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花花酱 LeetCode 1649. Create Sorted Array through Instructions

Given an integer array instructions, you are asked to create a sorted array from the elements in instructions. You start with an empty container nums. For each element from left to right in instructions, insert it into nums. The cost of each insertion is the minimum of the following:

  • The number of elements currently in nums that are strictly less than instructions[i].
  • The number of elements currently in nums that are strictly greater than instructions[i].

For example, if inserting element 3 into nums = [1,2,3,5], the cost of insertion is min(2, 1) (elements 1 and 2 are less than 3, element 5 is greater than 3) and nums will become [1,2,3,3,5].

Return the total cost to insert all elements from instructions into nums. Since the answer may be large, return it modulo 109 + 7

Example 1:

Input: instructions = [1,5,6,2]
Output: 1
Explanation: Begin with nums = [].
Insert 1 with cost min(0, 0) = 0, now nums = [1].
Insert 5 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,5].
Insert 6 with cost min(2, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,5,6].
Insert 2 with cost min(1, 2) = 1, now nums = [1,2,5,6].
The total cost is 0 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 1.

Example 2:

Input: instructions = [1,2,3,6,5,4]
Output: 3
Explanation: Begin with nums = [].
Insert 1 with cost min(0, 0) = 0, now nums = [1].
Insert 2 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2].
Insert 3 with cost min(2, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2,3].
Insert 6 with cost min(3, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2,3,6].
Insert 5 with cost min(3, 1) = 1, now nums = [1,2,3,5,6].
Insert 4 with cost min(3, 2) = 2, now nums = [1,2,3,4,5,6].
The total cost is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 2 = 3.

Example 3:

Input: instructions = [1,3,3,3,2,4,2,1,2]
Output: 4
Explanation: Begin with nums = [].
Insert 1 with cost min(0, 0) = 0, now nums = [1].
Insert 3 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,3].
Insert 3 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,3,3].
Insert 3 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,3,3,3].
Insert 2 with cost min(1, 3) = 1, now nums = [1,2,3,3,3].
Insert 4 with cost min(5, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2,3,3,3,4].
​​​​​​​Insert 2 with cost min(1, 4) = 1, now nums = [1,2,2,3,3,3,4].
​​​​​​​Insert 1 with cost min(0, 6) = 0, now nums = [1,1,2,2,3,3,3,4].
​​​​​​​Insert 2 with cost min(2, 4) = 2, now nums = [1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3,4].
The total cost is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 2 = 4.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= instructions.length <= 105
  • 1 <= instructions[i] <= 105

Solution: Fenwick Tree / Binary Indexed Tree

Time complexity: O(nlogm)
Space complexity: O(m + n)

m is the maximum value, n is number of values.

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1611. Minimum One Bit Operations to Make Integers Zero

Given an integer n, you must transform it into 0 using the following operations any number of times:

  • Change the rightmost (0th) bit in the binary representation of n.
  • Change the ith bit in the binary representation of n if the (i-1)th bit is set to 1 and the (i-2)th through 0th bits are set to 0.

Return the minimum number of operations to transform n into 0.

Example 1:

Input: n = 0
Output: 0

Example 2:

Input: n = 3
Output: 2
Explanation: The binary representation of 3 is "11".
"11" -> "01" with the 2nd operation since the 0th bit is 1.
"01" -> "00" with the 1st operation.

Example 3:

Input: n = 6
Output: 4
Explanation: The binary representation of 6 is "110".
"110" -> "010" with the 2nd operation since the 1st bit is 1 and 0th through 0th bits are 0.
"010" -> "011" with the 1st operation.
"011" -> "001" with the 2nd operation since the 0th bit is 1.
"001" -> "000" with the 1st operation.

Example 4:

Input: n = 9
Output: 14

Example 5:

Input: n = 333
Output: 393

Constraints:

  • 0 <= n <= 109

Solution 1: Graycode

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

Ans is the order of n in graycode.

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1558. Minimum Numbers of Function Calls to Make Target Array

Your task is to form an integer array nums from an initial array of zeros arr that is the same size as nums.

Return the minimum number of function calls to make nums from arr.

The answer is guaranteed to fit in a 32-bit signed integer.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,5]
Output: 5
Explanation: Increment by 1 (second element): [0, 0] to get [0, 1] (1 operation).
Double all the elements: [0, 1] -> [0, 2] -> [0, 4] (2 operations).
Increment by 1 (both elements)  [0, 4] -> [1, 4] -> [1, 5] (2 operations).
Total of operations: 1 + 2 + 2 = 5.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,2]
Output: 3
Explanation: Increment by 1 (both elements) [0, 0] -> [0, 1] -> [1, 1] (2 operations).
Double all the elements: [1, 1] -> [2, 2] (1 operation).
Total of operations: 2 + 1 = 3.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [4,2,5]
Output: 6
Explanation: (initial)[0,0,0] -> [1,0,0] -> [1,0,1] -> [2,0,2] -> [2,1,2] -> [4,2,4] -> [4,2,5](nums).

