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花花酱 LeetCode 1455. Check If a Word Occurs As a Prefix of Any Word in a Sentence

Given a sentence that consists of some words separated by a single space, and a searchWord.

You have to check if searchWord is a prefix of any word in sentence.

Return the index of the word in sentence where searchWord is a prefix of this word (1-indexed).

If searchWord is a prefix of more than one word, return the index of the first word (minimum index). If there is no such word return -1.

prefix of a string S is any leading contiguous substring of S.

Example 1:

Input: sentence = "i love eating burger", searchWord = "burg"
Output: 4
Explanation: "burg" is prefix of "burger" which is the 4th word in the sentence.

Example 2:

Input: sentence = "this problem is an easy problem", searchWord = "pro"
Output: 2
Explanation: "pro" is prefix of "problem" which is the 2nd and the 6th word in the sentence, but we return 2 as it's the minimal index.

Example 3:

Input: sentence = "i am tired", searchWord = "you"
Output: -1
Explanation: "you" is not a prefix of any word in the sentence.

Example 4:

Input: sentence = "i use triple pillow", searchWord = "pill"
Output: 4

Example 5:

Input: sentence = "hello from the other side", searchWord = "they"
Output: -1

Constraints:

  • 1 <= sentence.length <= 100
  • 1 <= searchWord.length <= 10
  • sentence consists of lowercase English letters and spaces.
  • searchWord consists of lowercase English letters.

Solution 1: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1446. Consecutive Characters

Given a string s, the power of the string is the maximum length of a non-empty substring that contains only one unique character.

Return the power of the string.

Example 1:

Input: s = "leetcode"
Output: 2
Explanation: The substring "ee" is of length 2 with the character 'e' only.

Example 2:

Input: s = "abbcccddddeeeeedcba"
Output: 5
Explanation: The substring "eeeee" is of length 5 with the character 'e' only.

Example 3:

Input: s = "triplepillooooow"
Output: 5

Example 4:

Input: s = "hooraaaaaaaaaaay"
Output: 11

Example 5:

Input: s = "tourist"
Output: 1

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length <= 500
  • s contains only lowercase English letters.

Solution: Run length encoding?

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1451. Rearrange Words in a Sentence

Given a sentence text (A sentence is a string of space-separated words) in the following format:

  • First letter is in upper case.
  • Each word in text are separated by a single space.

Your task is to rearrange the words in text such that all words are rearranged in an increasing order of their lengths. If two words have the same length, arrange them in their original order.

Return the new text following the format shown above.

Example 1:

Input: text = "Leetcode is cool"
Output: "Is cool leetcode"
Explanation: There are 3 words, "Leetcode" of length 8, "is" of length 2 and "cool" of length 4.
Output is ordered by length and the new first word starts with capital letter.

Example 2:

Input: text = "Keep calm and code on"
Output: "On and keep calm code"
Explanation: Output is ordered as follows:
"On" 2 letters.
"and" 3 letters.
"keep" 4 letters in case of tie order by position in original text.
"calm" 4 letters.
"code" 4 letters.

Example 3:

Input: text = "To be or not to be"
Output: "To be or to be not"

Constraints:

  • text begins with a capital letter and then contains lowercase letters and single space between words.
  • 1 <= text.length <= 10^5

Solution: Stable sort

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

LeetCode 1433. Check If a String Can Break Another String

Given two strings: s1 and s2 with the same size, check if some permutation of string s1 can break some permutation of string s2 or vice-versa (in other words s2 can break s1).

A string x can break string y (both of size n) if x[i] >= y[i] (in alphabetical order) for all i between 0 and n-1.

Example 1:

Input: s1 = "abc", s2 = "xya"
Output: true
Explanation: "ayx" is a permutation of s2="xya" which can break to string "abc" which is a permutation of s1="abc".

Example 2:

Input: s1 = "abe", s2 = "acd"
Output: false 
Explanation: All permutations for s1="abe" are: "abe", "aeb", "bae", "bea", "eab" and "eba" and all permutation for s2="acd" are: "acd", "adc", "cad", "cda", "dac" and "dca". However, there is not any permutation from s1 which can break some permutation from s2 and vice-versa.

Example 3:

Input: s1 = "leetcodee", s2 = "interview"
Output: true

Constraints:

  • s1.length == n
  • s2.length == n
  • 1 <= n <= 10^5
  • All strings consist of lowercase English letters.

Solution 1: Sort and compare

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Solution 2: Counting Sort

The cumulative number of elements must be monotonic e.g. t1 >= t2 or t2 >= t1 for all the letters.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1432. Max Difference You Can Get From Changing an Integer

You are given an integer num. You will apply the following steps exactly two times:

  • Pick a digit x (0 <= x <= 9).
  • Pick another digit y (0 <= y <= 9). The digit y can be equal to x.
  • Replace all the occurrences of x in the decimal representation of num by y.
  • The new integer cannot have any leading zeros, also the new integer cannot be 0.

Let a and b be the results of applying the operations to num the first and second times, respectively.

Return the max difference between a and b.

Example 1:

Input: num = 555
Output: 888
Explanation: The first time pick x = 5 and y = 9 and store the new integer in a.
The second time pick x = 5 and y = 1 and store the new integer in b.
We have now a = 999 and b = 111 and max difference = 888

Example 2:

Input: num = 9
Output: 8
Explanation: The first time pick x = 9 and y = 9 and store the new integer in a.
The second time pick x = 9 and y = 1 and store the new integer in b.
We have now a = 9 and b = 1 and max difference = 8

Example 3:

Input: num = 123456
Output: 820000

Example 4:

Input: num = 10000
Output: 80000

Example 5:

Input: num = 9288
Output: 8700

Constraints:

  • 1 <= num <= 10^8

Solution 1: Brute Force

Try all possible pairs of (x, y)

Time complexity: O(10*10*logn)
Space complexity: O(logn)

C++

Solution 2: Greedy

Maximize A and Minimize B

A – B will the answer.

To maximize A, find the left most digit that is not 9, replace that digit with 9.
e.g. 121 => 919
e.g. 9981 => 9991
To minimize B, fin the left most digit that is not 1 or 0, replace that digit with 0 (if not the first one) or 1.
e.g. 1024 -> 1004
e.g. 2024 -> 1014

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(logn)

C++