# Posts published in “Simulation”

Given two numbers arr1 and arr2 in base -2, return the result of adding them together.

Each number is given in array format:  as an array of 0s and 1s, from most significant bit to least significant bit.  For example, arr = [1,1,0,1] represents the number (-2)^3 + (-2)^2 + (-2)^0 = -3.  A number arr in array format is also guaranteed to have no leading zeros: either arr ==  or arr == 1.

Return the result of adding arr1 and arr2 in the same format: as an array of 0s and 1s with no leading zeros.

Example 1:

Input: arr1 = [1,1,1,1,1], arr2 = [1,0,1]
Output: [1,0,0,0,0]
Explanation: arr1 represents 11, arr2 represents 5, the output represents 16.


Note:

1. 1 <= arr1.length <= 1000
2. 1 <= arr2.length <= 1000
3. arr1 and arr2 have no leading zeros
4. arr1[i] is 0 or 1
5. arr2[i] is 0 or 1

## Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

On an infinite plane, a robot initially stands at (0, 0) and faces north.  The robot can receive one of three instructions:

• "G": go straight 1 unit;
• "L": turn 90 degrees to the left;
• "R": turn 90 degress to the right.

The robot performs the instructions given in order, and repeats them forever.

Return true if and only if there exists a circle in the plane such that the robot never leaves the circle.

Example 1:

Input: "GGLLGG"
Output: true
Explanation:
The robot moves from (0,0) to (0,2), turns 180 degrees, and then returns to (0,0).
When repeating these instructions, the robot remains in the circle of radius 2 centered at the origin.


Example 2:

Input: "GG"
Output: false
Explanation:
The robot moves north indefinitely.


Example 3:

Input: "GL"
Output: true
Explanation:
The robot moves from (0, 0) -> (0, 1) -> (-1, 1) -> (-1, 0) -> (0, 0) -> ...


Note:

1. 1 <= instructions.length <= 100
2. instructions[i] is in {'G', 'L', 'R'}

Solution: Simulation

When instructions end, if the robot is back to (0,0) or is not facing north (which guarantees it will come back to 0, 0 for another 1 or 3 rounds)

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## Problem

The count-and-say sequence is the sequence of integers with the first five terms as following:

1.     1
2.     11
3.     21
4.     1211
5.     111221


1 is read off as "one 1" or 11.
11 is read off as "two 1s" or 21.
21 is read off as "one 2, then one 1" or 1211.

Given an integer n where 1 ≤ n ≤ 30, generate the nth term of the count-and-say sequence.

Note: Each term of the sequence of integers will be represented as a string.

Example 1:

Input: 1
Output: "1"


Example 2:

Input: 4
Output: "1211"

Solution: Recursion + Simulation

## C++

Given a matrix of m x n elements (m rows, n columns), return all elements of the matrix in spiral order.

Example 1:

Input:
[
[ 1, 2, 3 ],
[ 4, 5, 6 ],
[ 7, 8, 9 ]
]
Output: [1,2,3,6,9,8,7,4,5]


Example 2:

Input:
[
[1, 2, 3, 4],
[5, 6, 7, 8],
[9,10,11,12]
]
Output: [1,2,3,4,8,12,11,10,9,5,6,7]

Solution: Simulation

Keep track of the current bounds (left, right, top, bottom).

Init: left = 0, right = n – 1, top = 0, bottom = m – 1

Each time we move in one direction and shrink the bounds and turn 90 degrees:
1. go right => –top
2. go down => –right
3. go left => ++bottom
4. go up => ++left

## C++

Normally, the factorial of a positive integer n is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n.  For example, factorial(10) = 10 * 9 * 8 * 7 * 6 * 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1.

We instead make a clumsy factorial: using the integers in decreasing order, we swap out the multiply operations for a fixed rotation of operations: multiply (*), divide (/), add (+) and subtract (-) in this order.

For example, clumsy(10) = 10 * 9 / 8 + 7 - 6 * 5 / 4 + 3 - 2 * 1.  However, these operations are still applied using the usual order of operations of arithmetic: we do all multiplication and division steps before any addition or subtraction steps, and multiplication and division steps are processed left to right.

Additionally, the division that we use is floor division such that 10 * 9 / 8 equals 11.  This guarantees the result is an integer.

Implement the clumsy function as defined above: given an integer N, it returns the clumsy factorial of N.

Example 1:

Input: 4
Output: 7
Explanation: 7 = 4 * 3 / 2 + 1


Example 2:

Input: 10
Output: 12
Explanation: 12 = 10 * 9 / 8 + 7 - 6 * 5 / 4 + 3 - 2 * 1


Note:

1. 1 <= N <= 10000
2. -2^31 <= answer <= 2^31 - 1  (The answer is guaranteed to fit within a 32-bit integer.)

## Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

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