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Posts tagged as “greedy”

花花酱 LeetCode 2242. Maximum Score of a Node Sequence

There is an undirected graph with n nodes, numbered from 0 to n - 1.

You are given a 0-indexed integer array scores of length n where scores[i] denotes the score of node i. You are also given a 2D integer array edges where edges[i] = [ai, bi] denotes that there exists an undirected edge connecting nodes ai and bi.

A node sequence is valid if it meets the following conditions:

  • There is an edge connecting every pair of adjacent nodes in the sequence.
  • No node appears more than once in the sequence.

The score of a node sequence is defined as the sum of the scores of the nodes in the sequence.

Return the maximum score of a valid node sequence with a length of 4If no such sequence exists, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: scores = [5,2,9,8,4], edges = [[0,1],[1,2],[2,3],[0,2],[1,3],[2,4]]
Output: 24
Explanation: The figure above shows the graph and the chosen node sequence [0,1,2,3].
The score of the node sequence is 5 + 2 + 9 + 8 = 24.
It can be shown that no other node sequence has a score of more than 24.
Note that the sequences [3,1,2,0] and [1,0,2,3] are also valid and have a score of 24.
The sequence [0,3,2,4] is not valid since no edge connects nodes 0 and 3.

Example 2:

Input: scores = [9,20,6,4,11,12], edges = [[0,3],[5,3],[2,4],[1,3]]
Output: -1
Explanation: The figure above shows the graph.
There are no valid node sequences of length 4, so we return -1.

Constraints:

  • n == scores.length
  • 4 <= n <= 5 * 104
  • 1 <= scores[i] <= 108
  • 0 <= edges.length <= 5 * 104
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= ai, bi <= n - 1
  • ai != bi
  • There are no duplicate edges.

Solution: Greedy / Top3 neighbors

Since |E| is already 5*104, we can’t enumerate all possible sequences. We must do in O(|E|) or O(|E|log|E|).

Enumerate all the edges, we have a pair of node a, b. To get the optimal answer, we just need to find the largest neighbor of a and b, which we call c, d respectively. Just need to make sure a, b, c, d are unique. i.e. c != d, c != b and d != a. Since the a’s largest neighbor can be either b or d. We can’t just store the largest neighbor, but top 3 instead for each node to avoid duplications.

Time complexity: O(|E|*9)
Space complexity: O(|V|*3)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2233. Maximum Product After K Increments

You are given an array of non-negative integers nums and an integer k. In one operation, you may choose any element from nums and increment it by 1.

Return the maximum product of nums after at most k operations. Since the answer may be very large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [0,4], k = 5
Output: 20
Explanation: Increment the first number 5 times.
Now nums = [5, 4], with a product of 5 * 4 = 20.
It can be shown that 20 is maximum product possible, so we return 20.
Note that there may be other ways to increment nums to have the maximum product.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [6,3,3,2], k = 2
Output: 216
Explanation: Increment the second number 1 time and increment the fourth number 1 time.
Now nums = [6, 4, 3, 3], with a product of 6 * 4 * 3 * 3 = 216.
It can be shown that 216 is maximum product possible, so we return 216.
Note that there may be other ways to increment nums to have the maximum product.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length, k <= 105
  • 0 <= nums[i] <= 106

Solution: priority queue

Always increment the smallest number. Proof?

Time complexity: O(klogn + nlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2224. Minimum Number of Operations to Convert Time

You are given two strings current and correct representing two 24-hour times.

24-hour times are formatted as "HH:MM", where HH is between 00 and 23, and MM is between 00 and 59. The earliest 24-hour time is 00:00, and the latest is 23:59.

In one operation you can increase the time current by 1515, or 60 minutes. You can perform this operation any number of times.

Return the minimum number of operations needed to convert current to correct.

