# Posts published in “Simulation”

An ant is on a boundary. It sometimes goes left and sometimes right.

You are given an array of non-zero integers nums. The ant starts reading nums from the first element of it to its end. At each step, it moves according to the value of the current element:

• If nums[i] < 0, it moves left by -nums[i] units.
• If nums[i] > 0, it moves right by nums[i] units.

Return the number of times the ant returns to the boundary.

Notes:

• There is an infinite space on both sides of the boundary.
• We check whether the ant is on the boundary only after it has moved |nums[i]| units. In other words, if the ant crosses the boundary during its movement, it does not count.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [2,3,-5]
Output: 1
Explanation: After the first step, the ant is 2 steps to the right of the boundary.
After the second step, the ant is 5 steps to the right of the boundary.
After the third step, the ant is on the boundary.


Example 2:

Input: nums = [3,2,-3,-4]
Output: 0
Explanation: After the first step, the ant is 3 steps to the right of the boundary.
After the second step, the ant is 5 steps to the right of the boundary.
After the third step, the ant is 2 steps to the right of the boundary.
After the fourth step, the ant is 2 steps to the left of the boundary.
The ant never returned to the boundary, so the answer is 0.


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 100
• -10 <= nums[i] <= 10
• nums[i] != 0

## Solution: Simulation

Simulate the position of the ant by summing up the numbers. If the position is zero (at boundary), increase the answer by 1.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given two 0-indexed integer arrays player1 and player2, that represent the number of pins that player 1 and player 2 hit in a bowling game, respectively.

The bowling game consists of n turns, and the number of pins in each turn is exactly 10.

Assume a player hit xi pins in the ith turn. The value of the ith turn for the player is:

• 2xi if the player hit 10 pins in any of the previous two turns.
• Otherwise, It is xi.

The score of the player is the sum of the values of their n turns.

Return

• 1 if the score of player 1 is more than the score of player 2,
• 2 if the score of player 2 is more than the score of player 1, and
• 0 in case of a draw.

Example 1:

Input: player1 = [4,10,7,9], player2 = [6,5,2,3]
Output: 1
Explanation: The score of player1 is 4 + 10 + 2*7 + 2*9 = 46.
The score of player2 is 6 + 5 + 2 + 3 = 16.
Score of player1 is more than the score of player2, so, player1 is the winner, and the answer is 1.


Example 2:

Input: player1 = [3,5,7,6], player2 = [8,10,10,2]
Output: 2
Explanation: The score of player1 is 3 + 5 + 7 + 6 = 21.
The score of player2 is 8 + 10 + 2*10 + 2*2 = 42.
Score of player2 is more than the score of player1, so, player2 is the winner, and the answer is 2.


Example 3:

Input: player1 = [2,3], player2 = [4,1]
Output: 0
Explanation: The score of player1 is 2 + 3 = 5
The score of player2 is 4 + 1 = 5
The score of player1 equals to the score of player2, so, there is a draw, and the answer is 0.


Constraints:

• n == player1.length == player2.length
• 1 <= n <= 1000
• 0 <= player1[i], player2[i] <= 10

## Solution: Simulation

We can write a function to compute the score of a player.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given a 0-indexed m x n integer matrix grid. The width of a column is the maximum length of its integers.

• For example, if grid = [[-10], [3], [12]], the width of the only column is 3 since -10 is of length 3.

Return an integer array ans of size n where ans[i] is the width of the ith column.

The length of an integer x with len digits is equal to len if x is non-negative, and len + 1 otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[1],[22],[333]]
Output: [3]
Explanation: In the 0th column, 333 is of length 3.


Example 2:

Input: grid = [[-15,1,3],[15,7,12],[5,6,-2]]
Output: [3,1,2]
Explanation:
In the 0th column, only -15 is of length 3.
In the 1st column, all integers are of length 1.
In the 2nd column, both 12 and -2 are of length 2.


Constraints:

• m == grid.length
• n == grid[i].length
• 1 <= m, n <= 100
• -109 <= grid[r][c] <= 109

## Solution: Simulation

Note: width of ‘0’ is 1.

Time complexity: O(m*n*log(x))
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given two integers m and n representing a 0-indexed m x n grid. You are also given two 2D integer arrays guards and walls where guards[i] = [rowi, coli] and walls[j] = [rowj, colj] represent the positions of the ith guard and jth wall respectively.

A guard can see every cell in the four cardinal directions (north, east, south, or west) starting from their position unless obstructed by a wall or another guard. A cell is guarded if there is at least one guard that can see it.

Return the number of unoccupied cells that are not guarded.

Example 1:

Input: m = 4, n = 6, guards = [[0,0],[1,1],[2,3]], walls = [[0,1],[2,2],[1,4]]
Output: 7
Explanation: The guarded and unguarded cells are shown in red and green respectively in the above diagram.
There are a total of 7 unguarded cells, so we return 7.


Example 2:

Input: m = 3, n = 3, guards = [[1,1]], walls = [[0,1],[1,0],[2,1],[1,2]]
Output: 4
Explanation: The unguarded cells are shown in green in the above diagram.
There are a total of 4 unguarded cells, so we return 4.


Constraints:

• 1 <= m, n <= 105
• 2 <= m * n <= 105
• 1 <= guards.length, walls.length <= 5 * 104
• 2 <= guards.length + walls.length <= m * n
• guards[i].length == walls[j].length == 2
• 0 <= rowi, rowj < m
• 0 <= coli, colj < n
• All the positions in guards and walls are unique.

## Solution: Simulation

Enumerate each cell, for each guard, shoot rays to 4 directions, mark cells on the way to 1 and stop when hit a guard or a wall.

Time complexity: O(mn)
Space complexity: O(mn)

## C++

You are given a 0-indexed integer array nums, where nums[i] is a digit between 0 and 9 (inclusive).

The triangular sum of nums is the value of the only element present in nums after the following process terminates:

1. Let nums comprise of n elements. If n == 1end the process. Otherwise, create a new 0-indexed integer array newNums of length n - 1.
2. For each index i, where 0 <= i < n - 1assign the value of newNums[i] as (nums[i] + nums[i+1]) % 10, where % denotes modulo operator.
3. Replace the array nums with newNums.
4. Repeat the entire process starting from step 1.

Return the triangular sum of nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4,5]
Output: 8
Explanation:
The above diagram depicts the process from which we obtain the triangular sum of the array.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5]
Output: 5
Explanation:
Since there is only one element in nums, the triangular sum is the value of that element itself.

Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 1000
• 0 <= nums[i] <= 9

Solution 1: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n2)
Space complexity: O(n)