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Posts tagged as “bit”

花花酱 LeetCode 67. Add Binary

Given two binary strings, return their sum (also a binary string).

The input strings are both non-empty and contains only characters 1 or 0.

Example 1:

Input: a = "11", b = "1"
Output: "100"

Example 2:

Input: a = "1010", b = "1011"
Output: "10101"

Solution: Big integer

Similar to https://zxi.mytechroad.com/blog/math/leetcode-66-plus-one/

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1012. Complement of Base 10 Integer

Every non-negative integer N has a binary representation.  For example, 5 can be represented as "101" in binary, 11 as "1011" in binary, and so on.  Note that except for N = 0, there are no leading zeroes in any binary representation.

The complement of a binary representation is the number in binary you get when changing every 1 to a 0 and 0 to a 1.  For example, the complement of "101" in binary is "010" in binary.

For a given number N in base-10, return the complement of it’s binary representation as a base-10 integer.

Example 1:

Input: 5
Output: 2
Explanation: 5 is "101" in binary, with complement "010" in binary, which is 2 in base-10.

Example 2:

Input: 7
Output: 0
Explanation: 7 is "111" in binary, with complement "000" in binary, which is 0 in base-10.

Example 3:

Input: 10
Output: 5
Explanation: 10 is "1010" in binary, with complement "0101" in binary, which is 5 in base-10.

Note:

  1. 0 <= N < 10^9

Solution: Bit

Find the smallest binary number c that is all 1s, (e.g. “111”, “11111”) that is greater or equal to N.
ans = C ^ N or C – N

Time complexity: O(log(n))
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 78. Subsets

Given a set of distinct integers, nums, return all possible subsets (the power set).

Note: The solution set must not contain duplicate subsets.

Example:

Input: nums = [1,2,3]
Output:[ [3],  [1],  [2],  [1,2,3],  [1,3],  [2,3],  [1,2],  []]

Solution: Combination

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(n)

Implemention 1: DFS

C++

Python3

Implementation 2: Binary

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 927. Three Equal Parts

Problem

Given an array A of 0s and 1s, divide the array into 3 non-empty parts such that all of these parts represent the same binary value.

If it is possible, return any [i, j] with i+1 < j, such that:

  • A[0], A[1], ..., A[i] is the first part;
  • A[i+1], A[i+2], ..., A[j-1] is the second part, and
  • A[j], A[j+1], ..., A[A.length - 1] is the third part.
  • All three parts have equal binary value.

If it is not possible, return [-1, -1].

Note that the entire part is used when considering what binary value it represents.  For example, [1,1,0] represents 6 in decimal, not 3.  Also, leading zeros are allowed, so [0,1,1] and [1,1] represent the same value.

 

Example 1:

Input: [1,0,1,0,1]
Output: [0,3]

Example 2:

Input: [1,1,0,1,1]
Output: [-1,-1]

Note:

  1. 3 <= A.length <= 30000
  2. A[i] == 0 or A[i] == 1

Solution:

each part should have the same number of 1 s.

Find the suffix (without leading os) of the last part which should have 1/3 of the total ones.

Time complexity: O(n^2) in theory but close to O(n) in practice

Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 898. Bitwise ORs of Subarrays

Problem

We have an array A of non-negative integers.

For every (contiguous) subarray B = [A[i], A[i+1], ..., A[j]] (with i <= j), we take the bitwise OR of all the elements in B, obtaining a result A[i] | A[i+1] | ... | A[j].

Return the number of possible results.  (Results that occur more than once are only counted once in the final answer.)

Example 1:

Input: [0]
Output: 1
Explanation: 
There is only one possible result: 0.

Example 2:

Input: [1,1,2]
Output: 3
Explanation: 
The possible subarrays are [1], [1], [2], [1, 1], [1, 2], [1, 1, 2].
These yield the results 1, 1, 2, 1, 3, 3.
There are 3 unique values, so the answer is 3.

Example 3:

Input: [1,2,4]
Output: 6
Explanation: 
The possible results are 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 7.

Note:

  1. 1 <= A.length <= 50000
  2. 0 <= A[i] <= 10^9



Solution 1: DP (TLE)

dp[i][j] := A[i] | A[i + 1] | … | A[j]

dp[i][j] = dp[i][j – 1] | A[j]

ans = len(set(dp))

Time complexity: O(n^2)

Space complexity: O(n^2) -> O(n)

C++ SC O(n^2)

C++ SC O(n)

Solution 2: DP opted

dp[i] := {A[i], A[i] | A[i – 1], A[i] | A[i – 1] | A[i – 2], … , A[i] | A[i – 1] | … | A[0]}, bitwise ors of all subarrays end with A[i].

|dp[i]| <= 32

Proof: all the elements (in the order of above sequence) in dp[i] are monotonically increasing by flipping 0 bits to 1 from A[i].

There are at most 32 0s in A[i]. Thus the size of the set is <= 32.

证明: dp[i] = {A[i], A[i] | A[i – 1], A[i] | A[i – 1] | A[i – 2], … , A[i] | A[i – 1] | … | A[0]},这个序列单调递增,通过把A[i]中的0变成1。A[i]最多有32个0。所以这个集合的大小 <= 32。

e.g. 举例:Worst Case 最坏情况 A = [8, 4, 2, 1, 0] A[i] = 2^(n-i)。

A[5] = 0,dp[5] = {0, 0 | 1, 0 | 1 | 2, 0 | 1 | 2 | 4, 0 | 1 | 2 | 4 | 8} = {0, 1, 3, 7, 15}.

Time complexity: O(n*log(max(A))) < O(32n)

Space complexity: O(n*log(max(A)) < O(32n)

C++

Java

Python3