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Posts tagged as “BFS”

花花酱 LeetCode 1466. Reorder Routes to Make All Paths Lead to the City Zero

There are n cities numbered from 0 to n-1 and n-1 roads such that there is only one way to travel between two different cities (this network form a tree). Last year, The ministry of transport decided to orient the roads in one direction because they are too narrow.

Roads are represented by connections where connections[i] = [a, b] represents a road from city a to b.

This year, there will be a big event in the capital (city 0), and many people want to travel to this city.

Your task consists of reorienting some roads such that each city can visit the city 0. Return the minimum number of edges changed.

It’s guaranteed that each city can reach the city 0 after reorder.

Example 1:

Input: n = 6, connections = [[0,1],[1,3],[2,3],[4,0],[4,5]]
Output: 3
Explanation: Change the direction of edges show in red such that each node can reach the node 0 (capital).

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, connections = [[1,0],[1,2],[3,2],[3,4]]
Output: 2
Explanation: Change the direction of edges show in red such that each node can reach the node 0 (capital).

Example 3:

Input: n = 3, connections = [[1,0],[2,0]]
Output: 0

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 5 * 10^4
  • connections.length == n-1
  • connections[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= connections[i][0], connections[i][1] <= n-1
  • connections[i][0] != connections[i][1]

Solution: BFS

Augment the graph
g[u][v] = 1, g[v][u] = 0, u->v is an edge in the original graph.

BFS from 0, sum up all the edge costs to visit all the nodes.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1391. Check if There is a Valid Path in a Grid

Given a m x ngrid. Each cell of the grid represents a street. The street of grid[i][j] can be:

  • 1 which means a street connecting the left cell and the right cell.
  • 2 which means a street connecting the upper cell and the lower cell.
  • 3 which means a street connecting the left cell and the lower cell.
  • 4 which means a street connecting the right cell and the lower cell.
  • 5 which means a street connecting the left cell and the upper cell.
  • 6 which means a street connecting the right cell and the upper cell.

You will initially start at the street of the upper-left cell (0,0). A valid path in the grid is a path which starts from the upper left cell (0,0) and ends at the bottom-right cell (m - 1, n - 1)The path should only follow the streets.

Notice that you are not allowed to change any street.

Return true if there is a valid path in the grid or false otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[2,4,3],[6,5,2]]
Output: true
Explanation: As shown you can start at cell (0, 0) and visit all the cells of the grid to reach (m - 1, n - 1).

Example 2:

Input: grid = [[1,2,1],[1,2,1]]
Output: false
Explanation: As shown you the street at cell (0, 0) is not connected with any street of any other cell and you will get stuck at cell (0, 0)

Example 3:

Input: grid = [[1,1,2]]
Output: false
Explanation: You will get stuck at cell (0, 1) and you cannot reach cell (0, 2).

Example 4:

Input: grid = [[1,1,1,1,1,1,3]]
Output: true

Example 5:

Input: grid = [[2],[2],[2],[2],[2],[2],[6]]
Output: true

Constraints:

  • m == grid.length
  • n == grid[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 300
  • 1 <= grid[i][j] <= 6

Solution: BFS

Need to check both sides (x, y) -> (tx, ty) and (tx, ty) -> (x, y) to make sure a path exist.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1377. Frog Position After T Seconds

Given an undirected tree consisting of n vertices numbered from 1 to n. A frog starts jumping from the vertex 1. In one second, the frog jumps from its current vertex to another unvisited vertex if they are directly connected. The frog can not jump back to a visited vertex. In case the frog can jump to several vertices it jumps randomly to one of them with the same probability, otherwise, when the frog can not jump to any unvisited vertex it jumps forever on the same vertex. 

The edges of the undirected tree are given in the array edges, where edges[i] = [fromi, toi] means that exists an edge connecting directly the vertices fromi and toi.

Return the probability that after t seconds the frog is on the vertex target.

Example 1:

Input: n = 7, edges = [[1,2],[1,3],[1,7],[2,4],[2,6],[3,5]], t = 2, target = 4
Output: 0.16666666666666666 
Explanation: The figure above shows the given graph. The frog starts at vertex 1, jumping with 1/3 probability to the vertex 2 after second 1 and then jumping with 1/2 probability to vertex 4 after second 2. Thus the probability for the frog is on the vertex 4 after 2 seconds is 1/3 * 1/2 = 1/6 = 0.16666666666666666. 

