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Posts published in “Simulation”

花花酱 LeetCode 1716. Calculate Money in Leetcode Bank

Hercy wants to save money for his first car. He puts money in the Leetcode bank every day.

He starts by putting in $1 on Monday, the first day. Every day from Tuesday to Sunday, he will put in $1 more than the day before. On every subsequent Monday, he will put in $1 more than the previous Monday.

Given n, return the total amount of money he will have in the Leetcode bank at the end of the nth day.

Example 1:

Input: n = 4
Output: 10
Explanation: After the 4th day, the total is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10.

Example 2:

Input: n = 10
Output: 37
Explanation: After the 10th day, the total is (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7) + (2 + 3 + 4) = 37. Notice that on the 2nd Monday, Hercy only puts in $2.

Example 3:

Input: n = 20
Output: 96
Explanation: After the 20th day, the total is (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7) + (2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8) + (3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8) = 96.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 1000

Solution 1: Simulation

Increase the amount by 1 everyday, the decrease 6 after every sunday.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Could also be solved using Math in O(1)

花花酱 LeetCode 1706. Where Will the Ball Fall

You have a 2-D grid of size m x n representing a box, and you have n balls. The box is open on the top and bottom sides.

Each cell in the box has a diagonal board spanning two corners of the cell that can redirect a ball to the right or to the left.

  • A board that redirects the ball to the right spans the top-left corner to the bottom-right corner and is represented in the grid as 1.
  • A board that redirects the ball to the left spans the top-right corner to the bottom-left corner and is represented in the grid as -1.

We drop one ball at the top of each column of the box. Each ball can get stuck in the box or fall out of the bottom. A ball gets stuck if it hits a “V” shaped pattern between two boards or if a board redirects the ball into either wall of the box.

Return an array answer of size n where answer[i] is the column that the ball falls out of at the bottom after dropping the ball from the ith column at the top, or -1 if the ball gets stuck in the box.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[1,1,1,-1,-1],[1,1,1,-1,-1],[-1,-1,-1,1,1],[1,1,1,1,-1],[-1,-1,-1,-1,-1]]
Output: [1,-1,-1,-1,-1]
Explanation: This example is shown in the photo.
Ball b0 is dropped at column 0 and falls out of the box at column 1.
Ball b1 is dropped at column 1 and will get stuck in the box between column 2 and 3 and row 1.
Ball b2 is dropped at column 2 and will get stuck on the box between column 2 and 3 and row 0.
Ball b3 is dropped at column 3 and will get stuck on the box between column 2 and 3 and row 0.
Ball b4 is dropped at column 4 and will get stuck on the box between column 2 and 3 and row 1.

Example 2:

Input: grid = [[-1]]
Output: [-1]
Explanation: The ball gets stuck against the left wall.

Constraints:

  • m == grid.length
  • n == grid[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 100
  • grid[i][j] is 1 or -1.

Solution: Simulation

Figure out 4 conditions that the ball will get stuck.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1701. Average Waiting Time

There is a restaurant with a single chef. You are given an array customers, where customers[i] = [arrivali, timei]:

  • arrivali is the arrival time of the ith customer. The arrival times are sorted in non-decreasing order.
  • timei is the time needed to prepare the order of the ith customer.

When a customer arrives, he gives the chef his order, and the chef starts preparing it once he is idle. The customer waits till the chef finishes preparing his order. The chef does not prepare food for more than one customer at a time. The chef prepares food for customers in the order they were given in the input.

Return the average waiting time of all customers. Solutions within 10-5 from the actual answer are considered accepted.

Example 1:

Input: customers = [[1,2],[2,5],[4,3]]
Output: 5.00000
Explanation:
1) The first customer arrives at time 1, the chef takes his order and starts preparing it immediately at time 1, and finishes at time 3, so the waiting time of the first customer is 3 - 1 = 2.
2) The second customer arrives at time 2, the chef takes his order and starts preparing it at time 3, and finishes at time 8, so the waiting time of the second customer is 8 - 2 = 6.
3) The third customer arrives at time 4, the chef takes his order and starts preparing it at time 8, and finishes at time 11, so the waiting time of the third customer is 11 - 4 = 7.
So the average waiting time = (2 + 6 + 7) / 3 = 5.

