# Posts tagged as “shortest path”

You are given an undirected weighted graph of n nodes (0-indexed), represented by an edge list where edges[i] = [a, b] is an undirected edge connecting the nodes a and b with a probability of success of traversing that edge succProb[i].

Given two nodes start and end, find the path with the maximum probability of success to go from start to end and return its success probability.

If there is no path from start to endreturn 0. Your answer will be accepted if it differs from the correct answer by at most 1e-5.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, edges = [[0,1],[1,2],[0,2]], succProb = [0.5,0.5,0.2], start = 0, end = 2
Output: 0.25000
Explanation: There are two paths from start to end, one having a probability of success = 0.2 and the other has 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25.


Example 2:

Input: n = 3, edges = [[0,1],[1,2],[0,2]], succProb = [0.5,0.5,0.3], start = 0, end = 2
Output: 0.30000


Example 3:

Input: n = 3, edges = [[0,1]], succProb = [0.5], start = 0, end = 2
Output: 0.00000
Explanation: There is no path between 0 and 2.


Constraints:

• 2 <= n <= 10^4
• 0 <= start, end < n
• start != end
• 0 <= a, b < n
• a != b
• 0 <= succProb.length == edges.length <= 2*10^4
• 0 <= succProb[i] <= 1
• There is at most one edge between every two nodes.

## Solution: Dijkstra’s Algorithm

max(P1*P2*…*Pn) => max(log(P1*P2…*Pn)) => max(log(P1) + log(P2) + … + log(Pn) => min(-(log(P1) + log(P2) … + log(Pn)).

Thus we can convert this problem to the classic single source shortest path problem that can be solved with Dijkstra’s algorithm.

Time complexity: O(ElogV)
Space complexity: O(E+V)

## Python3

There are n cities numbered from 0 to n-1. Given the array edges where edges[i] = [fromi, toi, weighti] represents a bidirectional and weighted edge between cities fromi and toi, and given the integer distanceThreshold.

Return the city with the smallest numberof cities that are reachable through some path and whose distance is at most distanceThreshold, If there are multiple such cities, return the city with the greatest number.

Notice that the distance of a path connecting cities i and j is equal to the sum of the edges’ weights along that path.

Example 1:

Input: n = 4, edges = [[0,1,3],[1,2,1],[1,3,4],[2,3,1]], distanceThreshold = 4
Output: 3
Explanation: The figure above describes the graph.
The neighboring cities at a distanceThreshold = 4 for each city are:
City 0 -> [City 1, City 2]
City 1 -> [City 0, City 2, City 3]
City 2 -> [City 0, City 1, City 3]
City 3 -> [City 1, City 2]
Cities 0 and 3 have 2 neighboring cities at a distanceThreshold = 4, but we have to return city 3 since it has the greatest number.


Example 2:

Input: n = 5, edges = [[0,1,2],[0,4,8],[1,2,3],[1,4,2],[2,3,1],[3,4,1]], distanceThreshold = 2
Output: 0
Explanation: The figure above describes the graph.
The neighboring cities at a distanceThreshold = 2 for each city are:
City 0 -> [City 1]
City 1 -> [City 0, City 4]
City 2 -> [City 3, City 4]
City 3 -> [City 2, City 4]
City 4 -> [City 1, City 2, City 3]
The city 0 has 1 neighboring city at a distanceThreshold = 2.


Constraints:

• 2 <= n <= 100
• 1 <= edges.length <= n * (n - 1) / 2
• edges[i].length == 3
• 0 <= fromi < toi < n
• 1 <= weighti, distanceThreshold <= 10^4
• All pairs (fromi, toi) are distinct.

## Solution1: Floyd-Warshall

All pair shortest path

Time complexity: O(n^3)
Space complexity: O(n^2)

## C++

Solution 2: Dijkstra’s Algorithm

Time complexity: O(V * ElogV) / worst O(n^3*logn), best O(n^2*logn)
Space complexity: O(V + E)

## C++

iven a m * n grid, where each cell is either 0 (empty) or 1 (obstacle). In one step, you can move up, down, left or right from and to an empty cell.

Return the minimum number of steps to walk from the upper left corner (0, 0) to the lower right corner (m-1, n-1) given that you can eliminate at most k obstacles. If it is not possible to find such walk return -1.

Example 1:

Input:
grid =
[[0,0,0],
[1,1,0],
[0,0,0],
[0,1,1],
[0,0,0]],
k = 1
Output: 6
Explanation:
The shortest path without eliminating any obstacle is 10.
The shortest path with one obstacle elimination at position (3,2) is 6. Such path is (0,0) -> (0,1) -> (0,2) -> (1,2) -> (2,2) -> (3,2) -> (4,2).


Example 2:

Input:
grid =
[[0,1,1],
[1,1,1],
[1,0,0]],
k = 1
Output: -1
Explanation:
We need to eliminate at least two obstacles to find such a walk.


Constraints:

• grid.length == m
• grid.length == n
• 1 <= m, n <= 40
• 1 <= k <= m*n
• grid[i][j] == 0 or 1
• grid == grid[m-1][n-1] == 0

## Solution: BFS

State: (x, y, k) where k is the number of obstacles along the path.

Time complexity: O(m*n*k)
Space complexity: O(m*n*k)

## Solution 2: DP

Time complexity: O(mnk)
Space complexity: O(mnk)

## Top-Down

On an alphabet board, we start at position (0, 0), corresponding to character board.

Here, board = ["abcde", "fghij", "klmno", "pqrst", "uvwxy", "z"].

We may make the following moves:

• 'U' moves our position up one row, if the square exists;
• 'D' moves our position down one row, if the square exists;
• 'L' moves our position left one column, if the square exists;
• 'R' moves our position right one column, if the square exists;
• '!' adds the character board[r][c] at our current position (r, c) to the answer.

Return a sequence of moves that makes our answer equal to target in the minimum number of moves.  You may return any path that does so.

Example 1:

Input: target = "leet"
Output: "DDR!UURRR!!DDD!"


Example 2:

Input: target = "code"
Output: "RR!DDRR!UUL!R!"


Constraints:

• 1 <= target.length <= 100
• target consists only of English lowercase letters.

## Solution: Manhattan walk

Compute the coordinates of each char, walk from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) in Manhattan way.
Be aware of the last row, we can only walk on ‘z’, so go left and up first if needed.

Time complexity: O(26*26 + n)
Space complexity: O(26*26)

# Problem

https://leetcode.com/problems/shortest-bridge/description/

In a given 2D binary array A, there are two islands.  (An island is a 4-directionally connected group of 1s not connected to any other 1s.)

Now, we may change 0s to 1s so as to connect the two islands together to form 1 island.

Return the smallest number of 0s that must be flipped.  (It is guaranteed that the answer is at least 1.)

Example 1:

Input: [[0,1],[1,0]]
Output: 1


Example 2:

Input: [[0,1,0],[0,0,0],[0,0,1]]
Output: 2


Example 3:

Input: [[1,1,1,1,1],[1,0,0,0,1],[1,0,1,0,1],[1,0,0,0,1],[1,1,1,1,1]]
Output: 1

Note:

1. 1 <= A.length = A.length <= 100
2. A[i][j] == 0 or A[i][j] == 1 # Solution: DFS + BFS

1. Use DFS to find one island and color all the nodes as 2 (BLUE).
2. Use BFS to find the shortest path from any nodes with color 2 (BLUE) to any nodes with color 1 (RED).

Time complexity: O(mn)

Space complexity: O(mn)

# Related Problems

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