# Posts tagged as “stack”

Given an array of positive integers nums, return an array answer that consists of the digits of each integer in nums after separating them in the same order they appear in nums.

To separate the digits of an integer is to get all the digits it has in the same order.

• For example, for the integer 10921, the separation of its digits is [1,0,9,2,1].

Example 1:

Input: nums = [13,25,83,77]
Output: [1,3,2,5,8,3,7,7]
Explanation:
- The separation of 13 is [1,3].
- The separation of 25 is [2,5].
- The separation of 83 is [8,3].
- The separation of 77 is [7,7].
answer = [1,3,2,5,8,3,7,7]. Note that answer contains the separations in the same order.


Example 2:

Input: nums = [7,1,3,9]
Output: [7,1,3,9]
Explanation: The separation of each integer in nums is itself.


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 1000
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 105

## Solution: Stack

Time complexity: O(sum(log(nums[i]))
Space complexity: O(log(nums[i]))

## C++

You are given an array of integers nums. Perform the following steps:

1. Find any two adjacent numbers in nums that are non-coprime.
2. If no such numbers are found, stop the process.
3. Otherwise, delete the two numbers and replace them with their LCM (Least Common Multiple).
4. Repeat this process as long as you keep finding two adjacent non-coprime numbers.

Return the final modified array. It can be shown that replacing adjacent non-coprime numbers in any arbitrary order will lead to the same result.

The test cases are generated such that the values in the final array are less than or equal to 108.

Two values x and y are non-coprime if GCD(x, y) > 1 where GCD(x, y) is the Greatest Common Divisor of x and y.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [6,4,3,2,7,6,2]
Output: [12,7,6]
Explanation:
- (6, 4) are non-coprime with LCM(6, 4) = 12. Now, nums = [12,3,2,7,6,2].
- (12, 3) are non-coprime with LCM(12, 3) = 12. Now, nums = [12,2,7,6,2].
- (12, 2) are non-coprime with LCM(12, 2) = 12. Now, nums = [12,7,6,2].
- (6, 2) are non-coprime with LCM(6, 2) = 6. Now, nums = [12,7,6].
There are no more adjacent non-coprime numbers in nums.
Thus, the final modified array is [12,7,6].
Note that there are other ways to obtain the same resultant array.


Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,2,1,1,3,3,3]
Output: [2,1,1,3]
Explanation:
- (3, 3) are non-coprime with LCM(3, 3) = 3. Now, nums = [2,2,1,1,3,3].
- (3, 3) are non-coprime with LCM(3, 3) = 3. Now, nums = [2,2,1,1,3].
- (2, 2) are non-coprime with LCM(2, 2) = 2. Now, nums = [2,1,1,3].
There are no more adjacent non-coprime numbers in nums.
Thus, the final modified array is [2,1,1,3].
Note that there are other ways to obtain the same resultant array.


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 105
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 105
• The test cases are generated such that the values in the final array are less than or equal to 108.

## Solution: Stack

“””It can be shown that replacing adjacent non-coprime numbers in any arbitrary order will lead to the same result.”””

So that we can do it in one pass from left to right using a stack/vector.

Push the current number onto stack, and merge top two if they are not co-prime.

Time complexity: O(nlogm)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

Implement the BSTIterator class that represents an iterator over the in-order traversal of a binary search tree (BST):

• BSTIterator(TreeNode root) Initializes an object of the BSTIterator class. The root of the BST is given as part of the constructor. The pointer should be initialized to a non-existent number smaller than any element in the BST.
• boolean hasNext() Returns true if there exists a number in the traversal to the right of the pointer, otherwise returns false.
• int next() Moves the pointer to the right, then returns the number at the pointer.

Notice that by initializing the pointer to a non-existent smallest number, the first call to next() will return the smallest element in the BST.

You may assume that next() calls will always be valid. That is, there will be at least a next number in the in-order traversal when next() is called.