Example 2:

Input: customers = [[5,2],[5,4],[10,3],[20,1]]
Output: 3.25000
Explanation:
1) The first customer arrives at time 5, the chef takes his order and starts preparing it immediately at time 5, and finishes at time 7, so the waiting time of the first customer is 7 - 5 = 2.
2) The second customer arrives at time 5, the chef takes his order and starts preparing it at time 7, and finishes at time 11, so the waiting time of the second customer is 11 - 5 = 6.
3) The third customer arrives at time 10, the chef takes his order and starts preparing it at time 11, and finishes at time 14, so the waiting time of the third customer is 14 - 10 = 4.
4) The fourth customer arrives at time 20, the chef takes his order and starts preparing it immediately at time 20, and finishes at time 21, so the waiting time of the fourth customer is 21 - 20 = 1.
So the average waiting time = (2 + 6 + 4 + 1) / 4 = 3.25.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= customers.length <= 105
  • 1 <= arrivali, timei <= 104
  • arrival<= arrivali+1

Solution: Simulation

When a customer arrives, if the arrival time is greater than current, then advance the clock to arrival time. Advance the clock by cooking time. Waiting time = current time – arrival time.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1700. Number of Students Unable to Eat Lunch

The school cafeteria offers circular and square sandwiches at lunch break, referred to by numbers 0 and 1 respectively. All students stand in a queue. Each student either prefers square or circular sandwiches.

The number of sandwiches in the cafeteria is equal to the number of students. The sandwiches are placed in a stack. At each step:

  • If the student at the front of the queue prefers the sandwich on the top of the stack, they will take it and leave the queue.
  • Otherwise, they will leave it and go to the queue’s end.

This continues until none of the queue students want to take the top sandwich and are thus unable to eat.

You are given two integer arrays students and sandwiches where sandwiches[i] is the type of the i​​​​​​th sandwich in the stack (i = 0 is the top of the stack) and students[j] is the preference of the j​​​​​​th student in the initial queue (j = 0 is the front of the queue). Return the number of students that are unable to eat.

Example 1:

Input: students = [1,1,0,0], sandwiches = [0,1,0,1]
Output: 0 
Explanation:
- Front student leaves the top sandwich and returns to the end of the line making students = [1,0,0,1].
- Front student leaves the top sandwich and returns to the end of the line making students = [0,0,1,1].
- Front student takes the top sandwich and leaves the line making students = [0,1,1] and sandwiches = [1,0,1].
- Front student leaves the top sandwich and returns to the end of the line making students = [1,1,0].
- Front student takes the top sandwich and leaves the line making students = [1,0] and sandwiches = [0,1].
- Front student leaves the top sandwich and returns to the end of the line making students = [0,1].
- Front student takes the top sandwich and leaves the line making students = [1] and sandwiches = [1].
- Front student takes the top sandwich and leaves the line making students = [] and sandwiches = [].
Hence all students are able to eat.

Example 2:

Input: students = [1,1,1,0,0,1], sandwiches = [1,0,0,0,1,1]
Output: 3

Constraints:

  • 1 <= students.length, sandwiches.length <= 100
  • students.length == sandwiches.length
  • sandwiches[i] is 0 or 1.
  • students[i] is 0 or 1.

Solution 1: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution 2: Counting

Count student’s preferences. Then process students from 1 to n, if there is no sandwich for current student then we can stop, since he/she will block all the students behind him/her.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1688. Count of Matches in Tournament

You are given an integer n, the number of teams in a tournament that has strange rules:

  • If the current number of teams is even, each team gets paired with another team. A total of n / 2 matches are played, and n / 2 teams advance to the next round.
  • If the current number of teams is odd, one team randomly advances in the tournament, and the rest gets paired. A total of (n - 1) / 2 matches are played, and (n - 1) / 2 + 1 teams advance to the next round.

Return the number of matches played in the tournament until a winner is decided.

Example 1:

Input: n = 7
Output: 6
Explanation: Details of the tournament: 
- 1st Round: Teams = 7, Matches = 3, and 4 teams advance.
- 2nd Round: Teams = 4, Matches = 2, and 2 teams advance.
- 3rd Round: Teams = 2, Matches = 1, and 1 team is declared the winner.
Total number of matches = 3 + 2 + 1 = 6.

Example 2:

Input: n = 14
Output: 13
Explanation: Details of the tournament:
- 1st Round: Teams = 14, Matches = 7, and 7 teams advance.
- 2nd Round: Teams = 7, Matches = 3, and 4 teams advance.
- 3rd Round: Teams = 4, Matches = 2, and 2 teams advance.
- 4th Round: Teams = 2, Matches = 1, and 1 team is declared the winner.
Total number of matches = 7 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 13.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 200

Solution: Simulation / Recursion

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++