Example 2:

Input: n = 7, edges = [[1,2],[1,3],[1,7],[2,4],[2,6],[3,5]], t = 1, target = 7
Output: 0.3333333333333333
Explanation: The figure above shows the given graph. The frog starts at vertex 1, jumping with 1/3 = 0.3333333333333333 probability to the vertex 7 after second 1. 

Example 3:

Input: n = 7, edges = [[1,2],[1,3],[1,7],[2,4],[2,6],[3,5]], t = 20, target = 6
Output: 0.16666666666666666

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 100
  • edges.length == n-1
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 1 <= edges[i][0], edges[i][1] <= n
  • 1 <= t <= 50
  • 1 <= target <= n
  • Answers within 10^-5 of the actual value will be accepted as correct.

Solution: BFS

key: if a node has children, the fog jumps to to children so the probability at current node will become 0.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1368. Minimum Cost to Make at Least One Valid Path in a Grid

Given a m x ngrid. Each cell of the grid has a sign pointing to the next cell you should visit if you are currently in this cell. The sign of grid[i][j] can be:

  • 1 which means go to the cell to the right. (i.e go from grid[i][j] to grid[i][j + 1])
  • 2 which means go to the cell to the left. (i.e go from grid[i][j] to grid[i][j - 1])
  • 3 which means go to the lower cell. (i.e go from grid[i][j] to grid[i + 1][j])
  • 4 which means go to the upper cell. (i.e go from grid[i][j] to grid[i - 1][j])

Notice that there could be some invalid signs on the cells of the grid which points outside the grid.

You will initially start at the upper left cell (0,0). A valid path in the grid is a path which starts from the upper left cell (0,0) and ends at the bottom-right cell (m - 1, n - 1) following the signs on the grid. The valid path doesn’t have to be the shortest.

You can modify the sign on a cell with cost = 1. You can modify the sign on a cell one time only.

Return the minimum cost to make the grid have at least one valid path.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[1,1,1,1],[2,2,2,2],[1,1,1,1],[2,2,2,2]]
Output: 3
Explanation: You will start at point (0, 0).
The path to (3, 3) is as follows. (0, 0) --> (0, 1) --> (0, 2) --> (0, 3) change the arrow to down with cost = 1 --> (1, 3) --> (1, 2) --> (1, 1) --> (1, 0) change the arrow to down with cost = 1 --> (2, 0) --> (2, 1) --> (2, 2) --> (2, 3) change the arrow to down with cost = 1 --> (3, 3)
The total cost = 3.

Example 2:

Input: grid = [[1,1,3],[3,2,2],[1,1,4]]
Output: 0
Explanation: You can follow the path from (0, 0) to (2, 2).

Example 3:

Input: grid = [[1,2],[4,3]]
Output: 1

Example 4:

Input: grid = [[2,2,2],[2,2,2]]
Output: 3

Example 5:

Input: grid = [[4]]
Output: 0

Constraints:

  • m == grid.length
  • n == grid[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 100

Solution 1: Lazy BFS (fake DP)

dp[i][j] := min steps to reach (i, j)

Time complexity: O((m+n)*m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++

C++

Solution 2: 0-1 BFS

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1345. Jump Game IV

Given an array of integers arr, you are initially positioned at the first index of the array.

In one step you can jump from index i to index:

  • i + 1 where: i + 1 < arr.length.
  • i - 1 where: i - 1 >= 0.
  • j where: arr[i] == arr[j] and i != j.

Return the minimum number of steps to reach the last index of the array.

Notice that you can not jump outside of the array at any time.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [100,-23,-23,404,100,23,23,23,3,404]
Output: 3
Explanation: You need three jumps from index 0 --> 4 --> 3 --> 9. Note that index 9 is the last index of the array.

Example 2:

Input: arr = [7]
Output: 0
Explanation: Start index is the last index. You don't need to jump.

Example 3:

Input: arr = [7,6,9,6,9,6,9,7]
Output: 1
Explanation: You can jump directly from index 0 to index 7 which is last index of the array.

Example 4:

Input: arr = [6,1,9]
Output: 2

Example 5:

Input: arr = [11,22,7,7,7,7,7,7,7,22,13]
Output: 3

Constraints:

  • 1 <= arr.length <= 5 * 10^4
  • -10^8 <= arr[i] <= 10^8

Solution: HashTable + BFS

Use a hashtable to store the indices of each unique number.

each index i has neighbors (i-1, i + 1, hashtable[arr[i]])

Use BFS to find the shortest path in this unweighted graph.

Key optimization, clear hashtable[arr[i]] after the first use, since all nodes are already on queue, no longer needed.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

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