# Posts tagged as “medium”

You are given a 0-indexed integer array nums of length n.

nums contains a valid split at index i if the following are true:

• The sum of the first i + 1 elements is greater than or equal to the sum of the last n - i - 1 elements.
• There is at least one element to the right of i. That is, 0 <= i < n - 1.

Return the number of valid splits in nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [10,4,-8,7]
Output: 2
Explanation:
There are three ways of splitting nums into two non-empty parts:
- Split nums at index 0. Then, the first part is [10], and its sum is 10. The second part is [4,-8,7], and its sum is 3. Since 10 >= 3, i = 0 is a valid split.
- Split nums at index 1. Then, the first part is [10,4], and its sum is 14. The second part is [-8,7], and its sum is -1. Since 14 >= -1, i = 1 is a valid split.
- Split nums at index 2. Then, the first part is [10,4,-8], and its sum is 6. The second part is [7], and its sum is 7. Since 6 < 7, i = 2 is not a valid split.
Thus, the number of valid splits in nums is 2.


Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,3,1,0]
Output: 2
Explanation:
There are two valid splits in nums:
- Split nums at index 1. Then, the first part is [2,3], and its sum is 5. The second part is [1,0], and its sum is 1. Since 5 >= 1, i = 1 is a valid split.
- Split nums at index 2. Then, the first part is [2,3,1], and its sum is 6. The second part is [0], and its sum is 0. Since 6 >= 0, i = 2 is a valid split.


Constraints:

• 2 <= nums.length <= 105
• -105 <= nums[i] <= 105

## Solution: Prefix/Suffix Sum

Note: sum can be greater than 2^31, use long!

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Alice is texting Bob using her phone. The mapping of digits to letters is shown in the figure below.

In order to add a letter, Alice has to press the key of the corresponding digit i times, where i is the position of the letter in the key.

• For example, to add the letter 's', Alice has to press '7' four times. Similarly, to add the letter 'k', Alice has to press '5' twice.
• Note that the digits '0' and '1' do not map to any letters, so Alice does not use them.

However, due to an error in transmission, Bob did not receive Alice’s text message but received a string of pressed keys instead.

• For example, when Alice sent the message "bob", Bob received the string "2266622".

Given a string pressedKeys representing the string received by Bob, return the total number of possible text messages Alice could have sent.

Since the answer may be very large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: pressedKeys = "22233"
Output: 8
Explanation:
The possible text messages Alice could have sent are:
Since there are 8 possible messages, we return 8.


Example 2:

Input: pressedKeys = "222222222222222222222222222222222222"
Output: 82876089
Explanation:
There are 2082876103 possible text messages Alice could have sent.
Since we need to return the answer modulo 109 + 7, we return 2082876103 % (109 + 7) = 82876089.


Constraints:

• 1 <= pressedKeys.length <= 105
• pressedKeys only consists of digits from '2' – '9'.

## Solution: DP

Similar to 花花酱 LeetCode 91. Decode Ways, let dp[i] denote # of possible messages of substr s[i:]

dp[i] = dp[i + 1]
+ dp[i + 2] (if s[i:i+1] are the same)
+ dp[i + 3] (if s[i:i+2] are the same)
+ dp[i + 4] (if s[i:i+3] are the same and s[i] in ’79’)

dp[n] = 1

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n) -> O(4)

## Python3

Given the root of a binary tree, return the number of nodes where the value of the node is equal to the average of the values in its subtree.

Note:

• The average of n elements is the sum of the n elements divided by n and rounded down to the nearest integer.
• subtree of root is a tree consisting of root and all of its descendants.

Example 1:

Input: root = [4,8,5,0,1,null,6]
Output: 5
Explanation:
For the node with value 4: The average of its subtree is (4 + 8 + 5 + 0 + 1 + 6) / 6 = 24 / 6 = 4.
For the node with value 5: The average of its subtree is (5 + 6) / 2 = 11 / 2 = 5.
For the node with value 0: The average of its subtree is 0 / 1 = 0.
For the node with value 1: The average of its subtree is 1 / 1 = 1.
For the node with value 6: The average of its subtree is 6 / 1 = 6.


Example 2:

Input: root = [1]
Output: 1
Explanation: For the node with value 1: The average of its subtree is 1 / 1 = 1.


Constraints:

• The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [1, 1000].
• 0 <= Node.val <= 1000

## Solution: Recursion

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(h)

## C++

You are given an integer array cards where cards[i] represents the value of the ith card. A pair of cards are matching if the cards have the same value.

Return the minimum number of consecutive cards you have to pick up to have a pair of matching cards among the picked cards. If it is impossible to have matching cards, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: cards = [3,4,2,3,4,7]
Output: 4
Explanation: We can pick up the cards [3,4,2,3] which contain a matching pair of cards with value 3. Note that picking up the cards [4,2,3,4] is also optimal.


Example 2:

Input: cards = [1,0,5,3]
Output: -1
Explanation: There is no way to pick up a set of consecutive cards that contain a pair of matching cards.


Constraints:

• 1 <= cards.length <= 105
• 0 <= cards[i] <= 106

## Solution: Hashtable

Record the last position of each number,
ans = min{cardi – last[cardi]}

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

You are given two integers m and n representing a 0-indexed m x n grid. You are also given two 2D integer arrays guards and walls where guards[i] = [rowi, coli] and walls[j] = [rowj, colj] represent the positions of the ith guard and jth wall respectively.

A guard can see every cell in the four cardinal directions (north, east, south, or west) starting from their position unless obstructed by a wall or another guard. A cell is guarded if there is at least one guard that can see it.

Return the number of unoccupied cells that are not guarded.

Example 1:

Input: m = 4, n = 6, guards = [[0,0],[1,1],[2,3]], walls = [[0,1],[2,2],[1,4]]
Output: 7
Explanation: The guarded and unguarded cells are shown in red and green respectively in the above diagram.
There are a total of 7 unguarded cells, so we return 7.


Example 2:

Input: m = 3, n = 3, guards = [[1,1]], walls = [[0,1],[1,0],[2,1],[1,2]]
Output: 4
Explanation: The unguarded cells are shown in green in the above diagram.
There are a total of 4 unguarded cells, so we return 4.


Constraints:

• 1 <= m, n <= 105
• 2 <= m * n <= 105
• 1 <= guards.length, walls.length <= 5 * 104
• 2 <= guards.length + walls.length <= m * n
• guards[i].length == walls[j].length == 2
• 0 <= rowi, rowj < m
• 0 <= coli, colj < n
• All the positions in guards and walls are unique.

## Solution: Simulation

Enumerate each cell, for each guard, shoot rays to 4 directions, mark cells on the way to 1 and stop when hit a guard or a wall.

Time complexity: O(mn)
Space complexity: O(mn)