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Posts published in “Greedy”

花花酱 LeetCode 1665. Minimum Initial Energy to Finish Tasks

You are given an array tasks where tasks[i] = [actuali, minimumi]:

  • actuali is the actual amount of energy you spend to finish the ith task.
  • minimumi is the minimum amount of energy you require to begin the ith task.

For example, if the task is [10, 12] and your current energy is 11, you cannot start this task. However, if your current energy is 13, you can complete this task, and your energy will be 3 after finishing it.

You can finish the tasks in any order you like.

Return the minimum initial amount of energy you will need to finish all the tasks.

Example 1:

Input: tasks = [[1,2],[2,4],[4,8]]
Output: 8
Explanation:
Starting with 8 energy, we finish the tasks in the following order:
    - 3rd task. Now energy = 8 - 4 = 4.
    - 2nd task. Now energy = 4 - 2 = 2.
    - 1st task. Now energy = 2 - 1 = 1.
Notice that even though we have leftover energy, starting with 7 energy does not work because we cannot do the 3rd task.

Example 2:

Input: tasks = [[1,3],[2,4],[10,11],[10,12],[8,9]]
Output: 32
Explanation:
Starting with 32 energy, we finish the tasks in the following order:
    - 1st task. Now energy = 32 - 1 = 31.
    - 2nd task. Now energy = 31 - 2 = 29.
    - 3rd task. Now energy = 29 - 10 = 19.
    - 4th task. Now energy = 19 - 10 = 9.
    - 5th task. Now energy = 9 - 8 = 1.

Example 3:

Input: tasks = [[1,7],[2,8],[3,9],[4,10],[5,11],[6,12]]
Output: 27
Explanation:
Starting with 27 energy, we finish the tasks in the following order:
    - 5th task. Now energy = 27 - 5 = 22.
    - 2nd task. Now energy = 22 - 2 = 20.
    - 3rd task. Now energy = 20 - 3 = 17.
    - 1st task. Now energy = 17 - 1 = 16.
    - 4th task. Now energy = 16 - 4 = 12.
    - 6th task. Now energy = 12 - 6 = 6.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= tasks.length <= 105
  • 1 <= actual​i <= minimumi <= 104

Solution: Greedy + Binary Search

Sort tasks by actual – min in ascending order, this will be the order we finish those tasks. Use binary search to check whether a given initial energy works or not. Note, the binary search part is unnecessary.

Time complexity: O(nlogn + nlogk)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1663. Smallest String With A Given Numeric Value

The numeric value of a lowercase character is defined as its position (1-indexed) in the alphabet, so the numeric value of a is 1, the numeric value of b is 2, the numeric value of c is 3, and so on.

The numeric value of a string consisting of lowercase characters is defined as the sum of its characters’ numeric values. For example, the numeric value of the string "abe" is equal to 1 + 2 + 5 = 8.

You are given two integers n and k. Return the lexicographically smallest string with length equal to n and numeric value equal to k.

Note that a string x is lexicographically smaller than string y if x comes before y in dictionary order, that is, either x is a prefix of y, or if i is the first position such that x[i] != y[i], then x[i] comes before y[i] in alphabetic order.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, k = 27
Output: "aay"
Explanation: The numeric value of the string is 1 + 1 + 25 = 27, and it is the smallest string with such a value and length equal to 3.

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, k = 73
Output: "aaszz"

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • n <= k <= 26 * n

Solution: Greedy, Fill in reverse order

Fill the entire string with ‘a’, k-=n, then fill in reverse order, replace ‘a’ with ‘z’ until not enough k left.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1648. Sell Diminishing-Valued Colored Balls

You have an inventory of different colored balls, and there is a customer that wants orders balls of any color.

The customer weirdly values the colored balls. Each colored ball’s value is the number of balls of that color you currently have in your inventory. For example, if you own 6 yellow balls, the customer would pay 6 for the first yellow ball. After the transaction, there are only 5 yellow balls left, so the next yellow ball is then valued at 5 (i.e., the value of the balls decreases as you sell more to the customer).

You are given an integer array, inventory, where inventory[i] represents the number of balls of the ith color that you initially own. You are also given an integer orders, which represents the total number of balls that the customer wants. You can sell the balls in any order.

Return the maximum total value that you can attain after selling orders colored balls. As the answer may be too large, return it modulo 10+ 7.

Example 1:

Input: inventory = [2,5], orders = 4
Output: 14
Explanation: Sell the 1st color 1 time (2) and the 2nd color 3 times (5 + 4 + 3).
The maximum total value is 2 + 5 + 4 + 3 = 14.

Example 2:

Input: inventory = [3,5], orders = 6
Output: 19
Explanation: Sell the 1st color 2 times (3 + 2) and the 2nd color 4 times (5 + 4 + 3 + 2).
The maximum total value is 3 + 2 + 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 = 19.

