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Posts tagged as “combination”

花花酱 LeetCode 1467. Probability of a Two Boxes Having The Same Number of Distinct Balls

Given 2n balls of k distinct colors. You will be given an integer array balls of size k where balls[i] is the number of balls of color i

All the balls will be shuffled uniformly at random, then we will distribute the first n balls to the first box and the remaining n balls to the other box (Please read the explanation of the second example carefully).

Please note that the two boxes are considered different. For example, if we have two balls of colors a and b, and two boxes [] and (), then the distribution [a] (b) is considered different than the distribution [b] (a) (Please read the explanation of the first example carefully).

We want to calculate the probability that the two boxes have the same number of distinct balls.

Example 1:

Input: balls = [1,1]
Output: 1.00000
Explanation: Only 2 ways to divide the balls equally:
- A ball of color 1 to box 1 and a ball of color 2 to box 2
- A ball of color 2 to box 1 and a ball of color 1 to box 2
In both ways, the number of distinct colors in each box is equal. The probability is 2/2 = 1

Example 2:

Input: balls = [2,1,1]
Output: 0.66667
Explanation: We have the set of balls [1, 1, 2, 3]
This set of balls will be shuffled randomly and we may have one of the 12 distinct shuffles with equale probability (i.e. 1/12):
[1,1 / 2,3], [1,1 / 3,2], [1,2 / 1,3], [1,2 / 3,1], [1,3 / 1,2], [1,3 / 2,1], [2,1 / 1,3], [2,1 / 3,1], [2,3 / 1,1], [3,1 / 1,2], [3,1 / 2,1], [3,2 / 1,1]
After that we add the first two balls to the first box and the second two balls to the second box.
We can see that 8 of these 12 possible random distributions have the same number of distinct colors of balls in each box.
Probability is 8/12 = 0.66667

Example 3:

Input: balls = [1,2,1,2]
Output: 0.60000
Explanation: The set of balls is [1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4]. It is hard to display all the 180 possible random shuffles of this set but it is easy to check that 108 of them will have the same number of distinct colors in each box.
Probability = 108 / 180 = 0.6

Example 4:

Input: balls = [3,2,1]
Output: 0.30000
Explanation: The set of balls is [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3]. It is hard to display all the 60 possible random shuffles of this set but it is easy to check that 18 of them will have the same number of distinct colors in each box.
Probability = 18 / 60 = 0.3

Example 5:

Input: balls = [6,6,6,6,6,6]
Output: 0.90327

Constraints:

  • 1 <= balls.length <= 8
  • 1 <= balls[i] <= 6
  • sum(balls) is even.
  • Answers within 10^-5 of the actual value will be accepted as correct.

Solution 0: Permutation (TLE)

Enumerate all permutations of the balls, count valid ones and divide that by the total.

Time complexity: O((8*6)!) = O(48!)
After deduplication: O(48!/(6!)^8) ~ 1.7e38
Space complexity: O(8*6)

C++

Solution 1: Combination

For each color, put n_i balls into box1, the left t_i – n_i balls go to box2.
permutations = fact(n//2) / PROD(fact(n_i)) * fact(n//2) * PROD(fact(t_i – n_i))
E.g
balls = [1×2, 2×6, 3×4]
One possible combination:
box1: 1 22 333
box2: 1 2222 3
permutations = 6! / (1! * 2! * 3!) * 6! / (1! * 4! * 1!) = 1800

Time complexity: O((t+1)^k) = O(7^8)
Space complexity: O(k + (t*k)) = O(8 + 48)

C++

vector version

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1411. Number of Ways to Paint N × 3 Grid

You have a grid of size n x 3 and you want to paint each cell of the grid with exactly one of the three colours: RedYellow or Green while making sure that no two adjacent cells have the same colour (i.e no two cells that share vertical or horizontal sides have the same colour).

You are given n the number of rows of the grid.

