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Posts tagged as “hard”

花花酱 LeetCode 1825. Finding MK Average

You are given two integers, m and k, and a stream of integers. You are tasked to implement a data structure that calculates the MKAverage for the stream.

The MKAverage can be calculated using these steps:

  1. If the number of the elements in the stream is less than m you should consider the MKAverage to be -1. Otherwise, copy the last m elements of the stream to a separate container.
  2. Remove the smallest k elements and the largest k elements from the container.
  3. Calculate the average value for the rest of the elements rounded down to the nearest integer.

Implement the MKAverage class:

  • MKAverage(int m, int k) Initializes the MKAverage object with an empty stream and the two integers m and k.
  • void addElement(int num) Inserts a new element num into the stream.
  • int calculateMKAverage() Calculates and returns the MKAverage for the current stream rounded down to the nearest integer.

Example 1:

Input
["MKAverage", "addElement", "addElement", "calculateMKAverage", "addElement", "calculateMKAverage", "addElement", "addElement", "addElement", "calculateMKAverage"]
[[3, 1], [3], [1], [], [10], [], [5], [5], [5], []]
Output
[null, null, null, -1, null, 3, null, null, null, 5]

Explanation MKAverage obj = new MKAverage(3, 1); obj.addElement(3); // current elements are [3] obj.addElement(1); // current elements are [3,1] obj.calculateMKAverage(); // return -1, because m = 3 and only 2 elements exist. obj.addElement(10); // current elements are [3,1,10] obj.calculateMKAverage(); // The last 3 elements are [3,1,10]. // After removing smallest and largest 1 element the container will be [3]. // The average of [3] equals 3/1 = 3, return 3 obj.addElement(5); // current elements are [3,1,10,5] obj.addElement(5); // current elements are [3,1,10,5,5] obj.addElement(5); // current elements are [3,1,10,5,5,5] obj.calculateMKAverage(); // The last 3 elements are [5,5,5]. // After removing smallest and largest 1 element the container will be [5]. // The average of [5] equals 5/1 = 5, return 5

Constraints:

  • 3 <= m <= 105
  • 1 <= k*2 < m
  • 1 <= num <= 105
  • At most 105 calls will be made to addElement and calculateMKAverage.

Solution 1: Multiset * 3

Use three multiset to track the left part (smallest k elements), right part (largest k elements) and mid (middle part of m – 2*k elements).

Time complexity: addElememt: O(logn), average: O(1)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1819. Number of Different Subsequences GCDs

You are given an array nums that consists of positive integers.

The GCD of a sequence of numbers is defined as the greatest integer that divides all the numbers in the sequence evenly.

  • For example, the GCD of the sequence [4,6,16] is 2.

subsequence of an array is a sequence that can be formed by removing some elements (possibly none) of the array.

  • For example, [2,5,10] is a subsequence of [1,2,1,2,4,1,5,10].

Return the number of different GCDs among all non-empty subsequences of nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [6,10,3]
Output: 5
Explanation: The figure shows all the non-empty subsequences and their GCDs.
The different GCDs are 6, 10, 3, 2, and 1.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,15,40,5,6]
Output: 7

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 2 * 105

Solution: Math

Enumerate all possible gcds (1 to max(nums)), and check whether there is a subset of the numbers that can form a given gcd i.
If we want to check whether 10 is a valid gcd, we found all multipliers of 10 in the array and compute their gcd.
ex1 gcd(10, 20, 30) = 10, true
ex2 gcd(20, 40, 80) = 20, false

Time complexity: O(mlogm)
Space complexity: O(m)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1815. Maximum Number of Groups Getting Fresh Donuts

There is a donuts shop that bakes donuts in batches of batchSize. They have a rule where they must serve all of the donuts of a batch before serving any donuts of the next batch. You are given an integer batchSize and an integer array groups, where groups[i] denotes that there is a group of groups[i] customers that will visit the shop. Each customer will get exactly one donut.

When a group visits the shop, all customers of the group must be served before serving any of the following groups. A group will be happy if they all get fresh donuts. That is, the first customer of the group does not receive a donut that was left over from the previous group.

You can freely rearrange the ordering of the groups. Return the maximum possible number of happy groups after rearranging the groups.

Example 1:

Input: batchSize = 3, groups = [1,2,3,4,5,6]
Output: 4
Explanation: You can arrange the groups as [6,2,4,5,1,3]. Then the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 6th groups will be happy.

Example 2:

Input: batchSize = 4, groups = [1,3,2,5,2,2,1,6]
Output: 4

Constraints:

  • 1 <= batchSize <= 9
  • 1 <= groups.length <= 30
  • 1 <= groups[i] <= 109

Solution 0: Binary Mask DP

Time complexity: O(n*2n) TLE
Space complexity: O(2n)

C++

Solution 1: Recursion w/ Memoization

State: count of group size % batchSize

C++

C++/Hashtable

C++/OPT

花花酱 LeetCode 1808. Maximize Number of Nice Divisors

You are given a positive integer primeFactors. You are asked to construct a positive integer n that satisfies the following conditions:

  • The number of prime factors of n (not necessarily distinct) is at most primeFactors.
  • The number of nice divisors of n is maximized. Note that a divisor of n is nice if it is divisible by every prime factor of n. For example, if n = 12, then its prime factors are [2,2,3], then 6 and 12 are nice divisors, while 3 and 4 are not.

Return the number of nice divisors of n. Since that number can be too large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Note that a prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that is not a product of two smaller natural numbers. The prime factors of a number n is a list of prime numbers such that their product equals n.

Example 1:

Input: primeFactors = 5
Output: 6
Explanation: 200 is a valid value of n.
It has 5 prime factors: [2,2,2,5,5], and it has 6 nice divisors: [10,20,40,50,100,200].
There is not other value of n that has at most 5 prime factors and more nice divisors.

Example 2:

Input: primeFactors = 8
Output: 18

Constraints:

  • 1 <= primeFactors <= 109

Solution: Math

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1799. Maximize Score After N Operations

You are given nums, an array of positive integers of size 2 * n. You must perform n operations on this array.

In the ith operation (1-indexed), you will:

  • Choose two elements, x and y.
  • Receive a score of i * gcd(x, y).
  • Remove x and y from nums.

Return the maximum score you can receive after performing n operations.

The function gcd(x, y) is the greatest common divisor of x and y.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2]
Output: 1
Explanation: The optimal choice of operations is:
(1 * gcd(1, 2)) = 1

Example 2:

Input: nums = [3,4,6,8]
Output: 11
Explanation: The optimal choice of operations is:
(1 * gcd(3, 6)) + (2 * gcd(4, 8)) = 3 + 8 = 11

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4,5,6]
Output: 14
Explanation: The optimal choice of operations is:
(1 * gcd(1, 5)) + (2 * gcd(2, 4)) + (3 * gcd(3, 6)) = 1 + 4 + 9 = 14

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 7
  • nums.length == 2 * n
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 106

Solution: Mask DP

dp(mask, i) := max score of numbers (represented by a binary mask) at the i-th operations.
ans = dp(1, mask)
base case: dp = 0 if mask == 0
Transition: dp(mask, i) = max(dp(new_mask, i + 1) + i * gcd(nums[m], nums[n]))

Time complexity: O(n2*22n)
Space complexity: O(22n)

C++

Bottom-Up

C++