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Posts tagged as “hard”

花花酱 LeetCode 2045. Second Minimum Time to Reach Destination

A city is represented as a bi-directional connected graph with n vertices where each vertex is labeled from 1 to n (inclusive). The edges in the graph are represented as a 2D integer array edges, where each edges[i] = [ui, vi] denotes a bi-directional edge between vertex ui and vertex vi. Every vertex pair is connected by at most one edge, and no vertex has an edge to itself. The time taken to traverse any edge is time minutes.

Each vertex has a traffic signal which changes its color from green to red and vice versa every change minutes. All signals change at the same time. You can enter a vertex at any time, but can leave a vertex only when the signal is green. You cannot wait at a vertex if the signal is green.

The second minimum value is defined as the smallest value strictly larger than the minimum value.

  • For example the second minimum value of [2, 3, 4] is 3, and the second minimum value of [2, 2, 4] is 4.

Given nedgestime, and change, return the second minimum time it will take to go from vertex 1 to vertex n.

Notes:

  • You can go through any vertex any number of times, including 1 and n.
  • You can assume that when the journey starts, all signals have just turned green.

Example 1:

Input: n = 5, edges = [[1,2],[1,3],[1,4],[3,4],[4,5]], time = 3, change = 5
Output: 13
Explanation:
The figure on the left shows the given graph.
The blue path in the figure on the right is the minimum time path.
The time taken is:
- Start at 1, time elapsed=0
- 1 -> 4: 3 minutes, time elapsed=3
- 4 -> 5: 3 minutes, time elapsed=6
Hence the minimum time needed is 6 minutes.

The red path shows the path to get the second minimum time.
- Start at 1, time elapsed=0
- 1 -> 3: 3 minutes, time elapsed=3
- 3 -> 4: 3 minutes, time elapsed=6
- Wait at 4 for 4 minutes, time elapsed=10
- 4 -> 5: 3 minutes, time elapsed=13
Hence the second minimum time is 13 minutes.      

Example 2:

Input: n = 2, edges = [[1,2]], time = 3, change = 2
Output: 11
Explanation:
The minimum time path is 1 -> 2 with time = 3 minutes.
The second minimum time path is 1 -> 2 -> 1 -> 2 with time = 11 minutes.

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 104
  • n - 1 <= edges.length <= min(2 * 104, n * (n - 1) / 2)
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 1 <= ui, vi <= n
  • ui != vi
  • There are no duplicate edges.
  • Each vertex can be reached directly or indirectly from every other vertex.
  • 1 <= time, change <= 103

Solution: Best first search

Since we’re only looking for second best, to avoid TLE, for each vertex, keep two best time to arrival is sufficient.

Time complexity: O(2ElogE)
Space complexity: O(V+E)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1900. The Earliest and Latest Rounds Where Players Compete

There is a tournament where n players are participating. The players are standing in a single row and are numbered from 1 to n based on their initial standing position (player 1 is the first player in the row, player 2 is the second player in the row, etc.).

The tournament consists of multiple rounds (starting from round number 1). In each round, the ith player from the front of the row competes against the ith player from the end of the row, and the winner advances to the next round. When the number of players is odd for the current round, the player in the middle automatically advances to the next round.

  • For example, if the row consists of players 1, 2, 4, 6, 7
    • Player 1 competes against player 7.
    • Player 2 competes against player 6.
    • Player 4 automatically advances to the next round.

After each round is over, the winners are lined back up in the row based on the original ordering assigned to them initially (ascending order).

The players numbered firstPlayer and secondPlayer are the best in the tournament. They can win against any other player before they compete against each other. If any two other players compete against each other, either of them might win, and thus you may choose the outcome of this round.

Given the integers nfirstPlayer, and secondPlayer, return an integer array containing two values, the earliest possible round number and the latest possible round number in which these two players will compete against each other, respectively.

Example 1:

Input: n = 11, firstPlayer = 2, secondPlayer = 4
Output: [3,4]
Explanation:
One possible scenario which leads to the earliest round number:
First round: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Second round: 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11
Third round: 2, 3, 4
One possible scenario which leads to the latest round number:
First round: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
Second round: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Third round: 1, 2, 4
Fourth round: 2, 4

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, firstPlayer = 1, secondPlayer = 5
Output: [1,1]
Explanation: The players numbered 1 and 5 compete in the first round.
There is no way to make them compete in any other round.

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 28
  • 1 <= firstPlayer < secondPlayer <= n

Solution 1: Simulation using recursion

All possible paths,
Time complexity: O(n2*2n)
Space complexity: O(logn)

dfs(s, i, j, d) := let i battle with j at round d, given s (binary mask of dead players).

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1889. Minimum Space Wasted From Packaging

You have n packages that you are trying to place in boxes, one package in each box. There are m suppliers that each produce boxes of different sizes (with infinite supply). A package can be placed in a box if the size of the package is less than or equal to the size of the box.

The package sizes are given as an integer array packages, where packages[i] is the size of the ith package. The suppliers are given as a 2D integer array boxes, where boxes[j] is an array of box sizes that the jth supplier produces.

You want to choose a single supplier and use boxes from them such that the total wasted space is minimized. For each package in a box, we define the space wasted to be size of the box - size of the package. The total wasted space is the sum of the space wasted in all the boxes.

  • For example, if you have to fit packages with sizes [2,3,5] and the supplier offers boxes of sizes [4,8], you can fit the packages of size-2 and size-3 into two boxes of size-4 and the package with size-5 into a box of size-8. This would result in a waste of (4-2) + (4-3) + (8-5) = 6.

