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Posts tagged as “counting”

花花酱 LeetCode 1817. Finding the Users Active Minutes

You are given the logs for users’ actions on LeetCode, and an integer k. The logs are represented by a 2D integer array logs where each logs[i] = [IDi, timei] indicates that the user with IDi performed an action at the minute timei.

Multiple users can perform actions simultaneously, and a single user can perform multiple actions in the same minute.

The user active minutes (UAM) for a given user is defined as the number of unique minutes in which the user performed an action on LeetCode. A minute can only be counted once, even if multiple actions occur during it.

You are to calculate a 1-indexed array answer of size k such that, for each j (1 <= j <= k), answer[j] is the number of users whose UAM equals j.

Return the array answer as described above.

Example 1:

Input: logs = [[0,5],[1,2],[0,2],[0,5],[1,3]], k = 5
Output: [0,2,0,0,0]
Explanation:
The user with ID=0 performed actions at minutes 5, 2, and 5 again. Hence, they have a UAM of 2 (minute 5 is only counted once).
The user with ID=1 performed actions at minutes 2 and 3. Hence, they have a UAM of 2.
Since both users have a UAM of 2, answer[2] is 2, and the remaining answer[j] values are 0.

Example 2:

Input: logs = [[1,1],[2,2],[2,3]], k = 4
Output: [1,1,0,0]
Explanation:
The user with ID=1 performed a single action at minute 1. Hence, they have a UAM of 1.
The user with ID=2 performed actions at minutes 2 and 3. Hence, they have a UAM of 2.
There is one user with a UAM of 1 and one with a UAM of 2.
Hence, answer[1] = 1, answer[2] = 1, and the remaining values are 0.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= logs.length <= 104
  • 0 <= IDi <= 109
  • 1 <= timei <= 105
  • k is in the range [The maximum UAM for a user, 105].

Solution: Hashsets in a Hashtable

key: user_id, value: set{time}

Time complexity: O(n + k)
Space complexity: O(n + k)

C++


花花酱 LeetCode 1759. Count Number of Homogenous Substrings

Given a string s, return the number of homogenous substrings of s. Since the answer may be too large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

A string is homogenous if all the characters of the string are the same.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within a string.

Example 1:

Input: s = "abbcccaa"
Output: 13
Explanation: The homogenous substrings are listed as below:
"a"   appears 3 times.
"aa"  appears 1 time.
"b"   appears 2 times.
"bb"  appears 1 time.
"c"   appears 3 times.
"cc"  appears 2 times.
"ccc" appears 1 time.
3 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 13.

Example 2:

Input: s = "xy"
Output: 2
Explanation: The homogenous substrings are "x" and "y".

Example 3:

Input: s = "zzzzz"
Output: 15

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length <= 105
  • s consists of lowercase letters.

Solution: Counting

Let m be the length of the longest homogenous substring, # of homogenous substring is m * (m + 1) / 2.
e.g. aaabb
“aaa” => m = 3, # = 3 * (3 + 1) / 2 = 6
“bb” => m = 2, # = 2 * (2+1) / 2 = 3
Total = 6 + 3 = 9

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1758. Minimum Changes To Make Alternating Binary String

You are given a string s consisting only of the characters '0' and '1'. In one operation, you can change any '0' to '1' or vice versa.

The string is called alternating if no two adjacent characters are equal. For example, the string "010" is alternating, while the string "0100" is not.

Return the minimum number of operations needed to make s alternating.

Example 1:

Input: s = "0100"
Output: 1
Explanation: If you change the last character to '1', s will be "0101", which is alternating.

Example 2:

Input: s = "10"
Output: 0
Explanation: s is already alternating.

Example 3:

Input: s = "1111"
Output: 2
Explanation: You need two operations to reach "0101" or "1010".

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length <= 104
  • s[i] is either '0' or '1'.

Solution: Two Counters

The final string is either 010101… or 101010…
We just need two counters to record the number of changes needed to transform the original string to those two final strings.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1704. Determine if String Halves Are Alike

You are given a string s of even length. Split this string into two halves of equal lengths, and let a be the first half and b be the second half.

Two strings are alike if they have the same number of vowels ('a''e''i''o''u''A''E''I''O''U'). Notice that s contains uppercase and lowercase letters.

Return true if a and b are alike. Otherwise, return false.

Example 1:

Input: s = "book"
Output: true
Explanation: a = "bo" and b = "ok". a has 1 vowel and b has 1 vowel. Therefore, they are alike.

Example 2:

Input: s = "textbook"
Output: false
Explanation: a = "text" and b = "book". a has 1 vowel whereas b has 2. Therefore, they are not alike.
Notice that the vowel o is counted twice.

Example 3:

Input: s = "MerryChristmas"
Output: false

Example 4:

Input: s = "AbCdEfGh"
Output: true

Constraints:

  • 2 <= s.length <= 1000
  • s.length is even.
  • s consists of uppercase and lowercase letters.

Solution: Counting

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1702. Maximum Binary String After Change

You are given a binary string binary consisting of only 0‘s or 1‘s. You can apply each of the following operations any number of times:

  • Operation 1: If the number contains the substring "00", you can replace it with "10".
    • For example, "00010" -> "10010
  • Operation 2: If the number contains the substring "10", you can replace it with "01".
    • For example, "00010" -> "00001"

Return the maximum binary string you can obtain after any number of operations. Binary string x is greater than binary string y if x‘s decimal representation is greater than y‘s decimal representation.

Example 1:

Input: binary = "000110"
Output: "111011"
Explanation: A valid transformation sequence can be:
"000110" -> "000101" 
"000101" -> "100101" 
"100101" -> "110101" 
"110101" -> "110011" 
"110011" -> "111011"

Example 2:

Input: binary = "01"
Output: "01"
Explanation: "01" cannot be transformed any further.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= binary.length <= 105
  • binary consist of '0' and '1'.

Solution: Greedy + Counting

Leading 1s are good, no need to change them.
For the rest of the string
1. Apply operation 2 to make the string into 3 parts, leading 1s, middle 0s and tailing 1s.
e.g. 11010101 => 11001101 => 11001011 => 11000111
2. Apply operation 1 to make flip zeros to ones except the last one.
e.g. 11000111 => 11100111 => 11110111

There will be only one zero (if the input string is not all 1s) is the final largest string, the position of the zero is leading 1s + zeros – 1.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++