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Posts tagged as “graph”

花花酱 LeetCode 2039. The Time When the Network Becomes Idle

There is a network of n servers, labeled from 0 to n - 1. You are given a 2D integer array edges, where edges[i] = [ui, vi] indicates there is a message channel between servers ui and vi, and they can pass any number of messages to each other directly in one second. You are also given a 0-indexed integer array patience of length n.

All servers are connected, i.e., a message can be passed from one server to any other server(s) directly or indirectly through the message channels.

The server labeled 0 is the master server. The rest are data servers. Each data server needs to send its message to the master server for processing and wait for a reply. Messages move between servers optimally, so every message takes the least amount of time to arrive at the master server. The master server will process all newly arrived messages instantly and send a reply to the originating server via the reversed path the message had gone through.

At the beginning of second 0, each data server sends its message to be processed. Starting from second 1, at the beginning of every second, each data server will check if it has received a reply to the message it sent (including any newly arrived replies) from the master server:

  • If it has not, it will resend the message periodically. The data server i will resend the message every patience[i] second(s), i.e., the data server i will resend the message if patience[i] second(s) have elapsed since the last time the message was sent from this server.
  • Otherwise, no more resending will occur from this server.

The network becomes idle when there are no messages passing between servers or arriving at servers.

Return the earliest second starting from which the network becomes idle.

Example 1:

example 1
Input: edges = [[0,1],[1,2]], patience = [0,2,1]
Output: 8
Explanation:
At (the beginning of) second 0,
- Data server 1 sends its message (denoted 1A) to the master server.
- Data server 2 sends its message (denoted 2A) to the master server.

At second 1,
- Message 1A arrives at the master server. Master server processes message 1A instantly and sends a reply 1A back.
- Server 1 has not received any reply. 1 second (1 < patience[1] = 2) elapsed since this server has sent the message, therefore it does not resend the message.
- Server 2 has not received any reply. 1 second (1 == patience[2] = 1) elapsed since this server has sent the message, therefore it resends the message (denoted 2B).

At second 2,
- The reply 1A arrives at server 1. No more resending will occur from server 1.
- Message 2A arrives at the master server. Master server processes message 2A instantly and sends a reply 2A back.
- Server 2 resends the message (denoted 2C).
...
At second 4,
- The reply 2A arrives at server 2. No more resending will occur from server 2.
...
At second 7, reply 2D arrives at server 2.

Starting from the beginning of the second 8, there are no messages passing between servers or arriving at servers.
This is the time when the network becomes idle.

Example 2:

example 2
Input: edges = [[0,1],[0,2],[1,2]], patience = [0,10,10]
Output: 3
Explanation: Data servers 1 and 2 receive a reply back at the beginning of second 2.
From the beginning of the second 3, the network becomes idle.

Constraints:

  • n == patience.length
  • 2 <= n <= 105
  • patience[0] == 0
  • 1 <= patience[i] <= 105 for 1 <= i < n
  • 1 <= edges.length <= min(105, n * (n - 1) / 2)
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= ui, vi < n
  • ui != vi
  • There are no duplicate edges.
  • Each server can directly or indirectly reach another server.

Solution: Shortest Path

Compute the shortest path from node 0 to rest of the nodes using BFS.

Idle time for node i = (dist[i] * 2 – 1) / patince[i] * patience[i] + dist[i] * 2 + 1

Time complexity: O(E + V)
Space complexity: O(E + V)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2045. Second Minimum Time to Reach Destination

A city is represented as a bi-directional connected graph with n vertices where each vertex is labeled from 1 to n (inclusive). The edges in the graph are represented as a 2D integer array edges, where each edges[i] = [ui, vi] denotes a bi-directional edge between vertex ui and vertex vi. Every vertex pair is connected by at most one edge, and no vertex has an edge to itself. The time taken to traverse any edge is time minutes.

Each vertex has a traffic signal which changes its color from green to red and vice versa every change minutes. All signals change at the same time. You can enter a vertex at any time, but can leave a vertex only when the signal is green. You cannot wait at a vertex if the signal is green.

The second minimum value is defined as the smallest value strictly larger than the minimum value.

  • For example the second minimum value of [2, 3, 4] is 3, and the second minimum value of [2, 2, 4] is 4.

Given nedgestime, and change, return the second minimum time it will take to go from vertex 1 to vertex n.

Notes:

  • You can go through any vertex any number of times, including 1 and n.
  • You can assume that when the journey starts, all signals have just turned green.

Example 1:

Input: n = 5, edges = [[1,2],[1,3],[1,4],[3,4],[4,5]], time = 3, change = 5
Output: 13
Explanation:
The figure on the left shows the given graph.
The blue path in the figure on the right is the minimum time path.
The time taken is:
- Start at 1, time elapsed=0
- 1 -> 4: 3 minutes, time elapsed=3
- 4 -> 5: 3 minutes, time elapsed=6
Hence the minimum time needed is 6 minutes.

The red path shows the path to get the second minimum time.
- Start at 1, time elapsed=0
- 1 -> 3: 3 minutes, time elapsed=3
- 3 -> 4: 3 minutes, time elapsed=6
- Wait at 4 for 4 minutes, time elapsed=10
- 4 -> 5: 3 minutes, time elapsed=13
Hence the second minimum time is 13 minutes.      