Example 3:

Input: inventory = [2,8,4,10,6], orders = 20
Output: 110

Example 4:

Input: inventory = [1000000000], orders = 1000000000
Output: 21
Explanation: Sell the 1st color 1000000000 times for a total value of 500000000500000000. 500000000500000000 modulo 109 + 7 = 21.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= inventory.length <= 105
  • 1 <= inventory[i] <= 109
  • 1 <= orders <= min(sum(inventory[i]), 109)

Solution: Greedy

  1. Sort the colors by # of balls in descending order.
    e.g. 3 7 5 1 => 7 5 3 1
  2. Sell the color with largest number of balls until it has the same number of balls of next color
    1. 7 5 3 1 => 6 5 3 1 => 5 5 3 1 # value = 7 + 6 = 13
    2. 5 5 3 1 => 4 4 3 1 => 3 3 3 1 # value = 13 + (5 + 4) * 2 = 31
    3. 3 3 3 1 => 2 2 2 1 => 1 1 1 1 # value = 31 + (3 + 2) * 3 = 46
    4. 1 1 1 1 => 0 0 0 0 # value = 46 + 1 * 4 = 50
  3. Need to handle the case if orders < total balls…

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1616. Split Two Strings to Make Palindrome

You are given two strings a and b of the same length. Choose an index and split both strings at the same index, splitting a into two strings: aprefix and asuffix where a = aprefix + asuffix, and splitting b into two strings: bprefix and bsuffix where b = bprefix + bsuffix. Check if aprefix + bsuffix or bprefix + asuffix forms a palindrome.

When you split a string s into sprefix and ssuffix, either ssuffix or sprefix is allowed to be empty. For example, if s = "abc", then "" + "abc""a" + "bc""ab" + "c" , and "abc" + "" are valid splits.

Return true if it is possible to form a palindrome string, otherwise return false.

Notice that x + y denotes the concatenation of strings x and y.

Example 1:

Input: a = "x", b = "y"
Output: true
Explaination: If either a or b are palindromes the answer is true since you can split in the following way:
aprefix = "", asuffix = "x"
bprefix = "", bsuffix = "y"
Then, aprefix + bsuffix = "" + "y" = "y", which is a palindrome.

Example 2:

Input: a = "abdef", b = "fecab"
Output: true

Example 3:

Input: a = "ulacfd", b = "jizalu"
Output: true
Explaination: Split them at index 3:
aprefix = "ula", asuffix = "cfd"
bprefix = "jiz", bsuffix = "alu"
Then, aprefix + bsuffix = "ula" + "alu" = "ulaalu", which is a palindrome.

Example 4:

Input: a = "xbdef", b = "xecab"
Output: false

Constraints:

  • 1 <= a.length, b.length <= 105
  • a.length == b.length
  • a and b consist of lowercase English letters

Solution: Greedy

Try to match the prefix of A and suffix of B (or the other way) as much as possible and then check whether the remaining part is a palindrome or not.

e.g. A = “abcxyzzz”, B = “uuuvvcba”
A’s prefix abc matches B’s suffix cba
We just need to check whether “xy” or “vv” is palindrome or not.
The concatenated string “abc|vvcba” is a palindrome, left abc is from A and vvcba is from B.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1605. Find Valid Matrix Given Row and Column Sums

You are given two arrays rowSum and colSum of non-negative integers where rowSum[i] is the sum of the elements in the ith row and colSum[j] is the sum of the elements of the jth column of a 2D matrix. In other words, you do not know the elements of the matrix, but you do know the sums of each row and column.

Find any matrix of non-negative integers of size rowSum.length x colSum.length that satisfies the rowSum and colSum requirements.

Return a 2D array representing any matrix that fulfills the requirements. It’s guaranteed that at least one matrix that fulfills the requirements exists.

Example 1:

Input: rowSum = [3,8], colSum = [4,7]
Output: [[3,0],
         [1,7]]
Explanation:
0th row: 3 + 0 = 0 == rowSum[0]
1st row: 1 + 7 = 8 == rowSum[1]
0th column: 3 + 1 = 4 == colSum[0]
1st column: 0 + 7 = 7 == colSum[1]
The row and column sums match, and all matrix elements are non-negative.
Another possible matrix is: [[1,2],
                             [3,5]]

Example 2:

Input: rowSum = [5,7,10], colSum = [8,6,8]
Output: [[0,5,0],
         [6,1,0],
         [2,0,8]]

Example 3:

Input: rowSum = [14,9], colSum = [6,9,8]
Output: [[0,9,5],
         [6,0,3]]

Example 4:

Input: rowSum = [1,0], colSum = [1]
Output: [[1],
         [0]]

Example 5:

Input: rowSum = [0], colSum = [0]
Output: [[0]]

Constraints:

  • 1 <= rowSum.length, colSum.length <= 500
  • 0 <= rowSum[i], colSum[i] <= 108
  • sum(rows) == sum(columns)

Solution: Greedy

Let a = min(row[i], col[j]), m[i][j] = a, row[i] -= a, col[j] -=a

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++