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花花酱 LeetCode 1734. Decode XORed Permutation

There is an integer array perm that is a permutation of the first n positive integers, where n is always odd.

It was encoded into another integer array encoded of length n - 1, such that encoded[i] = perm[i] XOR perm[i + 1]. For example, if perm = [1,3,2], then encoded = [2,1].

Given the encoded array, return the original array perm. It is guaranteed that the answer exists and is unique.

Example 1:

Input: encoded = [3,1]
Output: [1,2,3]
Explanation: If perm = [1,2,3], then encoded = [1 XOR 2,2 XOR 3] = [3,1]

Example 2:

Input: encoded = [6,5,4,6]
Output: [2,4,1,5,3]

Constraints:

  • 3 <= n < 105
  • n is odd.
  • encoded.length == n - 1

Solution: XOR

The key is to find p[0]. p[i] = p[i – 1] ^ encoded[i – 1]

  1. p[0] ^ p[1] ^ … ^ p[n-1] = 1 ^ 2 ^ … ^ n
  2. encoded[1] ^ encode[3] ^ … ^ encoded[n-2] = (p[1] ^ p[2]) ^ (p[3] ^ p[4]) ^ … ^ (p[n-2] ^ p[n-1])

1) xor 2) = p[0]

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1720. Decode XORed Array

There is a hidden integer array arr that consists of n non-negative integers.

It was encoded into another integer array encoded of length n - 1, such that encoded[i] = arr[i] XOR arr[i + 1]. For example, if arr = [1,0,2,1], then encoded = [1,2,3].

You are given the encoded array. You are also given an integer first, that is the first element of arr, i.e. arr[0].

Return the original array arr. It can be proved that the answer exists and is unique.

Example 1:

Input: encoded = [1,2,3], first = 1
Output: [1,0,2,1]
Explanation: If arr = [1,0,2,1], then first = 1 and encoded = [1 XOR 0, 0 XOR 2, 2 XOR 1] = [1,2,3]

Example 2:

Input: encoded = [6,2,7,3], first = 4
Output: [4,2,0,7,4]

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 104
  • encoded.length == n - 1
  • 0 <= encoded[i] <= 105
  • 0 <= first <= 105

Solution: XOR

encoded[i] = arr[i] ^ arr[i + 1]
encoded[i] ^ arr[i] = arr[i] ^ arr[i] ^ arr[i + 1]
arr[i+1] = encoded[i]^arr[i]

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 421. Maximum XOR of Two Numbers in an Array

Given an integer array nums, return the maximum result of nums[i] XOR nums[j], where 0 ≤ i ≤ j < n.

Follow up: Could you do this in O(n) runtime?

Example 1:

Input: nums = [3,10,5,25,2,8]
Output: 28
Explanation: The maximum result is 5 XOR 25 = 28.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [0]
Output: 0

Example 3:

Input: nums = [2,4]
Output: 6

Example 4:

Input: nums = [8,10,2]
Output: 10

Example 5:

Input: nums = [14,70,53,83,49,91,36,80,92,51,66,70]
Output: 127

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 2 * 104
  • 0 <= nums[i] <= 231 - 1

Solution: Trie

Time complexity: O(31*2*n)
Space complexity: O(31*2*n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1649. Create Sorted Array through Instructions

Given an integer array instructions, you are asked to create a sorted array from the elements in instructions. You start with an empty container nums. For each element from left to right in instructions, insert it into nums. The cost of each insertion is the minimum of the following:

  • The number of elements currently in nums that are strictly less than instructions[i].
  • The number of elements currently in nums that are strictly greater than instructions[i].

For example, if inserting element 3 into nums = [1,2,3,5], the cost of insertion is min(2, 1) (elements 1 and 2 are less than 3, element 5 is greater than 3) and nums will become [1,2,3,3,5].

Return the total cost to insert all elements from instructions into nums. Since the answer may be large, return it modulo 109 + 7

Example 1:

Input: instructions = [1,5,6,2]
Output: 1
Explanation: Begin with nums = [].
Insert 1 with cost min(0, 0) = 0, now nums = [1].
Insert 5 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,5].
Insert 6 with cost min(2, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,5,6].
Insert 2 with cost min(1, 2) = 1, now nums = [1,2,5,6].
The total cost is 0 + 0 + 0 + 1 = 1.

Example 2:

Input: instructions = [1,2,3,6,5,4]
Output: 3
Explanation: Begin with nums = [].
Insert 1 with cost min(0, 0) = 0, now nums = [1].
Insert 2 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2].
Insert 3 with cost min(2, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2,3].
Insert 6 with cost min(3, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2,3,6].
Insert 5 with cost min(3, 1) = 1, now nums = [1,2,3,5,6].
Insert 4 with cost min(3, 2) = 2, now nums = [1,2,3,4,5,6].
The total cost is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 2 = 3.

Example 3:

Input: instructions = [1,3,3,3,2,4,2,1,2]
Output: 4
Explanation: Begin with nums = [].
Insert 1 with cost min(0, 0) = 0, now nums = [1].
Insert 3 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,3].
Insert 3 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,3,3].
Insert 3 with cost min(1, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,3,3,3].
Insert 2 with cost min(1, 3) = 1, now nums = [1,2,3,3,3].
Insert 4 with cost min(5, 0) = 0, now nums = [1,2,3,3,3,4].
​​​​​​​Insert 2 with cost min(1, 4) = 1, now nums = [1,2,2,3,3,3,4].
​​​​​​​Insert 1 with cost min(0, 6) = 0, now nums = [1,1,2,2,3,3,3,4].
​​​​​​​Insert 2 with cost min(2, 4) = 2, now nums = [1,1,2,2,2,3,3,3,4].
The total cost is 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 0 + 2 = 4.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= instructions.length <= 105
  • 1 <= instructions[i] <= 105

Solution: Fenwick Tree / Binary Indexed Tree

Time complexity: O(nlogm)
Space complexity: O(m + n)

m is the maximum value, n is number of values.

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1611. Minimum One Bit Operations to Make Integers Zero

Given an integer n, you must transform it into 0 using the following operations any number of times:

  • Change the rightmost (0th) bit in the binary representation of n.
  • Change the ith bit in the binary representation of n if the (i-1)th bit is set to 1 and the (i-2)th through 0th bits are set to 0.

Return the minimum number of operations to transform n into 0.

Example 1:

Input: n = 0
Output: 0

Example 2:

Input: n = 3
Output: 2
Explanation: The binary representation of 3 is "11".
"11" -> "01" with the 2nd operation since the 0th bit is 1.
"01" -> "00" with the 1st operation.

Example 3:

Input: n = 6
Output: 4
Explanation: The binary representation of 6 is "110".
"110" -> "010" with the 2nd operation since the 1st bit is 1 and 0th through 0th bits are 0.
"010" -> "011" with the 1st operation.
"011" -> "001" with the 2nd operation since the 0th bit is 1.
"001" -> "000" with the 1st operation.

Example 4:

Input: n = 9
Output: 14

Example 5:

Input: n = 333
Output: 393

Constraints:

  • 0 <= n <= 109

Solution 1: Graycode

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

Ans is the order of n in graycode.

C++