Press "Enter" to skip to content

Posts published in “Graph”

花花酱 LeetCode 2192. All Ancestors of a Node in a Directed Acyclic Graph

You are given a positive integer n representing the number of nodes of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). The nodes are numbered from 0 to n - 1 (inclusive).

You are also given a 2D integer array edges, where edges[i] = [fromi, toi] denotes that there is a unidirectional edge from fromi to toi in the graph.

Return a list answer, where answer[i] is the list of ancestors of the ith node, sorted in ascending order.

A node u is an ancestor of another node v if u can reach v via a set of edges.

Example 1:

Input: n = 8, edgeList = [[0,3],[0,4],[1,3],[2,4],[2,7],[3,5],[3,6],[3,7],[4,6]]
Output: [[],[],[],[0,1],[0,2],[0,1,3],[0,1,2,3,4],[0,1,2,3]]
Explanation:
The above diagram represents the input graph.
- Nodes 0, 1, and 2 do not have any ancestors.
- Node 3 has two ancestors 0 and 1.
- Node 4 has two ancestors 0 and 2.
- Node 5 has three ancestors 0, 1, and 3.
- Node 6 has five ancestors 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
- Node 7 has four ancestors 0, 1, 2, and 3.

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, edgeList = [[0,1],[0,2],[0,3],[0,4],[1,2],[1,3],[1,4],[2,3],[2,4],[3,4]]
Output: [[],[0],[0,1],[0,1,2],[0,1,2,3]]
Explanation:
The above diagram represents the input graph.
- Node 0 does not have any ancestor.
- Node 1 has one ancestor 0.
- Node 2 has two ancestors 0 and 1.
- Node 3 has three ancestors 0, 1, and 2.
- Node 4 has four ancestors 0, 1, 2, and 3.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 1000
  • 0 <= edges.length <= min(2000, n * (n - 1) / 2)
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= fromi, toi <= n - 1
  • fromi != toi
  • There are no duplicate edges.
  • The graph is directed and acyclic.

Solution: DFS

For each source node S, add it to all its reachable nodes by traversing the entire graph.
In one pass, only traverse each child node at most once.

Time complexity: O(VE)
Space complexity: (V+E)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1998. GCD Sort of an Array

You are given an integer array nums, and you can perform the following operation any number of times on nums:

  • Swap the positions of two elements nums[i] and nums[j] if gcd(nums[i], nums[j]) > 1 where gcd(nums[i], nums[j]) is the greatest common divisor of nums[i] and nums[j].

Return true if it is possible to sort nums in non-decreasing order using the above swap method, or false otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [7,21,3]
Output: true
Explanation: We can sort [7,21,3] by performing the following operations:
- Swap 7 and 21 because gcd(7,21) = 7. nums = [21,7,3]
- Swap 21 and 3 because gcd(21,3) = 3. nums = [3,7,21]

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,2,6,2]
Output: false
Explanation: It is impossible to sort the array because 5 cannot be swapped with any other element.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [10,5,9,3,15]
Output: true
We can sort [10,5,9,3,15] by performing the following operations:
- Swap 10 and 15 because gcd(10,15) = 5. nums = [15,5,9,3,10]
- Swap 15 and 3 because gcd(15,3) = 3. nums = [3,5,9,15,10]
- Swap 10 and 15 because gcd(10,15) = 5. nums = [3,5,9,10,15]

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 3 * 104
  • 2 <= nums[i] <= 105

Solution: Union-Find

Let nums[j]’s target position be i. In order to put nums[j] to pos i by swapping. nums[i] and nums[j] must be in the same connected component. There is an edge between two numbers if they have gcd > 1.

We union two numbers if their have gcd > 1. However, it will be TLE if we do all pairs . Thus, for each number, we union it with its divisors instead.

Time complexity: O(n2) TLE -> O(sum(sqrt(nums[i]))) <= O(n*sqrt(m))
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2097. Valid Arrangement of Pairs

You are given a 0-indexed 2D integer array pairs where pairs[i] = [starti, endi]. An arrangement of pairs is valid if for every index i where 1 <= i < pairs.length, we have endi-1 == starti.

Return any valid arrangement of pairs.

Note: The inputs will be generated such that there exists a valid arrangement of pairs.

Example 1:

Input: pairs = [[5,1],[4,5],[11,9],[9,4]]
Output: [[11,9],[9,4],[4,5],[5,1]]
Explanation:
This is a valid arrangement since endi-1 always equals starti.
end0 = 9 == 9 = start1 
end1 = 4 == 4 = start2
end2 = 5 == 5 = start3

Example 2:

Input: pairs = [[1,3],[3,2],[2,1]]
Output: [[1,3],[3,2],[2,1]]
Explanation:
This is a valid arrangement since endi-1 always equals starti.
end0 = 3 == 3 = start1
end1 = 2 == 2 = start2
The arrangements [[2,1],[1,3],[3,2]] and [[3,2],[2,1],[1,3]] are also valid.

Example 3:

Input: pairs = [[1,2],[1,3],[2,1]]
Output: [[1,2],[2,1],[1,3]]
Explanation:
This is a valid arrangement since endi-1 always equals starti.
end0 = 2 == 2 = start1
end1 = 1 == 1 = start2

Constraints:

  • 1 <= pairs.length <= 105
  • pairs[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= starti, endi <= 109
  • starti != endi
  • No two pairs are exactly the same.
  • There exists a valid arrangement of pairs.

Solution: Eulerian trail

The goal of the problem is to find a Eulerian trail in the graph.

