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Posts tagged as “shortest path”

花花酱 LeetCode 1293. Shortest Path in a Grid with Obstacles Elimination

iven a m * n grid, where each cell is either 0 (empty) or 1 (obstacle). In one step, you can move up, down, left or right from and to an empty cell.

Return the minimum number of steps to walk from the upper left corner (0, 0) to the lower right corner (m-1, n-1) given that you can eliminate at most k obstacles. If it is not possible to find such walk return -1.

Example 1:

Input: 
grid = 
[[0,0,0],
 [1,1,0],
 [0,0,0],
 [0,1,1],
 [0,0,0]], 
k = 1
Output: 6
Explanation: 
The shortest path without eliminating any obstacle is 10. 
The shortest path with one obstacle elimination at position (3,2) is 6. Such path is (0,0) -> (0,1) -> (0,2) -> (1,2) -> (2,2) -> (3,2) -> (4,2).

Example 2:

Input: 
grid = 
[[0,1,1],
 [1,1,1],
 [1,0,0]], 
k = 1
Output: -1
Explanation: 
We need to eliminate at least two obstacles to find such a walk.

Constraints:

  • grid.length == m
  • grid[0].length == n
  • 1 <= m, n <= 40
  • 1 <= k <= m*n
  • grid[i][j] == 0 or 1
  • grid[0][0] == grid[m-1][n-1] == 0

Solution: BFS

State: (x, y, k) where k is the number of obstacles along the path.

Time complexity: O(m*n*k)
Space complexity: O(m*n*k)

C++

Solution 2: DP

Time complexity: O(mnk)
Space complexity: O(mnk)

Bottom-Up

Top-Down

花花酱 LeetCode 1138. Alphabet Board Path

On an alphabet board, we start at position (0, 0), corresponding to character board[0][0].

Here, board = ["abcde", "fghij", "klmno", "pqrst", "uvwxy", "z"].

We may make the following moves:

  • 'U' moves our position up one row, if the square exists;
  • 'D' moves our position down one row, if the square exists;
  • 'L' moves our position left one column, if the square exists;
  • 'R' moves our position right one column, if the square exists;
  • '!' adds the character board[r][c] at our current position (r, c) to the answer.

Return a sequence of moves that makes our answer equal to target in the minimum number of moves.  You may return any path that does so.

Example 1:

Input: target = "leet"
Output: "DDR!UURRR!!DDD!"

Example 2:

Input: target = "code"
Output: "RR!DDRR!UUL!R!"

Constraints:

  • 1 <= target.length <= 100
  • target consists only of English lowercase letters.

Solution: Manhattan walk

Compute the coordinates of each char, walk from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) in Manhattan way.
Be aware of the last row, we can only walk on ‘z’, so go left and up first if needed.

Time complexity: O(26*26 + n)
Space complexity: O(26*26)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 934. Shortest Bridge

Problem

https://leetcode.com/problems/shortest-bridge/description/

In a given 2D binary array A, there are two islands.  (An island is a 4-directionally connected group of 1s not connected to any other 1s.)

Now, we may change 0s to 1s so as to connect the two islands together to form 1 island.

Return the smallest number of 0s that must be flipped.  (It is guaranteed that the answer is at least 1.)

Example 1:

Input: [[0,1],[1,0]]
Output: 1

Example 2:

Input: [[0,1,0],[0,0,0],[0,0,1]]
Output: 2

Example 3:

Input: [[1,1,1,1,1],[1,0,0,0,1],[1,0,1,0,1],[1,0,0,0,1],[1,1,1,1,1]]
Output: 1

Note:

  1. 1 <= A.length = A[0].length <= 100
  2. A[i][j] == 0 or A[i][j] == 1

Solution: DFS + BFS

  1. Use DFS to find one island and color all the nodes as 2 (BLUE).
  2. Use BFS to find the shortest path from any nodes with color 2 (BLUE) to any nodes with color 1 (RED).

Time complexity: O(mn)

Space complexity: O(mn)

C++

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 882. Reachable Nodes In Subdivided Graph

Problem

Starting with an undirected graph (the “original graph”) with nodes from 0 to N-1, subdivisions are made to some of the edges.

The graph is given as follows: edges[k] is a list of integer pairs (i, j, n) such that (i, j) is an edge of the original graph,

and n is the total number of new nodes on that edge.

Then, the edge (i, j) is deleted from the original graph, n new nodes (x_1, x_2, ..., x_n) are added to the original graph,

and n+1 new edges (i, x_1), (x_1, x_2), (x_2, x_3), ..., (x_{n-1}, x_n), (x_n, j) are added to the original graph.

Now, you start at node 0 from the original graph, and in each move, you travel along one edge.

Return how many nodes you can reach in at most M moves.

 

Example 1:

Input: edge = [[0,1,10],[0,2,1],[1,2,2]], M = 6, N = 3 
Output: 13 
Explanation:  The nodes that are reachable in the final graph after M = 6 moves are indicated below. 

Example 2:

Input: edges = [[0,1,4],[1,2,6],[0,2,8],[1,3,1]], M = 10, N = 4 
Output: 23

Note:

  1. 0 <= edges.length <= 10000
  2. 0 <= edges[i][0] < edges[i][1] < N
  3. There does not exist any i != j for which edges[i][0] == edges[j][0] and edges[i][1] == edges[j][1].
  4. The original graph has no parallel edges.
  5. 0 <= edges[i][2] <= 10000
  6. 0 <= M <= 10^9
  7. 1 <= N <= 3000

Solution: Dijkstra Shortest Path

Compute the shortest from 0 to rest of the nodes. Use HP to mark the maximum moves left to reach each node.

HP[u] = a, HP[v] = b, new_nodes[u][v] = c

nodes covered between a<->b = min(c, a + b)

Time complexity: O(ElogE)

Space complexity: O(E)

C++

Optimized Dijkstra (replace hashmap with vector)

Using SPFA

 

BFS

 

花花酱 LeetCode 542. 01 Matrix

Problem

Given a matrix consists of 0 and 1, find the distance of the nearest 0 for each cell.

The distance between two adjacent cells is 1.

Example 1: 
Input:

0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0

Output:

0 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0

Example 2: 
Input:

0 0 0
0 1 0
1 1 1

Output:

0 0 0
0 1 0
1 2 1

Note:

  1. The number of elements of the given matrix will not exceed 10,000.
  2. There are at least one 0 in the given matrix.
  3. The cells are adjacent in only four directions: up, down, left and right.

Solution 1: DP

Two passes:

  1. down, right
  2. up, left

Time complexity: O(mn)

Space complexity: O(mn)

Solution 2: BFS

Start from all 0 cells and find shortest paths to rest of the cells.

Time complexity: O(mn)

Space complexity: O(mn)