Example 2:

Input: n = 2, edges = [[1,2]], time = 3, change = 2
Output: 11
Explanation:
The minimum time path is 1 -> 2 with time = 3 minutes.
The second minimum time path is 1 -> 2 -> 1 -> 2 with time = 11 minutes.

Constraints:

  • 2 <= n <= 104
  • n - 1 <= edges.length <= min(2 * 104, n * (n - 1) / 2)
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 1 <= ui, vi <= n
  • ui != vi
  • There are no duplicate edges.
  • Each vertex can be reached directly or indirectly from every other vertex.
  • 1 <= time, change <= 103

Solution: Best first search

Since we’re only looking for second best, to avoid TLE, for each vertex, keep two best time to arrival is sufficient.

Time complexity: O(2ElogE)
Space complexity: O(V+E)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1905. Count Sub Islands

You are given two m x n binary matrices grid1 and grid2 containing only 0‘s (representing water) and 1‘s (representing land). An island is a group of 1‘s connected 4-directionally (horizontal or vertical). Any cells outside of the grid are considered water cells.

An island in grid2 is considered a sub-island if there is an island in grid1 that contains all the cells that make up this island in grid2.

Return the number of islands in grid2 that are considered sub-islands.

Example 1:

Input: grid1 = [[1,1,1,0,0],[0,1,1,1,1],[0,0,0,0,0],[1,0,0,0,0],[1,1,0,1,1]], grid2 = [[1,1,1,0,0],[0,0,1,1,1],[0,1,0,0,0],[1,0,1,1,0],[0,1,0,1,0]]
Output: 3
Explanation: In the picture above, the grid on the left is grid1 and the grid on the right is grid2.
The 1s colored red in grid2 are those considered to be part of a sub-island. There are three sub-islands.

Example 2:

Input: grid1 = [[1,0,1,0,1],[1,1,1,1,1],[0,0,0,0,0],[1,1,1,1,1],[1,0,1,0,1]], grid2 = [[0,0,0,0,0],[1,1,1,1,1],[0,1,0,1,0],[0,1,0,1,0],[1,0,0,0,1]]
Output: 2 
Explanation: In the picture above, the grid on the left is grid1 and the grid on the right is grid2.
The 1s colored red in grid2 are those considered to be part of a sub-island. There are two sub-islands.

Constraints:

  • m == grid1.length == grid2.length
  • n == grid1[i].length == grid2[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 500
  • grid1[i][j] and grid2[i][j] are either 0 or 1.

Solution: Coloring

Give each island in grid1 a different color. Whiling using the same method to find island and coloring it in grid2, we also check whether the same cell in grid1 always has the same color.

Time complexity: O(mn)
Space complexity: O(1) modify in place or O(mn)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1857. Largest Color Value in a Directed Graph

There is a directed graph of n colored nodes and m edges. The nodes are numbered from 0 to n - 1.

You are given a string colors where colors[i] is a lowercase English letter representing the color of the ith node in this graph (0-indexed). You are also given a 2D array edges where edges[j] = [aj, bj] indicates that there is a directed edge from node aj to node bj.

A valid path in the graph is a sequence of nodes x1 -> x2 -> x3 -> ... -> xk such that there is a directed edge from xi to xi+1 for every 1 <= i < k. The color value of the path is the number of nodes that are colored the most frequently occurring color along that path.

Return the largest color value of any valid path in the given graph, or -1 if the graph contains a cycle.

Example 1:

Input: colors = "abaca", edges = [[0,1],[0,2],[2,3],[3,4]]
Output: 3
Explanation: The path 0 -> 2 -> 3 -> 4 contains 3 nodes that are colored "a" (red in the above image).

Example 2:

Input: colors = "a", edges = [[0,0]]
Output: -1
Explanation: There is a cycle from 0 to 0.

Constraints:

  • n == colors.length
  • m == edges.length
  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • 0 <= m <= 105
  • colors consists of lowercase English letters.
  • 0 <= aj, bj < n

Solution: Topological Sorting

freq[n][c] := max freq of color c after visiting node n.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n*26)

python

花花酱 LeetCode 1791. Find Center of Star Graph

There is an undirected star graph consisting of n nodes labeled from 1 to n. A star graph is a graph where there is one center node and exactly n - 1 edges that connect the center node with every other node.

You are given a 2D integer array edges where each edges[i] = [ui, vi] indicates that there is an edge between the nodes ui and vi. Return the center of the given star graph.

Example 1:

Input: edges = [[1,2],[2,3],[4,2]]
Output: 2
Explanation: As shown in the figure above, node 2 is connected to every other node, so 2 is the center.

Example 2:

Input: edges = [[1,2],[5,1],[1,3],[1,4]]
Output: 1

Constraints:

  • 3 <= n <= 105
  • edges.length == n - 1
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 1 <= ui, vi <= n
  • ui != vi
  • The given edges represent a valid star graph.

Solution: Graph / Hashtable

Count the degree of each node, return the one with n-1 degrees.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Since the center node must appear in each edge, we just need to find the mode of edges[0] + edges[1]

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

Python