Example 1:

Input: current = "02:30", correct = "04:35"
Output: 3
Explanation:
We can convert current to correct in 3 operations as follows:
- Add 60 minutes to current. current becomes "03:30".
- Add 60 minutes to current. current becomes "04:30".
- Add 5 minutes to current. current becomes "04:35".
It can be proven that it is not possible to convert current to correct in fewer than 3 operations.

Example 2:

Input: current = "11:00", correct = "11:01"
Output: 1
Explanation: We only have to add one minute to current, so the minimum number of operations needed is 1.

Constraints:

  • current and correct are in the format "HH:MM"
  • current <= correct

Solution: Greedy

Start with 60, then 15, 5 and finally increase 1 minute a time.

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2208. Minimum Operations to Halve Array Sum

You are given an array nums of positive integers. In one operation, you can choose any number from nums and reduce it to exactly half the number. (Note that you may choose this reduced number in future operations.)

Return the minimum number of operations to reduce the sum of nums by at least half.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [5,19,8,1]
Output: 3
Explanation: The initial sum of nums is equal to 5 + 19 + 8 + 1 = 33.
The following is one of the ways to reduce the sum by at least half:
Pick the number 19 and reduce it to 9.5.
Pick the number 9.5 and reduce it to 4.75.
Pick the number 8 and reduce it to 4.
The final array is [5, 4.75, 4, 1] with a total sum of 5 + 4.75 + 4 + 1 = 14.75. 
The sum of nums has been reduced by 33 - 14.75 = 18.25, which is at least half of the initial sum, 18.25 >= 33/2 = 16.5.
Overall, 3 operations were used so we return 3.
It can be shown that we cannot reduce the sum by at least half in less than 3 operations.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [3,8,20]
Output: 3
Explanation: The initial sum of nums is equal to 3 + 8 + 20 = 31.
The following is one of the ways to reduce the sum by at least half:
Pick the number 20 and reduce it to 10.
Pick the number 10 and reduce it to 5.
Pick the number 3 and reduce it to 1.5.
The final array is [1.5, 8, 5] with a total sum of 1.5 + 8 + 5 = 14.5. 
The sum of nums has been reduced by 31 - 14.5 = 16.5, which is at least half of the initial sum, 16.5 >= 31/2 = 16.5.
Overall, 3 operations were used so we return 3.
It can be shown that we cannot reduce the sum by at least half in less than 3 operations.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 107

Solution: Greedy + PriorityQueue/Max Heap

Always half the largest number, put all the numbers onto a max heap (priority queue), extract the largest one, and put reduced number back.

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2195. Append K Integers With Minimal Sum

You are given an integer array nums and an integer k. Append k unique positive integers that do not appear in nums to nums such that the resulting total sum is minimum.

Return the sum of the k integers appended to nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,4,25,10,25], k = 2
Output: 5
Explanation: The two unique positive integers that do not appear in nums which we append are 2 and 3.
The resulting sum of nums is 1 + 4 + 25 + 10 + 25 + 2 + 3 = 70, which is the minimum.
The sum of the two integers appended is 2 + 3 = 5, so we return 5.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,6], k = 6
Output: 25
Explanation: The six unique positive integers that do not appear in nums which we append are 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 8.
The resulting sum of nums is 5 + 6 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 8 = 36, which is the minimum. 
The sum of the six integers appended is 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 7 + 8 = 25, so we return 25.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 109
  • 1 <= k <= 108

Solution: Greedy + Math, fill the gap

Sort all the numbers and remove duplicated ones, and fill the gap between two neighboring numbers.
e.g. [15, 3, 8, 8] => sorted = [3, 8, 15]
fill 0->3, 1,2, sum = ((0 + 1) + (3-1)) * (3-0-1) / 2 = 3
fill 3->8, 4, 5, 6, 7, sum = ((3 + 1) + (8-1)) * (8-3-1) / 2 = 22
fill 8->15, 9, 10, …, 14, …
fill 15->inf, 16, 17, …

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++