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Posts published in “Math”

花花酱 LeetCode 50. Pow(x, n)

Implement pow(xn), which calculates x raised to the power n (xn).

Example 1:

Input: 2.00000, 10
Output: 1024.00000

Example 2:

Input: 2.10000, 3
Output: 9.26100

Example 3:

Input: 2.00000, -2
Output: 0.25000
Explanation: 2-2 = 1/22 = 1/4 = 0.25

Note:

  • -100.0 < x < 100.0
  • n is a 32-bit signed integer, within the range [−231, 231 − 1]

Solution: Recursion

square x and cut n in half.
if n is negative, compute 1.0 / pow(x, |n|)

pow(x, n) := pow(x * x, n / 2) * (x if n % 2 else 1)
pow(x, 0) := 1
Example:
pow(x, 5) = pow(x^2, 2) * x
= pow(x^4, 1) * x
= pow(x^8, 0) * x^4 * x
= 1 * x^4 * x = x^5

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(logn)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 67. Add Binary

Given two binary strings, return their sum (also a binary string).

The input strings are both non-empty and contains only characters 1 or 0.

Example 1:

Input: a = "11", b = "1"
Output: "100"

Example 2:

Input: a = "1010", b = "1011"
Output: "10101"

Solution: Big integer

Similar to https://zxi.mytechroad.com/blog/math/leetcode-66-plus-one/

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 66. Plus One

Given a non-empty array of digits representing a non-negative integer, plus one to the integer.

The digits are stored such that the most significant digit is at the head of the list, and each element in the array contain a single digit.

You may assume the integer does not contain any leading zero, except the number 0 itself.

Example 1:

Input: [1,2,3]
Output: [1,2,4]
Explanation: The array represents the integer 123.

Example 2:

Input: [4,3,2,1]
Output: [4,3,2,2]
Explanation: The array represents the integer 4321.

Solution: Big Integer

Process from right to left (lest significant to most signification). Use carry to indicate whether need +1 for next digit or not.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

c++

花花酱 LeetCode 781. Rabbits in Forest

In a forest, each rabbit has some color. Some subset of rabbits (possibly all of them) tell you how many other rabbits have the same color as them. Those answers are placed in an array.

Return the minimum number of rabbits that could be in the forest.

Examples:
Input: answers = [1, 1, 2]
Output: 5
Explanation:
The two rabbits that answered "1" could both be the same color, say red.
The rabbit than answered "2" can't be red or the answers would be inconsistent.
Say the rabbit that answered "2" was blue.
Then there should be 2 other blue rabbits in the forest that didn't answer into the array.
The smallest possible number of rabbits in the forest is therefore 5: 3 that answered plus 2 that didn't.

Input: answers = [10, 10, 10]
Output: 11

Input: answers = []
Output: 0

Note:

  1. answers will have length at most 1000.
  2. Each answers[i] will be an integer in the range [0, 999].

Solution: Math

Say there n rabbits answered x.
if n <= x: they can have the same color
if n > x: they must be divided into groups, each group has x + 1 rabbits, and there are at least ceil(n / (x+1)) groups.
So there will be ceil(n / (x + 1)) * (x + 1) rabbits. This expression can be expressed as (n + x) / (x + 1) * (x + 1) in programming languages. (n + x) // (x + 1) * (x + 1) for Python3.

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 972. Equal Rational Numbers

Given two strings S and T, each of which represents a non-negative rational number, return True if and only if they represent the same number. The strings may use parentheses to denote the repeating part of the rational number.

In general a rational number can be represented using up to three parts: an integer part, a non-repeating part, and a repeating part. The number will be represented in one of the following three ways:

  • <IntegerPart> (e.g. 0, 12, 123)
  • <IntegerPart><.><NonRepeatingPart>  (e.g. 0.5, 1., 2.12, 2.0001)
  • <IntegerPart><.><NonRepeatingPart><(><RepeatingPart><)> (e.g. 0.1(6), 0.9(9), 0.00(1212))

The repeating portion of a decimal expansion is conventionally denoted within a pair of round brackets.  For example:

1 / 6 = 0.16666666… = 0.1(6) = 0.1666(6) = 0.166(66)

Both 0.1(6) or 0.1666(6) or 0.166(66) are correct representations of 1 / 6.

Example 1:

Input: S = "0.(52)", T = "0.5(25)"
Output: true
Explanation:
Because "0.(52)" represents 0.52525252..., and "0.5(25)" represents 0.52525252525..... , the strings represent the same number.

Example 2:

Input: S = "0.1666(6)", T = "0.166(66)"
Output: true

Example 3:

Input: S = "0.9(9)", T = "1."
Output: true
Explanation: 
"0.9(9)" represents 0.999999999... repeated forever, which equals 1.  [See this link for an explanation.]
"1." represents the number 1, which is formed correctly: (IntegerPart) = "1" and (NonRepeatingPart) = "".

Note:

  1. Each part consists only of digits.
  2. The <IntegerPart> will not begin with 2 or more zeros.  (There is no other restriction on the digits of each part.)
  3. 1 <= <IntegerPart>.length <= 4
  4. 0 <= <NonRepeatingPart>.length <= 4
  5. 1 <= <RepeatingPart>.length <= 4

Solution1: Expend the string

Extend the string to 16+ more digits and covert it to double.

0.9(9) => 0.99999999999999
0.(52) => 0.525252525252525
0.5(25) => 0.5252525252525

C++

Python3

Solution 2: Convert to a friction number

C++