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Posts published in “Dynamic Programming”

花花酱 LeetCode 1883. Minimum Skips to Arrive at Meeting On Time

You are given an integer hoursBefore, the number of hours you have to travel to your meeting. To arrive at your meeting, you have to travel through n roads. The road lengths are given as an integer array dist of length n, where dist[i] describes the length of the ith road in kilometers. In addition, you are given an integer speed, which is the speed (in km/h) you will travel at.

After you travel road i, you must rest and wait for the next integer hour before you can begin traveling on the next road. Note that you do not have to rest after traveling the last road because you are already at the meeting.

  • For example, if traveling a road takes 1.4 hours, you must wait until the 2 hour mark before traveling the next road. If traveling a road takes exactly 2 hours, you do not need to wait.

However, you are allowed to skip some rests to be able to arrive on time, meaning you do not need to wait for the next integer hour. Note that this means you may finish traveling future roads at different hour marks.

  • For example, suppose traveling the first road takes 1.4 hours and traveling the second road takes 0.6 hours. Skipping the rest after the first road will mean you finish traveling the second road right at the 2 hour mark, letting you start traveling the third road immediately.

Return the minimum number of skips required to arrive at the meeting on time, or -1 if it is impossible.

Example 1:

Input: dist = [1,3,2], speed = 4, hoursBefore = 2
Output: 1
Explanation:
Without skipping any rests, you will arrive in (1/4 + 3/4) + (3/4 + 1/4) + (2/4) = 2.5 hours.
You can skip the first rest to arrive in ((1/4 + 0) + (3/4 + 0)) + (2/4) = 1.5 hours.
Note that the second rest is shortened because you finish traveling the second road at an integer hour due to skipping the first rest.

Example 2:

Input: dist = [7,3,5,5], speed = 2, hoursBefore = 10
Output: 2
Explanation:
Without skipping any rests, you will arrive in (7/2 + 1/2) + (3/2 + 1/2) + (5/2 + 1/2) + (5/2) = 11.5 hours.
You can skip the first and third rest to arrive in ((7/2 + 0) + (3/2 + 0)) + ((5/2 + 0) + (5/2)) = 10 hours.

Example 3:

Input: dist = [7,3,5,5], speed = 1, hoursBefore = 10
Output: -1
Explanation: It is impossible to arrive at the meeting on time even if you skip all the rests.

Constraints:

  • n == dist.length
  • 1 <= n <= 1000
  • 1 <= dist[i] <= 105
  • 1 <= speed <= 106
  • 1 <= hoursBefore <= 107

Solution: DP

Let dp[i][k] denote min (time*speed) to finish the i-th road with k rest.

dp[i][k] = min(dp[i – 1][k – 1] + dist[i] / speed * speed, # skip the rest,
(dp[i-1][k] + dist[i] + speed – 1) // speed * speed # rest

ans = argmin(dp[n][k] <= hours * speed)

Time complexity: O(n2)
Space complexity: O(n2)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1879. Minimum XOR Sum of Two Arrays

You are given two integer arrays nums1 and nums2 of length n.

The XOR sum of the two integer arrays is (nums1[0] XOR nums2[0]) + (nums1[1] XOR nums2[1]) + ... + (nums1[n - 1] XOR nums2[n - 1]) (0-indexed).

  • For example, the XOR sum of [1,2,3] and [3,2,1] is equal to (1 XOR 3) + (2 XOR 2) + (3 XOR 1) = 2 + 0 + 2 = 4.

Rearrange the elements of nums2 such that the resulting XOR sum is minimized.

Return the XOR sum after the rearrangement.

Example 1:

Input: nums1 = [1,2], nums2 = [2,3]
Output: 2
Explanation: Rearrange nums2 so that it becomes [3,2].
The XOR sum is (1 XOR 3) + (2 XOR 2) = 2 + 0 = 2.

Example 2:

Input: nums1 = [1,0,3], nums2 = [5,3,4]
Output: 8
Explanation: Rearrange nums2 so that it becomes [5,4,3]. 
The XOR sum is (1 XOR 5) + (0 XOR 4) + (3 XOR 3) = 4 + 4 + 0 = 8.

