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花花酱 LeetCode 1755. Closest Subsequence Sum

You are given an integer array nums and an integer goal.

You want to choose a subsequence of nums such that the sum of its elements is the closest possible to goal. That is, if the sum of the subsequence’s elements is sum, then you want to minimize the absolute difference abs(sum - goal).

Return the minimum possible value of abs(sum - goal).

Note that a subsequence of an array is an array formed by removing some elements (possibly all or none) of the original array.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [5,-7,3,5], goal = 6
Output: 0
Explanation: Choose the whole array as a subsequence, with a sum of 6.
This is equal to the goal, so the absolute difference is 0.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [7,-9,15,-2], goal = -5
Output: 1
Explanation: Choose the subsequence [7,-9,-2], with a sum of -4.
The absolute difference is abs(-4 - (-5)) = abs(1) = 1, which is the minimum.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,2,3], goal = -7
Output: 7

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 40
  • -107 <= nums[i] <= 107
  • -109 <= goal <= 109

Solution: Binary Search

Since n is too large to generate sums for all subsets O(2^n), we have to split the array into half, generate two sum sets. O(2^(n/2)).

Then the problem can be reduced to find the closet sum by picking one number (sum) each from two different arrays which can be solved in O(mlogm), where m = 2^(n/2).

So final time complexity is O(n * 2^(n/2))
Space complexity: O(2^(n/2))

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1718. Construct the Lexicographically Largest Valid Sequence

Given an integer n, find a sequence that satisfies all of the following:

  • The integer 1 occurs once in the sequence.
  • Each integer between 2 and n occurs twice in the sequence.
  • For every integer i between 2 and n, the distance between the two occurrences of i is exactly i.

The distance between two numbers on the sequence, a[i] and a[j], is the absolute difference of their indices, |j - i|.

Return the lexicographically largest sequence. It is guaranteed that under the given constraints, there is always a solution.

A sequence a is lexicographically larger than a sequence b (of the same length) if in the first position where a and b differ, sequence a has a number greater than the corresponding number in b. For example, [0,1,9,0] is lexicographically larger than [0,1,5,6] because the first position they differ is at the third number, and 9 is greater than 5.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3
Output: [3,1,2,3,2]
Explanation: [2,3,2,1,3] is also a valid sequence, but [3,1,2,3,2] is the lexicographically largest valid sequence.

Example 2:

Input: n = 5
Output: [5,3,1,4,3,5,2,4,2]

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 20

Solution: Search

Search from left to right, largest to smallest.

Time complexity: O(n!)?
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Java

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1659. Maximize Grid Happiness

You are given four integers, mnintrovertsCount, and extrovertsCount. You have an m x n grid, and there are two types of people: introverts and extroverts. There are introvertsCount introverts and extrovertsCount extroverts.

You should decide how many people you want to live in the grid and assign each of them one grid cell. Note that you do not have to have all the people living in the grid.

The happiness of each person is calculated as follows:

  • Introverts start with 120 happiness and lose 30 happiness for each neighbor (introvert or extrovert).
  • Extroverts start with 40 happiness and gain 20 happiness for each neighbor (introvert or extrovert).

Neighbors live in the directly adjacent cells north, east, south, and west of a person’s cell.

The grid happiness is the sum of each person’s happiness. Return the maximum possible grid happiness.

Example 1:

Input: m = 2, n = 3, introvertsCount = 1, extrovertsCount = 2
Output: 240
Explanation: Assume the grid is 1-indexed with coordinates (row, column).
We can put the introvert in cell (1,1) and put the extroverts in cells (1,3) and (2,3).
- Introvert at (1,1) happiness: 120 (starting happiness) - (0 * 30) (0 neighbors) = 120
- Extrovert at (1,3) happiness: 40 (starting happiness) + (1 * 20) (1 neighbor) = 60
- Extrovert at (2,3) happiness: 40 (starting happiness) + (1 * 20) (1 neighbor) = 60
The grid happiness is 120 + 60 + 60 = 240.
The above figure shows the grid in this example with each person's happiness. The introvert stays in the light green cell while the extroverts live on the light purple cells.

Example 2:

Input: m = 3, n = 1, introvertsCount = 2, extrovertsCount = 1
Output: 260
Explanation: Place the two introverts in (1,1) and (3,1) and the extrovert at (2,1).
- Introvert at (1,1) happiness: 120 (starting happiness) - (1 * 30) (1 neighbor) = 90
- Extrovert at (2,1) happiness: 40 (starting happiness) + (2 * 20) (2 neighbors) = 80
- Introvert at (3,1) happiness: 120 (starting happiness) - (1 * 30) (1 neighbor) = 90
The grid happiness is 90 + 80 + 90 = 260.

