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Posts published in “Math”

花花酱 LeetCode 1573. Number of Ways to Split a String

Given a binary string s (a string consisting only of ‘0’s and ‘1’s), we can split s into 3 non-empty strings s1, s2, s3 (s1+ s2+ s3 = s).

Return the number of ways s can be split such that the number of characters ‘1’ is the same in s1, s2, and s3.

Since the answer may be too large, return it modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: s = "10101"
Output: 4
Explanation: There are four ways to split s in 3 parts where each part contain the same number of letters '1'.
"1|010|1"
"1|01|01"
"10|10|1"
"10|1|01"

Example 2:

Input: s = "1001"
Output: 0

Example 3:

Input: s = "0000"
Output: 3
Explanation: There are three ways to split s in 3 parts.
"0|0|00"
"0|00|0"
"00|0|0"

Example 4:

Input: s = "100100010100110"
Output: 12

Constraints:

  • s[i] == '0' or s[i] == '1'
  • 3 <= s.length <= 10^5

Solution: Counting

Count how many ones in the binary string as T, if not a factor of 3, then there is no answer.

Count how many positions that have prefix sum of T/3 as l, and how many positions that have prefix sum of T/3*2 as r.

Ans = l * r

But we need to special handle the all zero cases, which equals to C(n-2, 2) = (n – 1) * (n – 2) / 2

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Python3

One pass: Space complexity: O(n)

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1551. Minimum Operations to Make Array Equal

You have an array arr of length n where arr[i] = (2 * i) + 1 for all valid values of i (i.e. 0 <= i < n).

In one operation, you can select two indices x and y where 0 <= x, y < n and subtract 1 from arr[x] and add 1 to arr[y] (i.e. perform arr[x] -=1 and arr[y] += 1). The goal is to make all the elements of the array equal. It is guaranteed that all the elements of the array can be made equal using some operations.

Given an integer n, the length of the array. Return the minimum number of operations needed to make all the elements of arr equal.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3
Output: 2
Explanation: arr = [1, 3, 5]
First operation choose x = 2 and y = 0, this leads arr to be [2, 3, 4]
In the second operation choose x = 2 and y = 0 again, thus arr = [3, 3, 3].

Example 2:

Input: n = 6
Output: 9

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 10^4

Solution: Math

1: Find the mean (final value) of the array, assuming x, easy to show x == n
2: Compute the sum of an arithmetic progression of (x – 1) + (x – 3) + … for n // 2 pairs

e.g. n = 6
arr = [1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11]
x = (1 + 2 * n – 1) / 2 = 6 = n
steps = (6 – 1) + (6 – 3) + (6 – 5) = (n // 2) * (n – (1 + n – 1) / 2) = (n // 2) * (n – n // 2) = 3 * 3 = 9

e.g. n = 5
arr = [1,3,5,7,9]
x = (1 + 2 * n – 1) / 2 = 5 = n
steps = (5 – 1) + (5 – 3)= (n//2) * (n – n // 2) = (n // 2) * ((n + 1) // 2) = 2 * 3 = 6

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1523. Count Odd Numbers in an Interval Range

Given two non-negative integers low and high. Return the count of odd numbers between low and high (inclusive).

Example 1:

Input: low = 3, high = 7
Output: 3
Explanation: The odd numbers between 3 and 7 are [3,5,7].

Example 2:

Input: low = 8, high = 10
Output: 1
Explanation: The odd numbers between 8 and 10 are [9].

Constraints:

  • 0 <= low <= high <= 10^9

Solution: Math

The count of odd numbers between [1, low – 1] is low / 2
e.g. low = 6, we have [1,3,5] in range [1, 5] and count is 6/2 = 3.
The count of odd numbers between [1, high] is (high + 1) / 2
e.g. high = 7, we have [1,3,5,7] in range [1, 7] and count is (7+1) / 2 = 4

Then the count of odd numbers in range [low, high] = count(1, high) – count(1, low-1)
e.g. in range [6, 7] we only have [7], count: 4 – 3 = 1

ans = (high + 1) / 2 – low / 2

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1503. Last Moment Before All Ants Fall Out of a Plank

We have a wooden plank of the length n units. Some ants are walking on the plank, each ant moves with speed 1 unit per second. Some of the ants move to the left, the other move to the right.

When two ants moving in two different directions meet at some point, they change their directions and continue moving again. Assume changing directions doesn’t take any additional time.

When an ant reaches one end of the plank at a time t, it falls out of the plank imediately.

Given an integer n and two integer arrays left and right, the positions of the ants moving to the left and the right. Return the moment when the last ant(s) fall out of the plank.

Example 1:

Input: n = 4, left = [4,3], right = [0,1]
Output: 4
Explanation: In the image above:
-The ant at index 0 is named A and going to the right.
-The ant at index 1 is named B and going to the right.
-The ant at index 3 is named C and going to the left.
-The ant at index 4 is named D and going to the left.
Note that the last moment when an ant was on the plank is t = 4 second, after that it falls imediately out of the plank. (i.e. We can say that at t = 4.0000000001, there is no ants on the plank).

Example 2:

Input: n = 7, left = [], right = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7]
Output: 7
Explanation: All ants are going to the right, the ant at index 0 needs 7 seconds to fall.

Example 3:

Input: n = 7, left = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7], right = []
Output: 7
Explanation: All ants are going to the left, the ant at index 7 needs 7 seconds to fall.

Example 4:

Input: n = 9, left = [5], right = [4]
Output: 5
Explanation: At t = 1 second, both ants will be at the same intial position but with different direction.

Example 5:

Input: n = 6, left = [6], right = [0]
Output: 6

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 10^4
  • 0 <= left.length <= n + 1
  • 0 <= left[i] <= n
  • 0 <= right.length <= n + 1
  • 0 <= right[i] <= n
  • 1 <= left.length + right.length <= n + 1
  • All values of left and right are unique, and each value can appear only in one of the two arrays.

Solution: Keep Walking

When two ants A –> and <– B meet at some point, they change directions <– A B –>, we can swap the ids of the ants as <– B A–>, so it’s the same as walking individually and passed by. Then we just need to find the max/min of the left/right arrays.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Java

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1497. Check If Array Pairs Are Divisible by k

Given an array of integers arr of even length n and an integer k.

We want to divide the array into exactly n / 2 pairs such that the sum of each pair is divisible by k.

Return True If you can find a way to do that or False otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [1,2,3,4,5,10,6,7,8,9], k = 5
Output: true
Explanation: Pairs are (1,9),(2,8),(3,7),(4,6) and (5,10).

Example 2:

Input: arr = [1,2,3,4,5,6], k = 7
Output: true
Explanation: Pairs are (1,6),(2,5) and(3,4).

Example 3:

Input: arr = [1,2,3,4,5,6], k = 10
Output: false
Explanation: You can try all possible pairs to see that there is no way to divide arr into 3 pairs each with sum divisible by 10.

Example 4:

Input: arr = [-10,10], k = 2
Output: true

Example 5:

Input: arr = [-1,1,-2,2,-3,3,-4,4], k = 3
Output: true

Constraints:

  • arr.length == n
  • 1 <= n <= 10^5
  • n is even.
  • -10^9 <= arr[i] <= 10^9
  • 1 <= k <= 10^5

Solution: Mod and Count

Count the frequency of (x % k + k) % k.
f[0] should be even (zero is also even)
f[1] = f[k -1] ((1 + k – 1) % k == 0)
f[2] = f[k -2] ((2 + k – 2) % k == 0)

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(k)

C++