Return the minimum total wasted space by choosing the box supplier optimally, or -1 if it is impossible to fit all the packages inside boxes. Since the answer may be large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: packages = [2,3,5], boxes = [[4,8],[2,8]]
Output: 6
Explanation: It is optimal to choose the first supplier, using two size-4 boxes and one size-8 box.
The total waste is (4-2) + (4-3) + (8-5) = 6.

Example 2:

Input: packages = [2,3,5], boxes = [[1,4],[2,3],[3,4]]
Output: -1
Explanation: There is no box that the package of size 5 can fit in.

Example 3:

Input: packages = [3,5,8,10,11,12], boxes = [[12],[11,9],[10,5,14]]
Output: 9
Explanation: It is optimal to choose the third supplier, using two size-5 boxes, two size-10 boxes, and two size-14 boxes.
The total waste is (5-3) + (5-5) + (10-8) + (10-10) + (14-11) + (14-12) = 9.

Constraints:

  • n == packages.length
  • m == boxes.length
  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • 1 <= m <= 105
  • 1 <= packages[i] <= 105
  • 1 <= boxes[j].length <= 105
  • 1 <= boxes[j][k] <= 105
  • sum(boxes[j].length) <= 105
  • The elements in boxes[j] are distinct.

Solution: Greedy + Binary Search

  1. sort packages and boxes
  2. for each box find all (unpacked) packages that are smaller or equal to itself.

Time complexity: O(nlogn) + O(mlogm) + O(mlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1883. Minimum Skips to Arrive at Meeting On Time

You are given an integer hoursBefore, the number of hours you have to travel to your meeting. To arrive at your meeting, you have to travel through n roads. The road lengths are given as an integer array dist of length n, where dist[i] describes the length of the ith road in kilometers. In addition, you are given an integer speed, which is the speed (in km/h) you will travel at.

After you travel road i, you must rest and wait for the next integer hour before you can begin traveling on the next road. Note that you do not have to rest after traveling the last road because you are already at the meeting.

  • For example, if traveling a road takes 1.4 hours, you must wait until the 2 hour mark before traveling the next road. If traveling a road takes exactly 2 hours, you do not need to wait.

However, you are allowed to skip some rests to be able to arrive on time, meaning you do not need to wait for the next integer hour. Note that this means you may finish traveling future roads at different hour marks.

  • For example, suppose traveling the first road takes 1.4 hours and traveling the second road takes 0.6 hours. Skipping the rest after the first road will mean you finish traveling the second road right at the 2 hour mark, letting you start traveling the third road immediately.

Return the minimum number of skips required to arrive at the meeting on time, or -1 if it is impossible.

Example 1:

Input: dist = [1,3,2], speed = 4, hoursBefore = 2
Output: 1
Explanation:
Without skipping any rests, you will arrive in (1/4 + 3/4) + (3/4 + 1/4) + (2/4) = 2.5 hours.
You can skip the first rest to arrive in ((1/4 + 0) + (3/4 + 0)) + (2/4) = 1.5 hours.
Note that the second rest is shortened because you finish traveling the second road at an integer hour due to skipping the first rest.

Example 2:

Input: dist = [7,3,5,5], speed = 2, hoursBefore = 10
Output: 2
Explanation:
Without skipping any rests, you will arrive in (7/2 + 1/2) + (3/2 + 1/2) + (5/2 + 1/2) + (5/2) = 11.5 hours.
You can skip the first and third rest to arrive in ((7/2 + 0) + (3/2 + 0)) + ((5/2 + 0) + (5/2)) = 10 hours.

Example 3:

Input: dist = [7,3,5,5], speed = 1, hoursBefore = 10
Output: -1
Explanation: It is impossible to arrive at the meeting on time even if you skip all the rests.

Constraints:

  • n == dist.length
  • 1 <= n <= 1000
  • 1 <= dist[i] <= 105
  • 1 <= speed <= 106
  • 1 <= hoursBefore <= 107

Solution: DP

Let dp[i][k] denote min (time*speed) to finish the i-th road with k rest.

dp[i][k] = min(dp[i – 1][k – 1] + dist[i] / speed * speed, # skip the rest,
(dp[i-1][k] + dist[i] + speed – 1) // speed * speed # rest

ans = argmin(dp[n][k] <= hours * speed)

Time complexity: O(n2)
Space complexity: O(n2)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1879. Minimum XOR Sum of Two Arrays

You are given two integer arrays nums1 and nums2 of length n.

The XOR sum of the two integer arrays is (nums1[0] XOR nums2[0]) + (nums1[1] XOR nums2[1]) + ... + (nums1[n - 1] XOR nums2[n - 1]) (0-indexed).

  • For example, the XOR sum of [1,2,3] and [3,2,1] is equal to (1 XOR 3) + (2 XOR 2) + (3 XOR 1) = 2 + 0 + 2 = 4.

Rearrange the elements of nums2 such that the resulting XOR sum is minimized.

Return the XOR sum after the rearrangement.

Example 1:

Input: nums1 = [1,2], nums2 = [2,3]
Output: 2
Explanation: Rearrange nums2 so that it becomes [3,2].
The XOR sum is (1 XOR 3) + (2 XOR 2) = 2 + 0 = 2.

Example 2:

Input: nums1 = [1,0,3], nums2 = [5,3,4]
Output: 8
Explanation: Rearrange nums2 so that it becomes [5,4,3]. 
The XOR sum is (1 XOR 5) + (0 XOR 4) + (3 XOR 3) = 4 + 4 + 0 = 8.

Constraints:

  • n == nums1.length
  • n == nums2.length
  • 1 <= n <= 14
  • 0 <= nums1[i], nums2[i] <= 107

Solution: DP / Permutation to combination

dp[s] := min xor sum by using a subset of nums2 (presented by a binary string s) xor with nums1[0:|s|].

Time complexity: O(n*2n)
Space complexity: O(2n)

C++