# Posts tagged as “combination”

Given a set of distinct integers, nums, return all possible subsets (the power set).

Note: The solution set must not contain duplicate subsets.

Example:

Input: nums = [1,2,3]Output:[  [3],  [1],  [2],  [1,2,3],  [1,3],  [2,3],  [1,2],  []]

# Solution: Combination

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(n)

# 0-1 Knapsack Problem 0-1背包问题

## Problem

Given N items, w[i] is the weight of the i-th item and v[i] is value of the i-th item. Given a knapsack with capacity W. Maximize the total value. Each item can be use 0 or 1 time.

0-1背包问题的通常定义是：一共有N件物品，第i件物品的重量为w[i]，价值为v[i]。在总重量不超过背包承载上限W的情况下，能够获得的最大价值是多少？每件物品可以使用0次或者1次

# Problem

Given an integer array A, and an integer target, return the number of tuples i, j, k  such that i < j < k and A[i] + A[j] + A[k] == target.

As the answer can be very large, return it modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: A = [1,1,2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5], target = 8
Output: 20
Explanation:
Enumerating by the values (A[i], A[j], A[k]):
(1, 2, 5) occurs 8 times;
(1, 3, 4) occurs 8 times;
(2, 2, 4) occurs 2 times;
(2, 3, 3) occurs 2 times.


Example 2:

Input: A = [1,1,2,2,2,2], target = 5
Output: 12
Explanation:
A[i] = 1, A[j] = A[k] = 2 occurs 12 times:
We choose one 1 from [1,1] in 2 ways,
and two 2s from [2,2,2,2] in 6 ways.


Note:

1. 3 <= A.length <= 3000
2. 0 <= A[i] <= 100
3. 0 <= target <= 300

# Solution: Math / Combination

Time complexity: O(n + |target|^2)

Space complexity: O(|target|)

# Problem

Your music player contains N different songs and she wants to listen to L (not necessarily different) songs during your trip.  You create a playlist so that:

• Every song is played at least once
• A song can only be played again only if K other songs have been played

Return the number of possible playlists.  As the answer can be very large, return it modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: N = 3, L = 3, K = 1
Output: 6
Explanation: There are 6 possible playlists. [1, 2, 3], [1, 3, 2], [2, 1, 3], [2, 3, 1], [3, 1, 2], [3, 2, 1].


Example 2:

Input: N = 2, L = 3, K = 0
Output: 6
Explanation: There are 6 possible playlists. [1, 1, 2], [1, 2, 1], [2, 1, 1], [2, 2, 1], [2, 1, 2], [1, 2, 2]


Example 3:

Input: N = 2, L = 3, K = 1
Output: 2
Explanation: There are 2 possible playlists. [1, 2, 1], [2, 1, 2]


Note:

1. 0 <= K < N <= L <= 100

# Solution: DP

dp[i][j] := # of playlists of length i using j different songs.

dp[i][j] = dp[i – 1][j – 1] * (N – (j – 1))  +  // Adding a new song. j – 1 used, choose any one from (N – (j – 1)) unused.
dp[i -1][j] * max(j – K, 0)         // Reuse an existing song.

Time complexity: O(LN)

Space complexity: O(LN) -> O(N)

# Problem

We have a sorted set of digits D, a non-empty subset of {'1','2','3','4','5','6','7','8','9'}.  (Note that '0' is not included.)

Now, we write numbers using these digits, using each digit as many times as we want.  For example, if D = {'1','3','5'}, we may write numbers such as '13', '551', '1351315'.

Return the number of positive integers that can be written (using the digits of D) that are less than or equal to N.

Example 1:

Input: D = ["1","3","5","7"], N = 100
Output: 20
Explanation:
The 20 numbers that can be written are:
1, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 15, 17, 31, 33, 35, 37, 51, 53, 55, 57, 71, 73, 75, 77.


Example 2:

Input: D = ["1","4","9"], N = 1000000000
Output: 29523
Explanation:
We can write 3 one digit numbers, 9 two digit numbers, 27 three digit numbers,
81 four digit numbers, 243 five digit numbers, 729 six digit numbers,
2187 seven digit numbers, 6561 eight digit numbers, and 19683 nine digit numbers.
In total, this is 29523 integers that can be written using the digits of D.

Note:

1. D is a subset of digits '1'-'9' in sorted order.
2. 1 <= N <= 10^9

# Solution -1: DFS (TLE)

Time complexity: O(|D|^log10(N))

Space complexity: O(n)

# Solution 1: Math

Time complexity: O(log10(N))

Space complexity: O(1)

Suppose N has n digits.

### less than n digits

We can use all the numbers from D to construct numbers of with length 1,2,…,n-1 which are guaranteed to be less than N.

e.g. n = 52125, D = [1, 2, 5]

format X: e.g. 1, 2, 5 counts = |D| ^ 1

format XX: e.g. 11,12,15,21,22,25,51,52,55, counts = |D|^2

format XXX:  counts = |D|^3

format XXXX: counts = |D|^4

### exact n digits

if all numbers in D  != N[0], counts = |d < N[0] | d in D| * |D|^(n-1), and we are done.

e.g. N = 34567, D = [1,2,8]

we can make:

• X |3|^1
• XX |3| ^ 2
• XXX |3| ^ 3
• XXXX |3| ^ 3
• 1XXXX, |3|^4
• 2XXXX, |3|^4
• we can’t do 8XXXX

Total = (3^1 + 3^2 + 3^3 + 3^4) + 2 * |3|^ 4 = 120 + 162 = 282

N = 52525, D = [1,2,5]

However, if d = N[i], we need to check the next digit…

• X |3|^1
• XX |3| ^ 2
• XXX |3| ^ 3
• XXXX |3| ^ 3
• 1XXXX, |3|^4
• 2XXXX, |3|^4
•  5????
• 51XXX |3|^3
• 52???
• 521XX |3|^2
• 522XX |3|^2
• 525??
• 5251X |3|^1
• 5252?
• 52521 |3|^0
• 52522 |3|^0
• 52525 +1

total = (120) + 2 * |3|^4 + |3|^3 + 2*|3|^2 + |3|^1 + 2 * |3|^0 + 1 = 120 + 213 = 333

if every digit of N is from D, then we also have a valid solution, thus need to + 1.

## Python3

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