Return the number of ways you can paint this grid. As the answer may grow large, the answer must be computed modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 1
Output: 12
Explanation: There are 12 possible way to paint the grid as shown:

Example 2:

Input: n = 2
Output: 54

Example 3:

Input: n = 3
Output: 246

Example 4:

Input: n = 7
Output: 106494

Example 5:

Input: n = 5000
Output: 30228214

Constraints:

  • n == grid.length
  • grid[i].length == 3
  • 1 <= n <= 5000

Solution: DP

dp[i][0] := # of ways to paint i rows with 2 different colors at the i-th row
dp[i][1] := # of ways to paint i rows with 3 different colors at the i-th row
dp[1][0] = dp[1][1] = 6
dp[i][0] = dp[i-1][0] * 3 + dp[i-1][1] * 2
dp[i][1] = dp[i-1][0] * 2 + dp[i-1][1] * 2

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Python3

Solution 2: DP w/ Matrix Chain Multiplication

ans = {6, 6} * {{3, 2}, {2,2}} ^ (n-1)

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1359. Count All Valid Pickup and Delivery Options

Given n orders, each order consist in pickup and delivery services. 

Count all valid pickup/delivery possible sequences such that delivery(i) is always after of pickup(i). 

Since the answer may be too large, return it modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 1
Output: 1
Explanation: Unique order (P1, D1), Delivery 1 always is after of Pickup 1.

Example 2:

Input: n = 2
Output: 6
Explanation: All possible orders: 
(P1,P2,D1,D2), (P1,P2,D2,D1), (P1,D1,P2,D2), (P2,P1,D1,D2), (P2,P1,D2,D1) and (P2,D2,P1,D1).
This is an invalid order (P1,D2,P2,D1) because Pickup 2 is after of Delivery 2.

Example 3:

Input: n = 3
Output: 90

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 500

Solution: Combination

Let dp[i] denote the number of valid sequence of i nodes.

For i-1 nodes, the sequence length is 2(i-1).
For the i-th nodes,
If we put Pi at index = 0, then we can put Di at 1, 2, …, 2i – 2 => 2i-1 options.
If we put Pi at index = 1, then we can put Di at 2,3,…, 2i – 2 => 2i – 2 options.

If we put Pi at index = 2i-1, then we can put Di at 2i – 1=> 1 option.
There are total (2i – 1 + 1) / 2 * (2i – 1) = i * (2*i – 1) options

dp[i] = dp[i – 1] * i * (2*i – 1)

or

dp[i] = 2n! / 2^n

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1255. Maximum Score Words Formed by Letters

Given a list of words, list of  single letters (might be repeating) and score of every character.

Return the maximum score of any valid set of words formed by using the given letters (words[i] cannot be used two or more times).

It is not necessary to use all characters in letters and each letter can only be used once. Score of letters 'a''b''c', … ,'z' is given by score[0]score[1], … , score[25] respectively.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["dog","cat","dad","good"], letters = ["a","a","c","d","d","d","g","o","o"], score = [1,0,9,5,0,0,3,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,2,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
Output: 23
Explanation:
Score  a=1, c=9, d=5, g=3, o=2
Given letters, we can form the words "dad" (5+1+5) and "good" (3+2+2+5) with a score of 23.
Words "dad" and "dog" only get a score of 21.

Example 2:

Input: words = ["xxxz","ax","bx","cx"], letters = ["z","a","b","c","x","x","x"], score = [4,4,4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,5,0,10]
Output: 27
Explanation:
Score  a=4, b=4, c=4, x=5, z=10
Given letters, we can form the words "ax" (4+5), "bx" (4+5) and "cx" (4+5) with a score of 27.
Word "xxxz" only get a score of 25.

Example 3:

Input: words = ["leetcode"], letters = ["l","e","t","c","o","d"], score = [0,0,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,0,0,0]
Output: 0
Explanation:
Letter "e" can only be used once.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= words.length <= 14
  • 1 <= words[i].length <= 15
  • 1 <= letters.length <= 100
  • letters[i].length == 1
  • score.length == 26
  • 0 <= score[i] <= 10
  • words[i]letters[i] contains only lower case English letters.

Solution: Combination

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1239. Maximum Length of a Concatenated String with Unique Characters

Given an array of strings arr. String s is a concatenation of a sub-sequence of arr which have unique characters.

Return the maximum possible length of s.

Example 1:

Input: arr = ["un","iq","ue"]
Output: 4
Explanation: All possible concatenations are "","un","iq","ue","uniq" and "ique".
Maximum length is 4.

Example 2:

Input: arr = ["cha","r","act","ers"]
Output: 6
Explanation: Possible solutions are "chaers" and "acters".

Example 3:

Input: arr = ["abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"]
Output: 26

Constraints:

  • 1 <= arr.length <= 16
  • 1 <= arr[i].length <= 26
  • arr[i] contains only lower case English letters.

Solution: Combination + Bit

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution 2: DP

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(2^n)

C++