Example 4:

Input: nums = [3,2,2,4]
Output: 7

Example 5:

Input: nums = [2,4,8,16]
Output: 8

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 10^5
  • 0 <= nums[i] <= 10^9

Solution: count 1s

For 5 (101b), we can add 1s for 5 times which of cause isn’t the best way to generate 5, the optimal way is to [+1, *2, +1]. We have to add 1 for each 1 in the binary format. e.g. 11 (1011), we need 3x “+1” op, and 4 “*2” op. Fortunately, the “*2” can be shared/delayed, thus we just need to find the largest number.
e.g. [2,4,8,16]
[0, 0, 0, 0] -> [0, 0, 0, 1] -> [0, 0, 0, 2]
[0, 0, 0, 2] -> [0, 0, 1, 2] -> [0, 0, 2, 4]
[0, 0, 2, 4] -> [0, 1, 2, 4] -> [0, 2, 4, 8]
[0, 2, 4, 8] -> [1, 2, 4, 8] -> [2, 4, 8, 16]
ans = sum{count_1(arr_i)} + high_bit(max(arr_i))

Time complexity: O(n*log(max(arr_i))
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Java

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1529. Bulb Switcher IV

There is a room with n bulbs, numbered from 0 to n-1, arranged in a row from left to right. Initially all the bulbs are turned off.

Your task is to obtain the configuration represented by target where target[i] is ‘1’ if the i-th bulb is turned on and is ‘0’ if it is turned off.

You have a switch to flip the state of the bulb, a flip operation is defined as follows:

  • Choose any bulb (index i) of your current configuration.
  • Flip each bulb from index i to n-1.

When any bulb is flipped it means that if it is 0 it changes to 1 and if it is 1 it changes to 0.

Return the minimum number of flips required to form target.

Example 1:

Input: target = "10111"
Output: 3
Explanation: Initial configuration "00000".
flip from the third bulb:  "00000" -> "00111"
flip from the first bulb:  "00111" -> "11000"
flip from the second bulb:  "11000" -> "10111"
We need at least 3 flip operations to form target.

Example 2:

Input: target = "101"
Output: 3
Explanation: "000" -> "111" -> "100" -> "101".

Example 3:

Input: target = "00000"
Output: 0

Example 4:

Input: target = "001011101"
Output: 5

Constraints:

  • 1 <= target.length <= 10^5
  • target[i] == '0' or target[i] == '1'

Solution: XOR

Flip from left to right, since flipping the a bulb won’t affect anything in the left.
We count how many times flipped so far, and that % 2 will be the state for all the bulb to the right.
If the current bulb’s state != target, we have to flip once.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1521. Find a Value of a Mysterious Function Closest to Target

Winston was given the above mysterious function func. He has an integer array arr and an integer target and he wants to find the values l and r that make the value |func(arr, l, r) - target| minimum possible.

Return the minimum possible value of |func(arr, l, r) - target|.

Notice that func should be called with the values l and r where 0 <= l, r < arr.length.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [9,12,3,7,15], target = 5
Output: 2
Explanation: Calling func with all the pairs of [l,r] = [[0,0],[1,1],[2,2],[3,3],[4,4],[0,1],[1,2],[2,3],[3,4],[0,2],[1,3],[2,4],[0,3],[1,4],[0,4]], Winston got the following results [9,12,3,7,15,8,0,3,7,0,0,3,0,0,0]. The value closest to 5 is 7 and 3, thus the minimum difference is 2.

Example 2:

Input: arr = [1000000,1000000,1000000], target = 1
Output: 999999
Explanation: Winston called the func with all possible values of [l,r] and he always got 1000000, thus the min difference is 999999.

Example 3:

Input: arr = [1,2,4,8,16], target = 0
Output: 0

Constraints:

  • 1 <= arr.length <= 10^5
  • 1 <= arr[i] <= 10^6
  • 0 <= target <= 10^7

Solution: Brute Force w/ Optimization

Try all possible [l, r] range with pruning.
1. for a given l, we extend r, since s & x <= s, if s becomes less than target, we can stop the inner loop.
2. Case 1, s = arr[l] & … & arr[n-1], s > target,
Let s’ = arr[l+1] & … & arr[n-1], s’ >= s,
if s > target, then s’ > target, we can stop outer loop as well.
Case 2, inner loop stops at r, s = arr[l] & … & arr[r], s <= target, we continue with l+1.

Time complexity: O(n)? on average, O(n^2) in worst case.
Space complexity: O(1)

C++