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花花酱 LeetCode 2242. Maximum Score of a Node Sequence

There is an undirected graph with n nodes, numbered from 0 to n - 1.

You are given a 0-indexed integer array scores of length n where scores[i] denotes the score of node i. You are also given a 2D integer array edges where edges[i] = [ai, bi] denotes that there exists an undirected edge connecting nodes ai and bi.

A node sequence is valid if it meets the following conditions:

  • There is an edge connecting every pair of adjacent nodes in the sequence.
  • No node appears more than once in the sequence.

The score of a node sequence is defined as the sum of the scores of the nodes in the sequence.

Return the maximum score of a valid node sequence with a length of 4If no such sequence exists, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: scores = [5,2,9,8,4], edges = [[0,1],[1,2],[2,3],[0,2],[1,3],[2,4]]
Output: 24
Explanation: The figure above shows the graph and the chosen node sequence [0,1,2,3].
The score of the node sequence is 5 + 2 + 9 + 8 = 24.
It can be shown that no other node sequence has a score of more than 24.
Note that the sequences [3,1,2,0] and [1,0,2,3] are also valid and have a score of 24.
The sequence [0,3,2,4] is not valid since no edge connects nodes 0 and 3.

Example 2:

Input: scores = [9,20,6,4,11,12], edges = [[0,3],[5,3],[2,4],[1,3]]
Output: -1
Explanation: The figure above shows the graph.
There are no valid node sequences of length 4, so we return -1.

Constraints:

  • n == scores.length
  • 4 <= n <= 5 * 104
  • 1 <= scores[i] <= 108
  • 0 <= edges.length <= 5 * 104
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= ai, bi <= n - 1
  • ai != bi
  • There are no duplicate edges.

Solution: Greedy / Top3 neighbors

Since |E| is already 5*104, we can’t enumerate all possible sequences. We must do in O(|E|) or O(|E|log|E|).

Enumerate all the edges, we have a pair of node a, b. To get the optimal answer, we just need to find the largest neighbor of a and b, which we call c, d respectively. Just need to make sure a, b, c, d are unique. i.e. c != d, c != b and d != a. Since the a’s largest neighbor can be either b or d. We can’t just store the largest neighbor, but top 3 instead for each node to avoid duplications.

Time complexity: O(|E|*9)
Space complexity: O(|V|*3)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2192. All Ancestors of a Node in a Directed Acyclic Graph

You are given a positive integer n representing the number of nodes of a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG). The nodes are numbered from 0 to n - 1 (inclusive).

You are also given a 2D integer array edges, where edges[i] = [fromi, toi] denotes that there is a unidirectional edge from fromi to toi in the graph.

Return a list answer, where answer[i] is the list of ancestors of the ith node, sorted in ascending order.

A node u is an ancestor of another node v if u can reach v via a set of edges.

Example 1:

Input: n = 8, edgeList = [[0,3],[0,4],[1,3],[2,4],[2,7],[3,5],[3,6],[3,7],[4,6]]
Output: [[],[],[],[0,1],[0,2],[0,1,3],[0,1,2,3,4],[0,1,2,3]]
Explanation:
The above diagram represents the input graph.
- Nodes 0, 1, and 2 do not have any ancestors.
- Node 3 has two ancestors 0 and 1.
- Node 4 has two ancestors 0 and 2.
- Node 5 has three ancestors 0, 1, and 3.
- Node 6 has five ancestors 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4.
- Node 7 has four ancestors 0, 1, 2, and 3.

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, edgeList = [[0,1],[0,2],[0,3],[0,4],[1,2],[1,3],[1,4],[2,3],[2,4],[3,4]]
Output: [[],[0],[0,1],[0,1,2],[0,1,2,3]]
Explanation:
The above diagram represents the input graph.
- Node 0 does not have any ancestor.
- Node 1 has one ancestor 0.
- Node 2 has two ancestors 0 and 1.
- Node 3 has three ancestors 0, 1, and 2.
- Node 4 has four ancestors 0, 1, 2, and 3.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 1000
  • 0 <= edges.length <= min(2000, n * (n - 1) / 2)
  • edges[i].length == 2
  • 0 <= fromi, toi <= n - 1
  • fromi != toi
  • There are no duplicate edges.
  • The graph is directed and acyclic.

Solution: DFS

For each source node S, add it to all its reachable nodes by traversing the entire graph.
In one pass, only traverse each child node at most once.

Time complexity: O(VE)
Space complexity: (V+E)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2157. Groups of Strings

You are given a 0-indexed array of strings words. Each string consists of lowercase English letters only. No letter occurs more than once in any string of words.

Two strings s1 and s2 are said to be connected if the set of letters of s2 can be obtained from the set of letters of s1 by any one of the following operations:

  • Adding exactly one letter to the set of the letters of s1.
  • Deleting exactly one letter from the set of the letters of s1.
  • Replacing exactly one letter from the set of the letters of s1 with any letter, including itself.

The array words can be divided into one or more non-intersecting groups. A string belongs to a group if any one of the following is true:

  • It is connected to at least one other string of the group.
  • It is the only string present in the group.

Note that the strings in words should be grouped in such a manner that a string belonging to a group cannot be connected to a string present in any other group. It can be proved that such an arrangement is always unique.

