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花花酱 LeetCode 1775. Equal Sum Arrays With Minimum Number of Operations

You are given two arrays of integers nums1 and nums2, possibly of different lengths. The values in the arrays are between 1 and 6, inclusive.

In one operation, you can change any integer’s value in any of the arrays to any value between 1 and 6, inclusive.

Return the minimum number of operations required to make the sum of values in nums1 equal to the sum of values in nums2. Return -1​​​​​ if it is not possible to make the sum of the two arrays equal.

Example 1:

Input: nums1 = [1,2,3,4,5,6], nums2 = [1,1,2,2,2,2]
Output: 3
Explanation: You can make the sums of nums1 and nums2 equal with 3 operations. All indices are 0-indexed.
- Change nums2[0] to 6. nums1 = [1,2,3,4,5,6], nums2 = [6,1,2,2,2,2].
- Change nums1[5] to 1. nums1 = [1,2,3,4,5,1], nums2 = [6,1,2,2,2,2].
- Change nums1[2] to 2. nums1 = [1,2,2,4,5,1], nums2 = [6,1,2,2,2,2].

Example 2:

Input: nums1 = [1,1,1,1,1,1,1], nums2 = [6]
Output: -1
Explanation: There is no way to decrease the sum of nums1 or to increase the sum of nums2 to make them equal.

Example 3:

Input: nums1 = [6,6], nums2 = [1]
Output: 3
Explanation: You can make the sums of nums1 and nums2 equal with 3 operations. All indices are 0-indexed. 
- Change nums1[0] to 2. nums1 = [2,6], nums2 = [1].
- Change nums1[1] to 2. nums1 = [2,2], nums2 = [1].
- Change nums2[0] to 4. nums1 = [2,2], nums2 = [4].

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums1.length, nums2.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums1[i], nums2[i] <= 6

Solution: Greedy

Assuming sum(nums1) < sum(nums2),
sort both arrays
* scan nums1 from left to right, we need to increase the value form the smallest one.
* scan nums2 from right to left, we need to decrease the value from the largest one.
Each time, select the one with the largest delta to change.

e.g. nums1[i] = 2, nums[j] = 4, delta1 = 6 – 2 = 4, delta2 = 4 – 1 = 3, Increase 2 to 6 instead of decreasing 4 to 1.

Time complexity: O(mlogm + nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1774. Closest Dessert Cost

You would like to make dessert and are preparing to buy the ingredients. You have n ice cream base flavors and m types of toppings to choose from. You must follow these rules when making your dessert:

  • There must be exactly one ice cream base.
  • You can add one or more types of topping or have no toppings at all.
  • There are at most two of each type of topping.

You are given three inputs:

  • baseCosts, an integer array of length n, where each baseCosts[i] represents the price of the ith ice cream base flavor.
  • toppingCosts, an integer array of length m, where each toppingCosts[i] is the price of one of the ith topping.
  • target, an integer representing your target price for dessert.

You want to make a dessert with a total cost as close to target as possible.

Return the closest possible cost of the dessert to target. If there are multiple, return the lower one.

Example 1:

Input: baseCosts = [1,7], toppingCosts = [3,4], target = 10
Output: 10
Explanation: Consider the following combination (all 0-indexed):
- Choose base 1: cost 7
- Take 1 of topping 0: cost 1 x 3 = 3
- Take 0 of topping 1: cost 0 x 4 = 0
Total: 7 + 3 + 0 = 10.

Example 2:

Input: baseCosts = [2,3], toppingCosts = [4,5,100], target = 18
Output: 17
Explanation: Consider the following combination (all 0-indexed):
- Choose base 1: cost 3
- Take 1 of topping 0: cost 1 x 4 = 4
- Take 2 of topping 1: cost 2 x 5 = 10
- Take 0 of topping 2: cost 0 x 100 = 0
Total: 3 + 4 + 10 + 0 = 17. You cannot make a dessert with a total cost of 18.

Example 3:

Input: baseCosts = [3,10], toppingCosts = [2,5], target = 9
Output: 8
Explanation: It is possible to make desserts with cost 8 and 10. Return 8 as it is the lower cost.

Example 4:

Input: baseCosts = [10], toppingCosts = [1], target = 1
Output: 10
Explanation: Notice that you don't have to have any toppings, but you must have exactly one base.

Constraints:

  • n == baseCosts.length
  • m == toppingCosts.length
  • 1 <= n, m <= 10
  • 1 <= baseCosts[i], toppingCosts[i] <= 104
  • 1 <= target <= 104

Solution: DP / Knapsack

Pre-compute the costs of all possible combinations of toppings.

Time complexity: O(sum(toppings) * 2 * (m + n)) ~ O(10^6)
Space complexity: O(sum(toppings)) ~ O(10^5)

C++

Solution 2: DFS

Combination

Time complexity: O(3^m * n)
Space complexity: O(m)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1770. Maximum Score from Performing Multiplication Operations

You are given two integer arrays nums and multipliersof size n and m respectively, where n >= m. The arrays are 1-indexed.

