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# Posts published in “String”

You are given a 0-indexed string s that has lowercase English letters in its even indices and digits in its odd indices.

There is a function shift(c, x), where c is a character and x is a digit, that returns the xth character after c.

• For example, shift('a', 5) = 'f' and shift('x', 0) = 'x'.

For every odd index i, you want to replace the digit s[i] with shift(s[i-1], s[i]).

Return s after replacing all digits. It is guaranteed that shift(s[i-1], s[i]) will never exceed 'z'.

Example 1:

Input: s = "a1c1e1"
Output: "abcdef"
Explanation: The digits are replaced as follows:
- s[1] -> shift('a',1) = 'b'
- s[3] -> shift('c',1) = 'd'
- s[5] -> shift('e',1) = 'f'

Example 2:

Input: s = "a1b2c3d4e"
Output: "abbdcfdhe"
Explanation: The digits are replaced as follows:
- s[1] -> shift('a',1) = 'b'
- s[3] -> shift('b',2) = 'd'
- s[5] -> shift('c',3) = 'f'
- s[7] -> shift('d',4) = 'h'

Constraints:

• 1 <= s.length <= 100
• s consists only of lowercase English letters and digits.
• shift(s[i-1], s[i]) <= 'z' for all odd indices i.

## Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

A string is considered beautiful if it satisfies the following conditions:

• Each of the 5 English vowels ('a''e''i''o''u') must appear at least once in it.
• The letters must be sorted in alphabetical order (i.e. all 'a's before 'e's, all 'e's before 'i's, etc.).

For example, strings "aeiou" and "aaaaaaeiiiioou" are considered beautiful, but "uaeio""aeoiu", and "aaaeeeooo" are not beautiful.

Given a string word consisting of English vowels, return the length of the longest beautiful substring of word. If no such substring exists, return 0.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters in a string.

Example 1:

Input: word = "aeiaaioaaaaeiiiiouuuooaauuaeiu"
Output: 13
Explanation: The longest beautiful substring in word is "aaaaeiiiiouuu" of length 13.

Example 2:

Input: word = "aeeeiiiioooauuuaeiou"
Output: 5
Explanation: The longest beautiful substring in word is "aeiou" of length 5.


Example 3:

Input: word = "a"
Output: 0
Explanation: There is no beautiful substring, so return 0.


Constraints:

• 1 <= word.length <= 5 * 105
• word consists of characters 'a''e''i''o', and 'u'.

# Solution: Counter

Use a counter to track how many unique vowels we saw so far. Reset the counter whenever the s[i] < s[i-1]. Incase the counter if s[i] > s[i – 1]. When counter becomes 5, we know we found a valid substring.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

sentence is a list of words that are separated by a single space with no leading or trailing spaces. Each of the words consists of only uppercase and lowercase English letters (no punctuation).

• For example, "Hello World""HELLO", and "hello world hello world" are all sentences.

You are given a sentence s​​​​​​ and an integer k​​​​​​. You want to truncate s​​​​​​ such that it contains only the first k​​​​​​ words. Return s​​​​​​ after truncating it.

Example 1:

Input: s = "Hello how are you Contestant", k = 4
Output: "Hello how are you"
Explanation:
The words in s are ["Hello", "how" "are", "you", "Contestant"].
The first 4 words are ["Hello", "how", "are", "you"].
Hence, you should return "Hello how are you".


Example 2:

Input: s = "What is the solution to this problem", k = 4
Output: "What is the solution"
Explanation:
The words in s are ["What", "is" "the", "solution", "to", "this", "problem"].
The first 4 words are ["What", "is", "the", "solution"].
Hence, you should return "What is the solution".

Example 3:

Input: s = "chopper is not a tanuki", k = 5
Output: "chopper is not a tanuki"


Constraints:

• 1 <= s.length <= 500
• k is in the range [1, the number of words in s].
• s consist of only lowercase and uppercase English letters and spaces.
• The words in s are separated by a single space.
• There are no leading or trailing spaces.

## Solution:

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Python3

A sentence is a list of words that are separated by a single space with no leading or trailing spaces. For example, "Hello World""HELLO""hello world hello world" are all sentences. Words consist of only uppercase and lowercase English letters.

Two sentences sentence1 and sentence2 are similar if it is possible to insert an arbitrary sentence (possibly empty) inside one of these sentences such that the two sentences become equal. For example, sentence1 = "Hello my name is Jane" and sentence2 = "Hello Jane" can be made equal by inserting "my name is" between "Hello" and "Jane" in sentence2.

Given two sentences sentence1 and sentence2, return true if sentence1 and sentence2 are similar. Otherwise, return false.

Example 1:

Input: sentence1 = "My name is Haley", sentence2 = "My Haley"
Output: true
Explanation: sentence2 can be turned to sentence1 by inserting "name is" between "My" and "Haley".


Example 2:

Input: sentence1 = "of", sentence2 = "A lot of words"
Output: false
Explanation: No single sentence can be inserted inside one of the sentences to make it equal to the other.


Example 3:

Input: sentence1 = "Eating right now", sentence2 = "Eating"
Output: true
Explanation: sentence2 can be turned to sentence1 by inserting "right now" at the end of the sentence.


Example 4:

Input: sentence1 = "Luky", sentence2 = "Lucccky"
Output: false


Constraints:

• 1 <= sentence1.length, sentence2.length <= 100
• sentence1 and sentence2 consist of lowercase and uppercase English letters and spaces.
• The words in sentence1 and sentence2 are separated by a single space.

## Solution: Dequeue / Common Prefix + Suffix

Break sequences to words, store them in two deques. Pop the common prefix and suffix. At least one of the deque should be empty.

Time complexity: O(m+n)
Space complexity: O(m+n)

## Python3

You are given coordinates, a string that represents the coordinates of a square of the chessboard. Below is a chessboard for your reference.

Return true if the square is white, and false if the square is black.

The coordinate will always represent a valid chessboard square. The coordinate will always have the letter first, and the number second.

Example 1:

Input: coordinates = "a1"
Output: false
Explanation: From the chessboard above, the square with coordinates "a1" is black, so return false.


Example 2:

Input: coordinates = "h3"
Output: true
Explanation: From the chessboard above, the square with coordinates "h3" is white, so return true.


Example 3:

Input: coordinates = "c7"
Output: false


Constraints:

• coordinates.length == 2
• 'a' <= coordinates[0] <= 'h'
• '1' <= coordinates[1] <= '8'

## Solution: Mod2

return (row_index + col_index) % 2 == 0

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)