Return an array ans of size 2 where:

  • ans[0] is the total number of groups words can be divided into, and
  • ans[1] is the size of the largest group.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["a","b","ab","cde"]
Output: [2,3]
Explanation:
- words[0] can be used to obtain words[1] (by replacing 'a' with 'b'), and words[2] (by adding 'b'). So words[0] is connected to words[1] and words[2].
- words[1] can be used to obtain words[0] (by replacing 'b' with 'a'), and words[2] (by adding 'a'). So words[1] is connected to words[0] and words[2].
- words[2] can be used to obtain words[0] (by deleting 'b'), and words[1] (by deleting 'a'). So words[2] is connected to words[0] and words[1].
- words[3] is not connected to any string in words.
Thus, words can be divided into 2 groups ["a","b","ab"] and ["cde"]. The size of the largest group is 3.  

Example 2:

Input: words = ["a","ab","abc"]
Output: [1,3]
Explanation:
- words[0] is connected to words[1].
- words[1] is connected to words[0] and words[2].
- words[2] is connected to words[1].
Since all strings are connected to each other, they should be grouped together.
Thus, the size of the largest group is 3.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= words.length <= 2 * 104
  • 1 <= words[i].length <= 26
  • words[i] consists of lowercase English letters only.
  • No letter occurs more than once in words[i].

Solution: Bitmask + DFS

Use a bitmask to represent a string. Use dfs to find connected components.

Time complexity: O(n*262)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1998. GCD Sort of an Array

You are given an integer array nums, and you can perform the following operation any number of times on nums:

  • Swap the positions of two elements nums[i] and nums[j] if gcd(nums[i], nums[j]) > 1 where gcd(nums[i], nums[j]) is the greatest common divisor of nums[i] and nums[j].

Return true if it is possible to sort nums in non-decreasing order using the above swap method, or false otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [7,21,3]
Output: true
Explanation: We can sort [7,21,3] by performing the following operations:
- Swap 7 and 21 because gcd(7,21) = 7. nums = [21,7,3]
- Swap 21 and 3 because gcd(21,3) = 3. nums = [3,7,21]

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,2,6,2]
Output: false
Explanation: It is impossible to sort the array because 5 cannot be swapped with any other element.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [10,5,9,3,15]
Output: true
We can sort [10,5,9,3,15] by performing the following operations:
- Swap 10 and 15 because gcd(10,15) = 5. nums = [15,5,9,3,10]
- Swap 15 and 3 because gcd(15,3) = 3. nums = [3,5,9,15,10]
- Swap 10 and 15 because gcd(10,15) = 5. nums = [3,5,9,10,15]

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 3 * 104
  • 2 <= nums[i] <= 105

Solution: Union-Find

Let nums[j]’s target position be i. In order to put nums[j] to pos i by swapping. nums[i] and nums[j] must be in the same connected component. There is an edge between two numbers if they have gcd > 1.

We union two numbers if their have gcd > 1. However, it will be TLE if we do all pairs . Thus, for each number, we union it with its divisors instead.

Time complexity: O(n2) TLE -> O(sum(sqrt(nums[i]))) <= O(n*sqrt(m))
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2115. Find All Possible Recipes from Given Supplies

You have information about n different recipes. You are given a string array recipes and a 2D string array ingredients. The ith recipe has the name recipes[i], and you can create it if you have all the needed ingredients from ingredients[i]. Ingredients to a recipe may need to be created from other recipes, i.e., ingredients[i] may contain a string that is in recipes.

You are also given a string array supplies containing all the ingredients that you initially have, and you have an infinite supply of all of them.

Return a list of all the recipes that you can create. You may return the answer in any order.

Note that two recipes may contain each other in their ingredients.

Example 1:

Input: recipes = ["bread"], ingredients = [["yeast","flour"]], supplies = ["yeast","flour","corn"]
Output: ["bread"]
Explanation:
We can create "bread" since we have the ingredients "yeast" and "flour".

Example 2:

Input: recipes = ["bread","sandwich"], ingredients = [["yeast","flour"],["bread","meat"]], supplies = ["yeast","flour","meat"]
Output: ["bread","sandwich"]
Explanation:
We can create "bread" since we have the ingredients "yeast" and "flour".
We can create "sandwich" since we have the ingredient "meat" and can create the ingredient "bread".

Example 3:

Input: recipes = ["bread","sandwich","burger"], ingredients = [["yeast","flour"],["bread","meat"],["sandwich","meat","bread"]], supplies = ["yeast","flour","meat"]
Output: ["bread","sandwich","burger"]
Explanation:
We can create "bread" since we have the ingredients "yeast" and "flour".
We can create "sandwich" since we have the ingredient "meat" and can create the ingredient "bread".
We can create "burger" since we have the ingredient "meat" and can create the ingredients "bread" and "sandwich".

Constraints:

  • n == recipes.length == ingredients.length
  • 1 <= n <= 100
  • 1 <= ingredients[i].length, supplies.length <= 100
  • 1 <= recipes[i].length, ingredients[i][j].length, supplies[k].length <= 10
  • recipes[i], ingredients[i][j], and supplies[k] consist only of lowercase English letters.
  • All the values of recipes and supplies combined are unique.
  • Each ingredients[i] does not contain any duplicate values.

Solution: Brute Force

C++