You begin with a score of 0. You want to perform exactly m operations. On the ith operation (1-indexed), you will:

  • Choose one integer x from either the start or the end of the array nums.
  • Add multipliers[i] * x to your score.
  • Remove x from the array nums.

Return the maximum score after performing m operations.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3], multipliers = [3,2,1]
Output: 14
Explanation: An optimal solution is as follows:
- Choose from the end, [1,2,3], adding 3 * 3 = 9 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [1,2], adding 2 * 2 = 4 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [1], adding 1 * 1 = 1 to the score.
The total score is 9 + 4 + 1 = 14.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [-5,-3,-3,-2,7,1], multipliers = [-10,-5,3,4,6]
Output: 102
Explanation: An optimal solution is as follows:
- Choose from the start, [-5,-3,-3,-2,7,1], adding -5 * -10 = 50 to the score.
- Choose from the start, [-3,-3,-2,7,1], adding -3 * -5 = 15 to the score.
- Choose from the start, [-3,-2,7,1], adding -3 * 3 = -9 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [-2,7,1], adding 1 * 4 = 4 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [-2,7], adding 7 * 6 = 42 to the score. 
The total score is 50 + 15 - 9 + 4 + 42 = 102.

Constraints:

  • n == nums.length
  • m == multipliers.length
  • 1 <= m <= 103
  • m <= n <= 105
  • -1000 <= nums[i], multipliers[i] <= 1000

Solution: DP

dp(i, j) := max score we can get with nums[i~j] left.

k = n – (j – i + 1)
dp(i, j) = max(dp(i + 1, j) + nums[i] * multipliers[k], dp(i, j-1) + nums[j] * multipliers[k])

Time complexity: O(m*m)
Space complexity: O(m*m)

C++/Top-Down

C++/Bottom-UP

花花酱 LeetCode 1765. Map of Highest Peak

You are given an integer matrix isWater of size m x n that represents a map of land and water cells.

  • If isWater[i][j] == 0, cell (i, j) is a land cell.
  • If isWater[i][j] == 1, cell (i, j) is a water cell.

You must assign each cell a height in a way that follows these rules:

  • The height of each cell must be non-negative.
  • If the cell is a water cell, its height must be 0.
  • Any two adjacent cells must have an absolute height difference of at most 1. A cell is adjacent to another cell if the former is directly north, east, south, or west of the latter (i.e., their sides are touching).

Find an assignment of heights such that the maximum height in the matrix is maximized.

Return an integer matrix height of size m x n where height[i][j] is cell (i, j)‘s height. If there are multiple solutions, return any of them.

Example 1:

Input: isWater = [[0,1],[0,0]]
Output: [[1,0],[2,1]]
Explanation: The image shows the assigned heights of each cell.
The blue cell is the water cell, and the green cells are the land cells.

Example 2:

Input: isWater = [[0,0,1],[1,0,0],[0,0,0]]
Output: [[1,1,0],[0,1,1],[1,2,2]]
Explanation: A height of 2 is the maximum possible height of any assignment.
Any height assignment that has a maximum height of 2 while still meeting the rules will also be accepted.

Constraints:

  • m == isWater.length
  • n == isWater[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 1000
  • isWater[i][j] is 0 or 1.
  • There is at least one water cell.

Solution: BFS

h[y][x] = min distance of (x, y) to any water cell.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1760. Minimum Limit of Balls in a Bag

You are given an integer array nums where the ith bag contains nums[i] balls. You are also given an integer maxOperations.

You can perform the following operation at most maxOperations times:

  • Take any bag of balls and divide it into two new bags with a positive number of balls.
    • For example, a bag of 5 balls can become two new bags of 1 and 4 balls, or two new bags of 2 and 3 balls.

Your penalty is the maximum number of balls in a bag. You want to minimize your penalty after the operations.

Return the minimum possible penalty after performing the operations.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [9], maxOperations = 2
Output: 3
Explanation: 
- Divide the bag with 9 balls into two bags of sizes 6 and 3. [9] -> [6,3].
- Divide the bag with 6 balls into two bags of sizes 3 and 3. [6,3] -> [3,3,3].
The bag with the most number of balls has 3 balls, so your penalty is 3 and you should return 3.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,4,8,2], maxOperations = 4
Output: 2
Explanation:
- Divide the bag with 8 balls into two bags of sizes 4 and 4. [2,4,8,2] -> [2,4,4,4,2].
- Divide the bag with 4 balls into two bags of sizes 2 and 2. [2,4,4,4,2] -> [2,2,2,4,4,2].
- Divide the bag with 4 balls into two bags of sizes 2 and 2. [2,2,2,4,4,2] -> [2,2,2,2,2,4,2].
- Divide the bag with 4 balls into two bags of sizes 2 and 2. [2,2,2,2,2,4,2] -> [2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2].
The bag with the most number of balls has 2 balls, so your penalty is 2 an you should return 2.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [7,17], maxOperations = 2
Output: 7

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= maxOperations, nums[i] <= 109

Solution: Binary Search

Find the smallest penalty that requires less or equal ops than max_ops.

Time complexity: O(nlogm)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++