If there is a vertex whose out degree – in degree == 1 which means it’s the starting vertex. Otherwise wise, the graph must have a Eulerian circuit thus we can start from any vertex.

We can use Hierholzer’s algorithm to find it.

Time complexity: O(|V| + |E|)
Space complexity: O(|V| + |E|)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 2092. Find All People With Secret

You are given an integer n indicating there are n people numbered from 0 to n - 1. You are also given a 0-indexed 2D integer array meetings where meetings[i] = [xi, yi, timei] indicates that person xi and person yi have a meeting at timei. A person may attend multiple meetings at the same time. Finally, you are given an integer firstPerson.

Person 0 has a secret and initially shares the secret with a person firstPerson at time 0. This secret is then shared every time a meeting takes place with a person that has the secret. More formally, for every meeting, if a person xi has the secret at timei, then they will share the secret with person yi, and vice versa.

The secrets are shared instantaneously. That is, a person may receive the secret and share it with people in other meetings within the same time frame.

Return a list of all the people that have the secret after all the meetings have taken place. You may return the answer in any order.

Example 1:

Input: n = 6, meetings = [[1,2,5],[2,3,8],[1,5,10]], firstPerson = 1
Output: [0,1,2,3,5]
Explanation:
At time 0, person 0 shares the secret with person 1.
At time 5, person 1 shares the secret with person 2.
At time 8, person 2 shares the secret with person 3.
At time 10, person 1 shares the secret with person 5.​​​​
Thus, people 0, 1, 2, 3, and 5 know the secret after all the meetings.

Example 2:

Input: n = 4, meetings = [[3,1,3],[1,2,2],[0,3,3]], firstPerson = 3
Output: [0,1,3]
Explanation:
At time 0, person 0 shares the secret with person 3.
At time 2, neither person 1 nor person 2 know the secret.
At time 3, person 3 shares the secret with person 0 and person 1.
Thus, people 0, 1, and 3 know the secret after all the meetings.

Example 3:

Input: n = 5, meetings = [[3,4,2],[1,2,1],[2,3,1]], firstPerson = 1
Output: [0,1,2,3,4]
Explanation:
At time 0, person 0 shares the secret with person 1.
At time 1, person 1 shares the secret with person 2, and person 2 shares the secret with person 3.
Note that person 2 can share the secret at the same time as receiving it.
At time 2, person 3 shares the secret with person 4.
Thus, people 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 know the secret after all the meetings.

Example 4:

Input: n = 6, meetings = [[0,2,1],[1,3,1],[4,5,1]], firstPerson = 1
Output: [0,1,2,3]
Explanation:
At time 0, person 0 shares the secret with person 1.
At time 1, person 0 shares the secret with person 2, and person 1 shares the secret with person 3.
Thus, people 0, 1, 2, and 3 know the secret after all the meetings.

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 105
  • 1 <= meetings.length <= 105
  • meetings[i].length == 3
  • 0 <= xi, y<= n - 1
  • xi != yi
  • 1 <= timei <= 105
  • 1 <= firstPerson <= n - 1

Solution: Union Find

Sorting meetings by time.

At each time stamp, union people who meet.
Key step: “un-union” people if they DO NOT connected to 0 / known the secret after each timestamp.

Time complexity: O(nlogn + m + n)
Space complexity: O(m + n)

C++

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 2050. Parallel Courses III

You are given an integer n, which indicates that there are n courses labeled from 1 to n. You are also given a 2D integer array relations where relations[j] = [prevCoursej, nextCoursej] denotes that course prevCoursej has to be completed before course nextCoursej (prerequisite relationship). Furthermore, you are given a 0-indexed integer array time where time[i] denotes how many months it takes to complete the (i+1)th course.

You must find the minimum number of months needed to complete all the courses following these rules:

  • You may start taking a course at any time if the prerequisites are met.
  • Any number of courses can be taken at the same time.

Return the minimum number of months needed to complete all the courses.

Note: The test cases are generated such that it is possible to complete every course (i.e., the graph is a directed acyclic graph).

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, relations = [[1,3],[2,3]], time = [3,2,5]
Output: 8
Explanation: The figure above represents the given graph and the time required to complete each course. 
We start course 1 and course 2 simultaneously at month 0.
Course 1 takes 3 months and course 2 takes 2 months to complete respectively.
Thus, the earliest time we can start course 3 is at month 3, and the total time required is 3 + 5 = 8 months.

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, relations = [[1,5],[2,5],[3,5],[3,4],[4,5]], time = [1,2,3,4,5]
Output: 12
Explanation: The figure above represents the given graph and the time required to complete each course.
You can start courses 1, 2, and 3 at month 0.
You can complete them after 1, 2, and 3 months respectively.
Course 4 can be taken only after course 3 is completed, i.e., after 3 months. It is completed after 3 + 4 = 7 months.
Course 5 can be taken only after courses 1, 2, 3, and 4 have been completed, i.e., after max(1,2,3,7) = 7 months.
Thus, the minimum time needed to complete all the courses is 7 + 5 = 12 months.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 5 * 104
  • 0 <= relations.length <= min(n * (n - 1) / 2, 5 * 104)
  • relations[j].length == 2
  • 1 <= prevCoursej, nextCoursej <= n
  • prevCoursej != nextCoursej
  • All the pairs [prevCoursej, nextCoursej] are unique.
  • time.length == n
  • 1 <= time[i] <= 104
  • The given graph is a directed acyclic graph.

Solution: Topological Sorting

Time complexity: O(V+E)
Space complexity: O(V+E)

C++

Python3