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Posts published in “Simulation”

花花酱 LeetCode 1389. Create Target Array in the Given Order

Given two arrays of integers nums and index. Your task is to create target array under the following rules:

  • Initially target array is empty.
  • From left to right read nums[i] and index[i], insert at index index[i] the value nums[i] in target array.
  • Repeat the previous step until there are no elements to read in nums and index.

Return the target array.

It is guaranteed that the insertion operations will be valid.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [0,1,2,3,4], index = [0,1,2,2,1]
Output: [0,4,1,3,2]
Explanation:
nums       index     target
0            0        [0]
1            1        [0,1]
2            2        [0,1,2]
3            2        [0,1,3,2]
4            1        [0,4,1,3,2]

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4,0], index = [0,1,2,3,0]
Output: [0,1,2,3,4]
Explanation:
nums       index     target
1            0        [1]
2            1        [1,2]
3            2        [1,2,3]
4            3        [1,2,3,4]
0            0        [0,1,2,3,4]

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1], index = [0]
Output: [1]

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length, index.length <= 100
  • nums.length == index.length
  • 0 <= nums[i] <= 100
  • 0 <= index[i] <= i

Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n) ~ O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1387. Sort Integers by The Power Value

The power of an integer x is defined as the number of steps needed to transform x into 1 using the following steps:

  • if x is even then x = x / 2
  • if x is odd then x = 3 * x + 1

For example, the power of x = 3 is 7 because 3 needs 7 steps to become 1 (3 –> 10 –> 5 –> 16 –> 8 –> 4 –> 2 –> 1).

Given three integers lohi and k. The task is to sort all integers in the interval [lo, hi] by the power value in ascending order, if two or more integers have the same power value sort them by ascending order.

Return the k-th integer in the range [lo, hi] sorted by the power value.

Notice that for any integer x (lo <= x <= hi) it is guaranteed that x will transform into 1 using these steps and that the power of x is will fit in 32 bit signed integer.

Example 1:

Input: lo = 12, hi = 15, k = 2
Output: 13
Explanation: The power of 12 is 9 (12 --> 6 --> 3 --> 10 --> 5 --> 16 --> 8 --> 4 --> 2 --> 1)
The power of 13 is 9
The power of 14 is 17
The power of 15 is 17
The interval sorted by the power value [12,13,14,15]. For k = 2 answer is the second element which is 13.
Notice that 12 and 13 have the same power value and we sorted them in ascending order. Same for 14 and 15.

Example 2:

Input: lo = 1, hi = 1, k = 1
Output: 1

Example 3:

Input: lo = 7, hi = 11, k = 4
Output: 7
Explanation: The power array corresponding to the interval [7, 8, 9, 10, 11] is [16, 3, 19, 6, 14].
The interval sorted by power is [8, 10, 11, 7, 9].
The fourth number in the sorted array is 7.

Example 4:

Input: lo = 10, hi = 20, k = 5
Output: 13

Example 5:

Input: lo = 1, hi = 1000, k = 777
Output: 570

Constraints:

  • 1 <= lo <= hi <= 1000
  • 1 <= k <= hi - lo + 1

Solution: Precompute + quick select

Time complexity: O(nlogn) + O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 672. Bulb Switcher II

There is a room with n lights which are turned on initially and 4 buttons on the wall. After performing exactly m unknown operations towards buttons, you need to return how many different kinds of status of the n lights could be.

Suppose n lights are labeled as number [1, 2, 3 …, n], function of these 4 buttons are given below:

  1. Flip all the lights.
  2. Flip lights with even numbers.
  3. Flip lights with odd numbers.
  4. Flip lights with (3k + 1) numbers, k = 0, 1, 2, …

Example 1:

Input: n = 1, m = 1.
Output: 2
Explanation: Status can be: [on], [off]

Example 2:

Input: n = 2, m = 1.
Output: 3
Explanation: Status can be: [on, off], [off, on], [off, off]

Example 3:

Input: n = 3, m = 1.
Output: 4
Explanation: Status can be: [off, on, off], [on, off, on], [off, off, off], [off, on, on].

Note: n and m both fit in range [0, 1000].

Solution1: Bitmask + Simulation

The light pattern will be repeated if we have more than 6 lights, so n = n % 6, n = 6 if n == 0.

Time complexity: O(m*2^6)
Space complexity: O(2^6)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 258. Add Digits

Given a non-negative integer num, repeatedly add all its digits until the result has only one digit.

Example:

Input: 38
Output: 2 
Explanation: The process is like: 3 + 8 = 11, 1 + 1 = 2. 
             Since 2 has only one digit, return it.

Follow up:
Could you do it without any loop/recursion in O(1) runtime?

Solution 1: Simulation

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Solution 2: Math

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_root#Congruence_formula

Digit root = num % 9 if num % 9 != 0 else min(num, 9) e.g. 0 or 9

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1366. Rank Teams by Votes

In a special ranking system, each voter gives a rank from highest to lowest to all teams participated in the competition.

The ordering of teams is decided by who received the most position-one votes. If two or more teams tie in the first position, we consider the second position to resolve the conflict, if they tie again, we continue this process until the ties are resolved. If two or more teams are still tied after considering all positions, we rank them alphabetically based on their team letter.

Given an array of strings votes which is the votes of all voters in the ranking systems. Sort all teams according to the ranking system described above.

Return a string of all teams sorted by the ranking system.

Example 1:

Input: votes = ["ABC","ACB","ABC","ACB","ACB"]
Output: "ACB"
Explanation: Team A was ranked first place by 5 voters. No other team was voted as first place so team A is the first team.
Team B was ranked second by 2 voters and was ranked third by 3 voters.
Team C was ranked second by 3 voters and was ranked third by 2 voters.
As most of the voters ranked C second, team C is the second team and team B is the third.

Example 2:

Input: votes = ["WXYZ","XYZW"]
Output: "XWYZ"
Explanation: X is the winner due to tie-breaking rule. X has same votes as W for the first position but X has one vote as second position while W doesn't have any votes as second position. 

Example 3:

Input: votes = ["ZMNAGUEDSJYLBOPHRQICWFXTVK"]
Output: "ZMNAGUEDSJYLBOPHRQICWFXTVK"
Explanation: Only one voter so his votes are used for the ranking.

Example 4:

Input: votes = ["BCA","CAB","CBA","ABC","ACB","BAC"]
Output: "ABC"
Explanation: 
Team A was ranked first by 2 voters, second by 2 voters and third by 2 voters.
Team B was ranked first by 2 voters, second by 2 voters and third by 2 voters.
Team C was ranked first by 2 voters, second by 2 voters and third by 2 voters.
There is a tie and we rank teams ascending by their IDs.

Example 5:

Input: votes = ["M","M","M","M"]
Output: "M"
Explanation: Only team M in the competition so it has the first rank.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= votes.length <= 1000
  • 1 <= votes[i].length <= 26
  • votes[i].length == votes[j].length for 0 <= i, j < votes.length.
  • votes[i][j] is an English upper-case letter.
  • All characters of votes[i] are unique.
  • All the characters that occur in votes[0] also occur in votes[j] where 1 <= j < votes.length.

Solution: Sort by rank

Time complexity: O(v*n + n^2*logn)
Space complexity: O(n*n)

C++