# Posts tagged as “counting”

You are given a 0-indexed binary string s which represents the types of buildings along a street where:

• s[i] = '0' denotes that the ith building is an office and
• s[i] = '1' denotes that the ith building is a restaurant.

As a city official, you would like to select 3 buildings for random inspection. However, to ensure variety, no two consecutive buildings out of the selected buildings can be of the same type.

• For example, given s = "001101", we cannot select the 1st3rd, and 5th buildings as that would form "011" which is not allowed due to having two consecutive buildings of the same type.

Return the number of valid ways to select 3 buildings.

Example 1:

Input: s = "001101"
Output: 6
Explanation:
The following sets of indices selected are valid:
- [0,2,4] from "001101" forms "010"
- [0,3,4] from "001101" forms "010"
- [1,2,4] from "001101" forms "010"
- [1,3,4] from "001101" forms "010"
- [2,4,5] from "001101" forms "101"
- [3,4,5] from "001101" forms "101"
No other selection is valid. Thus, there are 6 total ways.


Example 2:

Input: s = "11100"
Output: 0
Explanation: It can be shown that there are no valid selections.


Constraints:

• 3 <= s.length <= 105
• s[i] is either '0' or '1'.

## Solution: DP

The brute force solution will take O(n3) which will lead to TLE.

Since the only two valid cases are “010” and “101”.

We just need to count how many 0s and 1s, thus we can count 01s and 10s and finally 010s and 101s.

## C++

There are n pieces arranged in a line, and each piece is colored either by 'A' or by 'B'. You are given a string colors of length n where colors[i] is the color of the ith piece.

Alice and Bob are playing a game where they take alternating turns removing pieces from the line. In this game, Alice moves first.

• Alice is only allowed to remove a piece colored 'A' if both its neighbors are also colored 'A'. She is not allowed to remove pieces that are colored 'B'.
• Bob is only allowed to remove a piece colored 'B' if both its neighbors are also colored 'B'. He is not allowed to remove pieces that are colored 'A'.
• Alice and Bob cannot remove pieces from the edge of the line.
• If a player cannot make a move on their turn, that player loses and the other player wins.

Assuming Alice and Bob play optimally, return true if Alice wins, or return false if Bob wins.

Example 1:

Input: colors = "AAABABB"
Output: true
Explanation:
AAABABB -> AABABB
Alice moves first.
She removes the second 'A' from the left since that is the only 'A' whose neighbors are both 'A'.

Now it's Bob's turn.
Bob cannot make a move on his turn since there are no 'B's whose neighbors are both 'B'.
Thus, Alice wins, so return true.


Example 2:

Input: colors = "AA"
Output: false
Explanation:
Alice has her turn first.
There are only two 'A's and both are on the edge of the line, so she cannot move on her turn.
Thus, Bob wins, so return false.


Example 3:

Input: colors = "ABBBBBBBAAA"
Output: false
Explanation:
ABBBBBBBAAA -> ABBBBBBBAA
Alice moves first.
Her only option is to remove the second to last 'A' from the right.

ABBBBBBBAA -> ABBBBBBAA
Next is Bob's turn.
He has many options for which 'B' piece to remove. He can pick any.

On Alice's second turn, she has no more pieces that she can remove.
Thus, Bob wins, so return false.


Constraints:

• 1 <= colors.length <= 105
• colors consists of only the letters 'A' and 'B'

## Solution: Counting

Count how many ‘AAA’s and ‘BBB’s.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given an array of strings words (0-indexed).

In one operation, pick two distinct indices i and j, where words[i] is a non-empty string, and move any character from words[i] to any position in words[j].

Return true if you can make every string in words equal using any number of operations, and false otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["abc","aabc","bc"]
Output: true
Explanation: Move the first 'a' in words[1] to the front of words[2],
to make words[1] = "abc" and words[2] = "abc".
All the strings are now equal to "abc", so return true.


Example 2:

Input: words = ["ab","a"]
Output: false
Explanation: It is impossible to make all the strings equal using the operation.


Constraints:

• 1 <= words.length <= 100
• 1 <= words[i].length <= 100
• words[i] consists of lowercase English letters.

## Solution: Hashtable

Count the frequency of each character, it must be a multiplier of n such that we can evenly distribute it to all the words.
e.g. n = 3, a = 9, b = 6, c = 3, each word will be “aaabbc”.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## Python3 one-liner

There are n uniquely-sized sticks whose lengths are integers from 1 to n. You want to arrange the sticks such that exactly k sticks are visible from the left. A stick is visible from the left if there are no longer sticks to the left of it.

• For example, if the sticks are arranged [1,3,2,5,4], then the sticks with lengths 13, and 5 are visible from the left.

Given n and k, return the number of such arrangements. Since the answer may be large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, k = 2
Output: 3
Explanation: [1,3,2], [2,3,1], and [2,1,3] are the only arrangements such that exactly 2 sticks are visible.
The visible sticks are underlined.


Example 2:

Input: n = 5, k = 5
Output: 1
Explanation: [1,2,3,4,5] is the only arrangement such that all 5 sticks are visible.
The visible sticks are underlined.


Example 3:

Input: n = 20, k = 11
Output: 647427950
Explanation: There are 647427950 (mod 109 + 7) ways to rearrange the sticks such that exactly 11 sticks are visible.


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 1000
• 1 <= k <= n

## Solution: DP

dp(n, k) = dp(n – 1, k – 1) + (n-1) * dp(n-1, k)

Time complexity: O(n*k)
Space complexity: O(n*k) -> O(k)

## Python3

You are given the logs for users’ actions on LeetCode, and an integer k. The logs are represented by a 2D integer array logs where each logs[i] = [IDi, timei] indicates that the user with IDi performed an action at the minute timei.

Multiple users can perform actions simultaneously, and a single user can perform multiple actions in the same minute.

The user active minutes (UAM) for a given user is defined as the number of unique minutes in which the user performed an action on LeetCode. A minute can only be counted once, even if multiple actions occur during it.

You are to calculate a 1-indexed array answer of size k such that, for each j (1 <= j <= k), answer[j] is the number of users whose UAM equals j.

Return the array answer as described above.

Example 1:

Input: logs = [[0,5],[1,2],[0,2],[0,5],[1,3]], k = 5
Output: [0,2,0,0,0]
Explanation:
The user with ID=0 performed actions at minutes 5, 2, and 5 again. Hence, they have a UAM of 2 (minute 5 is only counted once).
The user with ID=1 performed actions at minutes 2 and 3. Hence, they have a UAM of 2.
Since both users have a UAM of 2, answer[2] is 2, and the remaining answer[j] values are 0.


Example 2:

Input: logs = [[1,1],[2,2],[2,3]], k = 4
Output: [1,1,0,0]
Explanation:
The user with ID=1 performed a single action at minute 1. Hence, they have a UAM of 1.
The user with ID=2 performed actions at minutes 2 and 3. Hence, they have a UAM of 2.
There is one user with a UAM of 1 and one with a UAM of 2.
Hence, answer[1] = 1, answer[2] = 1, and the remaining values are 0.


Constraints:

• 1 <= logs.length <= 104
• 0 <= IDi <= 109
• 1 <= timei <= 105
• k is in the range [The maximum UAM for a user, 105].

## Solution: Hashsets in a Hashtable

key: user_id, value: set{time}

Time complexity: O(n + k)
Space complexity: O(n + k)