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Posts tagged as “medium”

花花酱 LeetCode 1191. K-Concatenation Maximum Sum

Given an integer array arr and an integer k, modify the array by repeating it k times.

For example, if arr = [1, 2] and k = 3 then the modified array will be [1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2].

Return the maximum sub-array sum in the modified array. Note that the length of the sub-array can be 0 and its sum in that case is 0.

As the answer can be very large, return the answer modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [1,2], k = 3
Output: 9

Example 2:

Input: arr = [1,-2,1], k = 5
Output: 2

Example 3:

Input: arr = [-1,-2], k = 7
Output: 0

Constraints:

  • 1 <= arr.length <= 10^5
  • 1 <= k <= 10^5
  • -10^4 <= arr[i] <= 10^4

Solution: DP

This problem can be reduced to maxSubarray.
If k < 3: return maxSubarray(arr * k)
ans1 = maxSubarray(arr * 1)
ans2 = maxSubarray(arr * 2)
ans = max([ans1, ans2, ans2 + sum(arr) * (k – 2)])

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1190. Reverse Substrings Between Each Pair of Parentheses

Given a string s that consists of lower case English letters and brackets. 

Reverse the strings in each pair of matching parentheses, starting from the innermost one.

Your result should not contain any bracket.

Example 1:

Input: s = "(abcd)"
Output: "dcba"

Example 2:

Input: s = "(u(love)i)"
Output: "iloveu"

Example 3:

Input: s = "(ed(et(oc))el)"
Output: "leetcode"

Example 4:

Input: s = "a(bcdefghijkl(mno)p)q"
Output: "apmnolkjihgfedcbq"

Constraints:

  • 0 <= s.length <= 2000
  • s only contains lower case English characters and parentheses.
  • It’s guaranteed that all parentheses are balanced.

Solution: Stack

Use a stack of strings to track all the active strings.
Iterate over the input string:
1. Whenever there is a ‘(‘, push an empty string to the stack.
2. Whenever this is a ‘)’, pop the top string and append the reverse of it to the new stack top.
3. Otherwise, append the letter to the string on top the of stack.

Once done, the (only) string on the top of the stack is the answer.

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1186. Maximum Subarray Sum with One Deletion

Given an array of integers, return the maximum sum for a non-empty subarray (contiguous elements) with at most one element deletion. In other words, you want to choose a subarray and optionally delete one element from it so that there is still at least one element left and the sum of the remaining elements is maximum possible.

Note that the subarray needs to be non-empty after deleting one element.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [1,-2,0,3]
Output: 4
Explanation: Because we can choose [1, -2, 0, 3] and drop -2, thus the subarray [1, 0, 3] becomes the maximum value.

Example 2:

Input: arr = [1,-2,-2,3]
Output: 3
Explanation: We just choose [3] and it's the maximum sum.

Example 3:

Input: arr = [-1,-1,-1,-1]
Output: -1
Explanation: The final subarray needs to be non-empty. You can't choose [-1] and delete -1 from it, then get an empty subarray to make the sum equals to 0.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= arr.length <= 10^5
  • -10^4 <= arr[i] <= 10^4

Solution: DP

First, handle the special case: all numbers are negative, return the max one.

s0 = max subarray sum ends with a[i]
s1 = max subarray sum ends with a[i] with at most one deletion

whenever s0 or s1 becomes negative, reset them to 0.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1177. Can Make Palindrome from Substring

Given a string s, we make queries on substrings of s.

For each query queries[i] = [left, right, k], we may rearrange the substring s[left], ..., s[right], and then choose up to k of them to replace with any lowercase English letter. 

If the substring is possible to be a palindrome string after the operations above, the result of the query is true. Otherwise, the result is false.

Return an array answer[], where answer[i] is the result of the i-th query queries[i].

Note that: Each letter is counted individually for replacement so if for example s[left..right] = "aaa", and k = 2, we can only replace two of the letters.  (Also, note that the initial string s is never modified by any query.)

Example :

Input: s = "abcda", queries = [[3,3,0],[1,2,0],[0,3,1],[0,3,2],[0,4,1]]
Output: [true,false,false,true,true]
Explanation:
queries[0] : substring = "d", is palidrome.
queries[1] : substring = "bc", is not palidrome.
queries[2] : substring = "abcd", is not palidrome after replacing only 1 character.
queries[3] : substring = "abcd", could be changed to "abba" which is palidrome. Also this can be changed to "baab" first rearrange it "bacd" then replace "cd" with "ab".
queries[4] : substring = "abcda", could be changed to "abcba" which is palidrome.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length, queries.length <= 10^5
  • 0 <= queries[i][0] <= queries[i][1] < s.length
  • 0 <= queries[i][2] <= s.length
  • s only contains lowercase English letters.

Solution: Prefix frequency

Compute the prefix frequency of each characters, then we can efficiently compute the frequency of each characters in the substring in O(1) time. Count the number odd frequency characters o, we can convert it to a palindrome if o / 2 <= k.

Time complexity:
preprocessing: O(n)
Query: O(1)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1143. Longest Common Subsequence

Given two strings text1 and text2, return the length of their longest common subsequence.

subsequence of a string is a new string generated from the original string with some characters(can be none) deleted without changing the relative order of the remaining characters. (eg, “ace” is a subsequence of “abcde” while “aec” is not). A common subsequence of two strings is a subsequence that is common to both strings.

If there is no common subsequence, return 0.

Example 1:

Input: text1 = "abcde", text2 = "ace" 
Output: 3  
Explanation: The longest common subsequence is "ace" and its length is 3.

Example 2:

Input: text1 = "abc", text2 = "abc"
Output: 3
Explanation: The longest common subsequence is "abc" and its length is 3.

Example 3:

Input: text1 = "abc", text2 = "def"
Output: 0
Explanation: There is no such common subsequence, so the result is 0.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= text1.length <= 1000
  • 1 <= text2.length <= 1000
  • The input strings consist of lowercase English characters only.

Solution: DP

Use dp[i][j] to represent the length of longest common sub-sequence of text1[0:i] and text2[0:j]
dp[i][j] = dp[i – 1][j – 1] + 1 if text1[i – 1] == text2[j – 1] else max(dp[i][j – 1], dp[i – 1][j])

Time complexity: O(mn)
Space complexity: O(mn) -> O(n)

C++

C++/V2

C++/V3