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Posts published in “Math”

LeetCode 2033. Minimum Operations to Make a Uni-Value Grid

You are given a 2D integer grid of size m x n and an integer x. In one operation, you can add x to or subtract x from any element in the grid.

uni-value grid is a grid where all the elements of it are equal.

Return the minimum number of operations to make the grid uni-value. If it is not possible, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[2,4],[6,8]], x = 2
Output: 4
Explanation: We can make every element equal to 4 by doing the following: 
- Add x to 2 once.
- Subtract x from 6 once.
- Subtract x from 8 twice.
A total of 4 operations were used.

Example 2:

Input: grid = [[1,5],[2,3]], x = 1
Output: 5
Explanation: We can make every element equal to 3.

Example 3:

Input: grid = [[1,2],[3,4]], x = 2
Output: -1
Explanation: It is impossible to make every element equal.

Constraints:

  • m == grid.length
  • n == grid[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 105
  • 1 <= m * n <= 105
  • 1 <= x, grid[i][j] <= 104

Solution: Median

To achieve minimum operations, the uni-value must be the median of the array.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2028. Find Missing Observations

You have observations of n + m 6-sided dice rolls with each face numbered from 1 to 6n of the observations went missing, and you only have the observations of m rolls. Fortunately, you have also calculated the average value of the n + m rolls.

You are given an integer array rolls of length m where rolls[i] is the value of the ith observation. You are also given the two integers mean and n.

Return an array of length n containing the missing observations such that the average value of the n + m rolls is exactly mean. If there are multiple valid answers, return any of them. If no such array exists, return an empty array.

The average value of a set of k numbers is the sum of the numbers divided by k.

Note that mean is an integer, so the sum of the n + m rolls should be divisible by n + m.

Example 1:

Input: rolls = [3,2,4,3], mean = 4, n = 2
Output: [6,6]
Explanation: The mean of all n + m rolls is (3 + 2 + 4 + 3 + 6 + 6) / 6 = 4.

Example 2:

Input: rolls = [1,5,6], mean = 3, n = 4
Output: [2,3,2,2]
Explanation: The mean of all n + m rolls is (1 + 5 + 6 + 2 + 3 + 2 + 2) / 7 = 3.

Example 3:

Input: rolls = [1,2,3,4], mean = 6, n = 4
Output: []
Explanation: It is impossible for the mean to be 6 no matter what the 4 missing rolls are.

Example 4:

Input: rolls = [1], mean = 3, n = 1
Output: [5]
Explanation: The mean of all n + m rolls is (1 + 5) / 2 = 3.

Constraints:

  • m == rolls.length
  • 1 <= n, m <= 105
  • 1 <= rolls[i], mean <= 6

Solution: Math & Greedy

Total sum = (m + n) * mean
Left = Total sum – sum(rolls) = (m + n) * mean – sum(rolls)
If left > 6 * n or left < 1 * n, then there is no solution.
Otherwise, we need to distribute Left into n rolls.
There are very ways to do that, one of them is even distribution, e.g. using the average number as much as possible, and use avg + 1 to fill the gap.
Compute the average and reminder: x = left / n, r = left % n.
there will be n – r of x and r of x + 1 in the output array.

e.g. [1, 5, 6], mean = 3, n = 4
Total sum = (3 + 4) * 3 = 21
Left = 21 – (1 + 5 + 6) = 9
x = 9 / 4 = 2, r = 9 % 4 = 1
Ans = [2, 2, 2, 2+1] = [2,2,2,3]

Time complexity: O(m + n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1894. Find the Student that Will Replace the Chalk

There are n students in a class numbered from 0 to n - 1. The teacher will give each student a problem starting with the student number 0, then the student number 1, and so on until the teacher reaches the student number n - 1. After that, the teacher will restart the process, starting with the student number 0 again.

You are given a 0-indexed integer array chalk and an integer k. There are initially k pieces of chalk. When the student number i is given a problem to solve, they will use chalk[i] pieces of chalk to solve that problem. However, if the current number of chalk pieces is strictly less than chalk[i], then the student number i will be asked to replace the chalk.

Return the index of the student that will replace the chalk.

Example 1:

Input: chalk = [5,1,5], k = 22
Output: 0
Explanation: The students go in turns as follows:
- Student number 0 uses 5 chalk, so k = 17.
- Student number 1 uses 1 chalk, so k = 16.
- Student number 2 uses 5 chalk, so k = 11.
- Student number 0 uses 5 chalk, so k = 6.
- Student number 1 uses 1 chalk, so k = 5.
- Student number 2 uses 5 chalk, so k = 0.
Student number 0 does not have enough chalk, so they will have to replace it.