Example 3:

Input: m = 2, n = 2, introvertsCount = 4, extrovertsCount = 0
Output: 240

Constraints:

  • 1 <= m, n <= 5
  • 0 <= introvertsCount, extrovertsCount <= min(m * n, 6)

Solution: DP

dp(x, y, in, ex, mask) := max score at (x, y) with in and ex left and the state of previous row is mask.

Mask is ternary, mask(i) = {0, 1, 2} means {empty, in, ex}, there are at most 3^n = 3^5 = 243 different states.

Total states / Space complexity: O(m*n*3^n*in*ex) = 5*5*3^5*6*6
Space complexity: O(m*n*3^n*in*ex)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1655. Distribute Repeating Integers

You are given an array of n integers, nums, where there are at most 50 unique values in the array. You are also given an array of m customer order quantities, quantity, where quantity[i] is the amount of integers the ith customer ordered. Determine if it is possible to distribute nums such that:

  • The ith customer gets exactly quantity[i] integers,
  • The integers the ith customer gets are all equal, and
  • Every customer is satisfied.

Return true if it is possible to distribute nums according to the above conditions.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4], quantity = [2]
Output: false
Explanation: The 0th customer cannot be given two different integers.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,3], quantity = [2]
Output: true
Explanation: The 0th customer is given [3,3]. The integers [1,2] are not used.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,1,2,2], quantity = [2,2]
Output: true
Explanation: The 0th customer is given [1,1], and the 1st customer is given [2,2].

Example 4:

Input: nums = [1,1,2,3], quantity = [2,2]
Output: false
Explanation: Although the 0th customer could be given [1,1], the 1st customer cannot be satisfied.

Example 5:

Input: nums = [1,1,1,1,1], quantity = [2,3]
Output: true
Explanation: The 0th customer is given [1,1], and the 1st customer is given [1,1,1].

Constraints:

  • n == nums.length
  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 1000
  • m == quantity.length
  • 1 <= m <= 10
  • 1 <= quantity[i] <= 105
  • There are at most 50 unique values in nums.

Solution1: Backtracking

Time complexity: O(|vals|^m)
Space complexity: O(|vals| + m)

C++

Solution 2: Bitmask + all subsets

dp(mask, i) := whether we can distribute to a subset of customers represented as a bit mask, using the i-th to (n-1)-th numbers.

Time complexity: O(2^m * m * |vals|) = O(2^10 * 10 * 50)
Space complexity: O(2^m * |vals|)

C++

Python3

Bottom up:

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1654. Minimum Jumps to Reach Home

A certain bug’s home is on the x-axis at position x. Help them get there from position 0.

The bug jumps according to the following rules:

  • It can jump exactly a positions forward (to the right).
  • It can jump exactly b positions backward (to the left).
  • It cannot jump backward twice in a row.
  • It cannot jump to any forbidden positions.

The bug may jump forward beyond its home, but it cannot jump to positions numbered with negative integers.

Given an array of integers forbidden, where forbidden[i] means that the bug cannot jump to the position forbidden[i], and integers ab, and x, return the minimum number of jumps needed for the bug to reach its home. If there is no possible sequence of jumps that lands the bug on position x, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: forbidden = [14,4,18,1,15], a = 3, b = 15, x = 9
Output: 3
Explanation: 3 jumps forward (0 -> 3 -> 6 -> 9) will get the bug home.

Example 2:

Input: forbidden = [8,3,16,6,12,20], a = 15, b = 13, x = 11
Output: -1

Example 3:

Input: forbidden = [1,6,2,14,5,17,4], a = 16, b = 9, x = 7
Output: 2
Explanation: One jump forward (0 -> 16) then one jump backward (16 -> 7) will get the bug home.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= forbidden.length <= 1000
  • 1 <= a, b, forbidden[i] <= 2000
  • 0 <= x <= 2000
  • All the elements in forbidden are distinct.
  • Position x is not forbidden.

Solution: BFS

Normal BFS with two tricks:
1. For each position, we need to track whether it’s reached via a forward jump or backward jump
2. How far should we go? If we don’t limit, it can go forever which leads to TLE/MLE. We can limit the distance to 2*max_jump, e.g. 4000, that’s maximum distance we can jump back to home in one shot.

Time complexity: O(max_distance * 2)
Space complexity: O(max_distance * 2)

C++