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Posts tagged as “combination”

花花酱 LeetCode 1286. Iterator for Combination

Design an Iterator class, which has:

  • A constructor that takes a string characters of sorted distinct lowercase English letters and a number combinationLength as arguments.
  • A function next() that returns the next combination of length combinationLength in lexicographical order.
  • A function hasNext() that returns True if and only if there exists a next combination.

Example:

CombinationIterator iterator = new CombinationIterator("abc", 2); // creates the iterator.

iterator.next(); // returns "ab"
iterator.hasNext(); // returns true
iterator.next(); // returns "ac"
iterator.hasNext(); // returns true
iterator.next(); // returns "bc"
iterator.hasNext(); // returns false

Constraints:

  • 1 <= combinationLength <= characters.length <= 15
  • There will be at most 10^4 function calls per test.
  • It’s guaranteed that all calls of the function next are valid.

Solution: Bitmask

Use a bitmask to represent the chars selected.
start with (2^n – 1), decrease the mask until there are c bit set.
stop when mask reach to 0.

mask: 111 => abc
mask: 110 => ab
mask: 101 => ac
mask: 011 => bc
mask: 000 => “” Done

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1621. Number of Sets of K Non-Overlapping Line Segments

Given n points on a 1-D plane, where the ith point (from 0 to n-1) is at x = i, find the number of ways we can draw exactly k non-overlapping line segments such that each segment covers two or more points. The endpoints of each segment must have integral coordinates. The k line segments do not have to cover all n points, and they are allowed to share endpoints.

Return the number of ways we can draw k non-overlapping line segments. Since this number can be huge, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 4, k = 2
Output: 5
Explanation: 
The two line segments are shown in red and blue.
The image above shows the 5 different ways {(0,2),(2,3)}, {(0,1),(1,3)}, {(0,1),(2,3)}, {(1,2),(2,3)}, {(0,1),(1,2)}.

Example 2:

Input: n = 3, k = 1
Output: 3
Explanation: The 3 ways are {(0,1)}, {(0,2)}, {(1,2)}.

Example 3:

Input: n = 30, k = 7
Output: 796297179
Explanation: The total number of possible ways to draw 7 line segments is 3796297200. Taking this number modulo 109 + 7 gives us 796297179.

Example 4:

Input: n = 5, k = 3
Output: 7

Example 5:

Input: n = 3, k = 2
Output: 1

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 1000
  • 1 <= k <= n-1

Solution 1: Naive DP (TLE)

dp[n][k] := ans of problem(n, k)
dp[n][1] = n * (n – 1) / 2 # C(n,2)
dp[n][k] = 1 if k == n – 1
dp[n][k] = 0 if k >= n
dp[n][k] = sum((i – 1) * dp(n – i + 1, k – 1) 2 <= i < n

Time complexity: O(n^2*k)
Space complexity: O(n*k)

C++

Solution 2: DP w/ Prefix Sum

Time complexity: O(nk)
Space complexity: O(nk)

Python3

Solution 3: DP / 3D State

Time complexity: O(nk)
Space complexity: O(nk)

Python3

Solution 4: DP / Mathematical induction

Time complexity: O(nk)
Space complexity: O(nk)

Python3

Solution 5: DP / Reduction

This problem can be reduced to: given n + k – 1 points, pick k segments (2*k points).
if two consecutive points were selected by two segments e.g. i for A and i+1 for B, then they share a point in the original space.
Answer C(n + k – 1, 2*k)

Time complexity: O((n+k)*2) Pascal’s triangle
Space complexity: O((n+k)*2)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1601. Maximum Number of Achievable Transfer Requests

We have n buildings numbered from 0 to n - 1. Each building has a number of employees. It’s transfer season, and some employees want to change the building they reside in.

You are given an array requests where requests[i] = [fromi, toi] represents an employee’s request to transfer from building fromi to building toi.

All buildings are full, so a list of requests is achievable only if for each building, the net change in employee transfers is zero. This means the number of employees leaving is equal to the number of employees moving in. For example if n = 3 and two employees are leaving building 0, one is leaving building 1, and one is leaving building 2, there should be two employees moving to building 0, one employee moving to building 1, and one employee moving to building 2.

Return the maximum number of achievable requests.

