Example 3:

Input: nums = [3,2,20,1,1,3], x = 10
Output: 5
Explanation: The optimal solution is to remove the last three elements and the first two elements (5 operations in total) to reduce x to zero.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 104
  • 1 <= x <= 109

Solution1: Prefix Sum + Hashtable

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution2: Sliding Window

Find the longest sliding window whose sum of elements equals sum(nums) – x
ans = n – window_size

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1638. Count Substrings That Differ by One Character

Given two strings s and t, find the number of ways you can choose a non-empty substring of s and replace a single character by a different character such that the resulting substring is a substring of t. In other words, find the number of substrings in s that differ from some substring in t by exactly one character.

For example, the underlined substrings in "computer" and "computation" only differ by the 'e'/'a', so this is a valid way.

Return the number of substrings that satisfy the condition above.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within a string.

Example 1:

Input: s = "aba", t = "baba"
Output: 6
Explanation: The following are the pairs of substrings from s and t that differ by exactly 1 character:
("aba", "baba")
("aba", "baba")
("aba", "baba")
("aba", "baba")
("aba", "baba")
("aba", "baba")
The underlined portions are the substrings that are chosen from s and t.

​​Example 2:

Input: s = "ab", t = "bb"
Output: 3
Explanation: The following are the pairs of substrings from s and t that differ by 1 character:
("ab", "bb")
("ab", "bb")
("ab", "bb")
​​​​The underlined portions are the substrings that are chosen from s and t.

Example 3:

Input: s = "a", t = "a"
Output: 0

Example 4:

Input: s = "abe", t = "bbc"
Output: 10

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length, t.length <= 100
  • s and t consist of lowercase English letters only.

Solution1: All Pairs + Prefix Matching

match s[i:i+p] with t[j:j+p], is there is one missed char, increase the ans, until there are two miss matched chars or reach the end.

Time complexity: O(m*n*min(m,n))
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Solution 2: Continuous Matching

Start matching s[0] with t[j] and s[i] with t[0]

Time complexity: O(mn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++