Example 1:

Input
["BSTIterator", "next", "next", "hasNext", "next", "hasNext", "next", "hasNext", "next", "hasNext"]
[[[7, 3, 15, null, null, 9, 20]], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], [], []]
Output


[null, 3, 7, true, 9, true, 15, true, 20, false]

Explanation BSTIterator bSTIterator = new BSTIterator([7, 3, 15, null, null, 9, 20]); bSTIterator.next(); // return 3 bSTIterator.next(); // return 7 bSTIterator.hasNext(); // return True bSTIterator.next(); // return 9 bSTIterator.hasNext(); // return True bSTIterator.next(); // return 15 bSTIterator.hasNext(); // return True bSTIterator.next(); // return 20 bSTIterator.hasNext(); // return False

Constraints:

• The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [1, 105].
• 0 <= Node.val <= 106
• At most 105 calls will be made to hasNext, and next.

• Could you implement next() and hasNext() to run in average O(1) time and use O(h) memory, where h is the height of the tree?

## Solution: In-order traversal using a stack

Use a stack to simulate in-order traversal.

Each next, we walk to the left most (smallest) node and push all the nodes along the path to the stack.

Then pop the top one t as return val, our next node to explore is the right child of t.

Time complexity: amortized O(1) for next() call.
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

Design a stack that supports push, pop, top, and retrieving the minimum element in constant time.

Implement the MinStack class:

• MinStack() initializes the stack object.
• void push(int val) pushes the element val onto the stack.
• void pop() removes the element on the top of the stack.
• int top() gets the top element of the stack.
• int getMin() retrieves the minimum element in the stack.

Example 1:

Input
["MinStack","push","push","push","getMin","pop","top","getMin"]
[[],[-2],,[-3],[],[],[],[]]

Output


[null,null,null,null,-3,null,0,-2]

Explanation MinStack minStack = new MinStack(); minStack.push(-2); minStack.push(0); minStack.push(-3); minStack.getMin(); // return -3 minStack.pop(); minStack.top(); // return 0 minStack.getMin(); // return -2

Constraints:

• -231 <= val <= 231 - 1
• Methods poptop and getMin operations will always be called on non-empty stacks.
• At most 3 * 104 calls will be made to pushpoptop, and getMin.

## Solution 1: Two Stacks

One normal stack, one monotonic stack to store the min values.

Time complexity: O(1) per op
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

There are n cars traveling at different speeds in the same direction along a one-lane road. You are given an array cars of length n, where cars[i] = [positioni, speedi] represents:

• positioni is the distance between the ith car and the beginning of the road in meters. It is guaranteed that positioni < positioni+1.
• speedi is the initial speed of the ith car in meters per second.

For simplicity, cars can be considered as points moving along the number line. Two cars collide when they occupy the same position. Once a car collides with another car, they unite and form a single car fleet. The cars in the formed fleet will have the same position and the same speed, which is the initial speed of the slowest car in the fleet.

Return an array answer, where answer[i] is the time, in seconds, at which the ith car collides with the next car, or -1 if the car does not collide with the next car. Answers within 10-5 of the actual answers are accepted.

Example 1:

Input: cars = [[1,2],[2,1],[4,3],[7,2]]
Output: [1.00000,-1.00000,3.00000,-1.00000]
Explanation: After exactly one second, the first car will collide with the second car, and form a car fleet with speed 1 m/s. After exactly 3 seconds, the third car will collide with the fourth car, and form a car fleet with speed 2 m/s.


Example 2:

Input: cars = [[3,4],[5,4],[6,3],[9,1]]
Output: [2.00000,1.00000,1.50000,-1.00000]


Constraints:

• 1 <= cars.length <= 105
• 1 <= positioni, speedi <= 106
• positioni < positioni+1

## Solution: Monotonic Stack

Key observation: If my speed is slower than the speed of the previous car, not only mine but also all cars behind me will NEVER be able to catch/collide with the previous car. Such that we can throw it away.

Maintain a stack that stores the indices of cars with increasing speed.

Process car from right to left, for each car, pop the stack (throw the fastest car away) if any of the following conditions hold.
1) speed <= stack.top().speed
2) There are more than one car before me and it takes more than to collide the fastest car than time the fastest took to collide.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)