Example 2:

Input: chalk = [3,4,1,2], k = 25
Output: 1
Explanation: The students go in turns as follows:
- Student number 0 uses 3 chalk so k = 22.
- Student number 1 uses 4 chalk so k = 18.
- Student number 2 uses 1 chalk so k = 17.
- Student number 3 uses 2 chalk so k = 15.
- Student number 0 uses 3 chalk so k = 12.
- Student number 1 uses 4 chalk so k = 8.
- Student number 2 uses 1 chalk so k = 7.
- Student number 3 uses 2 chalk so k = 5.
- Student number 0 uses 3 chalk so k = 2.
Student number 1 does not have enough chalk, so they will have to replace it.

Constraints:

  • chalk.length == n
  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • 1 <= chalk[i] <= 105
  • 1 <= k <= 109

Solution: Math

Sum up all the students. k %= sum to skip all the middle rounds.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1887. Reduction Operations to Make the Array Elements Equal

Given an integer array nums, your goal is to make all elements in nums equal. To complete one operation, follow these steps:

  1. Find the largest value in nums. Let its index be i (0-indexed) and its value be largest. If there are multiple elements with the largest value, pick the smallest i.
  2. Find the next largest value in nums strictly smaller than largest. Let its value be nextLargest.
  3. Reduce nums[i] to nextLargest.

Return the number of operations to make all elements in nums equal.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [5,1,3]
Output: 3
Explanation: It takes 3 operations to make all elements in nums equal:
1. largest = 5 at index 0. nextLargest = 3. Reduce nums[0] to 3. nums = [3,1,3].
2. largest = 3 at index 0. nextLargest = 1. Reduce nums[0] to 1. nums = [1,1,3].
3. largest = 3 at index 2. nextLargest = 1. Reduce nums[2] to 1. nums = [1,1,1].

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,1,1]
Output: 0
Explanation: All elements in nums are already equal.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,1,2,2,3]
Output: 4
Explanation: It takes 4 operations to make all elements in nums equal:
1. largest = 3 at index 4. nextLargest = 2. Reduce nums[4] to 2. nums = [1,1,2,2,2].
2. largest = 2 at index 2. nextLargest = 1. Reduce nums[2] to 1. nums = [1,1,1,2,2].
3. largest = 2 at index 3. nextLargest = 1. Reduce nums[3] to 1. nums = [1,1,1,1,2].
4. largest = 2 at index 4. nextLargest = 1. Reduce nums[4] to 1. nums = [1,1,1,1,1].

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 5 * 104
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 5 * 104

Solution: Math

Input: [5,4,3,2,1]
[5,4,3,2,1] -> [4,4,3,2,1] 5->4, 1 op
[4,4,3,2,1] -> [3,3,3,2,1] 4->3, 2 ops
[3,3,3,2,1] -> [2,2,2,2,1] 3->2, 3 ops
[2,2,2,2,1] -> [1,1,1,1,1] 2->1, 4 ops
total = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 = 10

Sort the array in reverse order, if we find a number at index i that is is smaller than the previous number, we need i ops to make all the numbers before it to become itself.

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1884. Egg Drop With 2 Eggs and N Floors

You are given two identical eggs and you have access to a building with n floors labeled from 1 to n.

You know that there exists a floor f where 0 <= f <= n such that any egg dropped at a floor higher than f will break, and any egg dropped at or below floor f will not break.

In each move, you may take an unbroken egg and drop it from any floor x (where 1 <= x <= n). If the egg breaks, you can no longer use it. However, if the egg does not break, you may reuse it in future moves.

Return the minimum number of moves that you need to determine with certainty what the value of f is.

Example 1:

Input: n = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: We can drop the first egg from floor 1 and the second egg from floor 2.
If the first egg breaks, we know that f = 0.
If the second egg breaks but the first egg didn't, we know that f = 1.
Otherwise, if both eggs survive, we know that f = 2.

Example 2:

Input: n = 100
Output: 14
Explanation: One optimal strategy is:
- Drop the 1st egg at floor 9. If it breaks, we know f is between 0 and 8. Drop the 2nd egg starting
  from floor 1 and going up one at a time to find f within 7 more drops. Total drops is 1 + 7 = 8.
- If the 1st egg does not break, drop the 1st egg again at floor 22. If it breaks, we know f is between 9
  and 21. Drop the 2nd egg starting from floor 10 and going up one at a time to find f within 12 more
  drops. Total drops is 2 + 12 = 14.
- If the 1st egg does not break again, follow a similar process dropping the 1st egg from floors 34, 45,
  55, 64, 72, 79, 85, 90, 94, 97, 99, and 100.
Regardless of the outcome, it takes at most 14 drops to determine f.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 1000

Solution: Math

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++