# Posts tagged as “search”

Given a collection of integers that might contain duplicates, nums, return all possible subsets (the power set).

Note: The solution set must not contain duplicate subsets.

Example:

Solution: DFS

The key to this problem is how to remove/avoid duplicates efficiently.

For the same depth, among the same numbers, only the first number can be used.

Time complexity: O(2^n * n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

8 Puzzles # nodes expended of 1000 solvable instances

Conclusion:

Nodes expended: BiDirectional A* << A* (Manhattan) <= Bidirectional BFS < A* Hamming << BFS
Running time: BiDirectional A* < Bidirectional BFS <= A* (Manhattan) < A* Hamming << BFS

Code:

C++ Version

Given an m x n matrix of non-negative integers representing the height of each unit cell in a continent, the “Pacific ocean” touches the left and top edges of the matrix and the “Atlantic ocean” touches the right and bottom edges.

Water can only flow in four directions (up, down, left, or right) from a cell to another one with height equal or lower.

Find the list of grid coordinates where water can flow to both the Pacific and Atlantic ocean.

Note:

1. The order of returned grid coordinates does not matter.
2. Both m and n are less than 150.

Example:

Given the following 5x5 matrix:

Pacific ~   ~   ~   ~   ~
~  1   2   2   3  (5) *
~  3   2   3  (4) (4) *
~  2   4  (5)  3   1  *
~ (6) (7)  1   4   5  *
~ (5)  1   1   2   4  *
*   *   *   *   * Atlantic

Return:

[[0, 4], [1, 3], [1, 4], [2, 2], [3, 0], [3, 1], [4, 0]] (positions with parentheses in above matrix).

Solution: DFS/BFS

Be careful with the input range, easy to TLE with a naive implementation. Have to search from the boards.

Time complexity: O(mn)
Space complexity: O(mn)

## DP

Given an array A of non-negative integers, the array is squareful if for every pair of adjacent elements, their sum is a perfect square.

Return the number of permutations of A that are squareful.  Two permutations A1 and A2 differ if and only if there is some index i such that A1[i] != A2[i].

Example 1:

Input: [1,17,8]
Output: 2
Explanation:
[1,8,17] and [17,8,1] are the valid permutations.


Example 2:

Input: [2,2,2]
Output: 1


Note:

1. 1 <= A.length <= 12
2. 0 <= A[i] <= 1e9

## Solution1: DFS

Try all permutations with pruning.

Time complexity: O(n!)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Solution 2: DP Hamiltonian Path

dp[s][i] := # of ways to reach state s (binary mask of nodes visited) that ends with node i

dp[s | (1 << j)][j] += dp[s][i] if g[i][j]

Time complexity: O(n^2*2^n)
Space complexity: O(2^n)

## Problem

Return all non-negative integers of length N such that the absolute difference between every two consecutive digits is K.

Note that every number in the answer must not have leading zeros except for the number 0 itself. For example, 01 has one leading zero and is invalid, but 0 is valid.

You may return the answer in any order.

Example 1:

Input: N = 3, K = 7
Output: [181,292,707,818,929]
Explanation: Note that 070 is not a valid number, because it has leading zeroes.


Example 2:

Input: N = 2, K = 1
Output: [10,12,21,23,32,34,43,45,54,56,65,67,76,78,87,89,98]

Note:

1. 1 <= N <= 9
2. 0 <= K <= 9

## Solution: Search

Time complexity: O(2^N)
Space complexity: O(N)

## C++/BFS

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