Example 1:

Input: n = 5, requests = [[0,1],[1,0],[0,1],[1,2],[2,0],[3,4]]
Output: 5
Explantion: Let's see the requests:
From building 0 we have employees x and y and both want to move to building 1.
From building 1 we have employees a and b and they want to move to buildings 2 and 0 respectively.
From building 2 we have employee z and they want to move to building 0.
From building 3 we have employee c and they want to move to building 4.
From building 4 we don't have any requests.
We can achieve the requests of users x and b by swapping their places.
We can achieve the requests of users y, a and z by swapping the places in the 3 buildings.

Example 2:

Input: n = 3, requests = [[0,0],[1,2],[2,1]]
Output: 3
Explantion: Let's see the requests:
From building 0 we have employee x and they want to stay in the same building 0.
From building 1 we have employee y and they want to move to building 2.
From building 2 we have employee z and they want to move to building 1.
We can achieve all the requests. 

Example 3:

Input: n = 4, requests = [[0,3],[3,1],[1,2],[2,0]]
Output: 4

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 20
  • 1 <= requests.length <= 16
  • requests[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= fromi, toi < n

Solution: Combination

Try all combinations: O(2^n * (r + n))
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1593. Split a String Into the Max Number of Unique Substrings

Given a string s, return the maximum number of unique substrings that the given string can be split into.

You can split string s into any list of non-empty substrings, where the concatenation of the substrings forms the original string. However, you must split the substrings such that all of them are unique.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within a string.

Example 1:

Input: s = "ababccc"
Output: 5
Explanation: One way to split maximally is ['a', 'b', 'ab', 'c', 'cc']. Splitting like ['a', 'b', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'cc'] is not valid as you have 'a' and 'b' multiple times.

Example 2:

Input: s = "aba"
Output: 2
Explanation: One way to split maximally is ['a', 'ba'].

Example 3:

Input: s = "aa"
Output: 1
Explanation: It is impossible to split the string any further.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length <= 16
  • s contains only lower case English letters.

Solution: Brute Force

Try all combinations.
Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(n)

Iterative/C++

DFS/C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1577. Number of Ways Where Square of Number Is Equal to Product of Two Numbers

Given two arrays of integers nums1 and nums2, return the number of triplets formed (type 1 and type 2) under the following rules:

  • Type 1: Triplet (i, j, k) if nums1[i]2 == nums2[j] * nums2[k] where 0 <= i < nums1.length and 0 <= j < k < nums2.length.
  • Type 2: Triplet (i, j, k) if nums2[i]2 == nums1[j] * nums1[k] where 0 <= i < nums2.length and 0 <= j < k < nums1.length.

Example 1:

Input: nums1 = [7,4], nums2 = [5,2,8,9]
Output: 1
Explanation: Type 1: (1,1,2), nums1[1]^2 = nums2[1] * nums2[2]. (4^2 = 2 * 8). 

Example 2:

Input: nums1 = [1,1], nums2 = [1,1,1]
Output: 9
Explanation: All Triplets are valid, because 1^2 = 1 * 1.
Type 1: (0,0,1), (0,0,2), (0,1,2), (1,0,1), (1,0,2), (1,1,2).  nums1[i]^2 = nums2[j] * nums2[k].
Type 2: (0,0,1), (1,0,1), (2,0,1). nums2[i]^2 = nums1[j] * nums1[k].

Example 3:

Input: nums1 = [7,7,8,3], nums2 = [1,2,9,7]
Output: 2
Explanation: There are 2 valid triplets.
Type 1: (3,0,2).  nums1[3]^2 = nums2[0] * nums2[2].
Type 2: (3,0,1).  nums2[3]^2 = nums1[0] * nums1[1].

Example 4:

Input: nums1 = [4,7,9,11,23], nums2 = [3,5,1024,12,18]
Output: 0
Explanation: There are no valid triplets.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums1.length, nums2.length <= 1000
  • 1 <= nums1[i], nums2[i] <= 10^5

Solution: Hashtable

For each number y in the second array, count its frequency.

For each number x in the first, if x * x % y == 0, let r = x * x / y
if r == y: ans += f[y] * f[y-1]
else ans += f[y] * f[r]

Final ans /= 2

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++