Constraints:

  • n == nums1.length
  • n == nums2.length
  • 1 <= n <= 14
  • 0 <= nums1[i], nums2[i] <= 107

Solution: DP / Permutation to combination

dp[s] := min xor sum by using a subset of nums2 (presented by a binary string s) xor with nums1[0:|s|].

Time complexity: O(n*2n)
Space complexity: O(2n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1872. Stone Game VIII

Alice and Bob take turns playing a game, with Alice starting first.

There are n stones arranged in a row. On each player’s turn, while the number of stones is more than one, they will do the following:

  1. Choose an integer x > 1, and remove the leftmost x stones from the row.
  2. Add the sum of the removed stones’ values to the player’s score.
  3. Place a new stone, whose value is equal to that sum, on the left side of the row.

The game stops when only one stone is left in the row.

The score difference between Alice and Bob is (Alice's score - Bob's score). Alice’s goal is to maximize the score difference, and Bob’s goal is the minimize the score difference.

Given an integer array stones of length n where stones[i] represents the value of the ith stone from the left, return the score difference between Alice and Bob if they both play optimally.

Example 1:

Input: stones = [-1,2,-3,4,-5]
Output: 5
Explanation:
- Alice removes the first 4 stones, adds (-1) + 2 + (-3) + 4 = 2 to her score, and places a stone of
  value 2 on the left. stones = [2,-5].
- Bob removes the first 2 stones, adds 2 + (-5) = -3 to his score, and places a stone of value -3 on
  the left. stones = [-3].
The difference between their scores is 2 - (-3) = 5.

Example 2:

Input: stones = [7,-6,5,10,5,-2,-6]
Output: 13
Explanation:
- Alice removes all stones, adds 7 + (-6) + 5 + 10 + 5 + (-2) + (-6) = 13 to her score, and places a
  stone of value 13 on the left. stones = [13].
The difference between their scores is 13 - 0 = 13.

Example 3:

Input: stones = [-10,-12]
Output: -22
Explanation:
- Alice can only make one move, which is to remove both stones. She adds (-10) + (-12) = -22 to her
  score and places a stone of value -22 on the left. stones = [-22].
The difference between their scores is (-22) - 0 = -22.

Constraints:

  • n == stones.length
  • 2 <= n <= 105
  • -104 <= stones[i] <= 104

Solution: Prefix Sum + DP

Note: Naive DP (min-max) takes O(n2) which leads to TLE. The key of this problem is that each player takes k stones, but put their sum back as a new stone, so you can assume all the original stones are still there, but opponent has to start from the k+1 th stone.

Let dp[i] denote the max score diff that current player can achieve by taking stones[0~i] (or equivalent)

dp[n-1] = sum(A[0~n-1]) // Alice takes all the stones.
dp[n-2] = sum(A[0~n-2]) – (A[n-1] + sum(A[0~n-2])) = sum(A[0~n-2]) – dp[n-1] // Alice takes n-1 stones, Bob take the last one (A[n-1]) + put-back-stone.
dp[n-3] = sum(A[0~n-3]) – max(dp[n-2], dp[n-1]) // Alice takes n-2 stones, Bob has two options (takes n-1 stones or takes n stones)

dp[0] = A[0] – max(dp[n-1], dp[n-1], …, dp[1]) // Alice takes the first stone, Bob has n-1 options.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1866. Number of Ways to Rearrange Sticks With K Sticks Visible

There are n uniquely-sized sticks whose lengths are integers from 1 to n. You want to arrange the sticks such that exactly k sticks are visible from the left. A stick is visible from the left if there are no longer sticks to the left of it.

  • For example, if the sticks are arranged [1,3,2,5,4], then the sticks with lengths 13, and 5 are visible from the left.

Given n and k, return the number of such arrangements. Since the answer may be large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, k = 2
Output: 3
Explanation: [1,3,2], [2,3,1], and [2,1,3] are the only arrangements such that exactly 2 sticks are visible.
The visible sticks are underlined.

Example 2:

Input: n = 5, k = 5
Output: 1
Explanation: [1,2,3,4,5] is the only arrangement such that all 5 sticks are visible.
The visible sticks are underlined.

Example 3:

Input: n = 20, k = 11
Output: 647427950
Explanation: There are 647427950 (mod 109 + 7) ways to rearrange the sticks such that exactly 11 sticks are visible.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 1000
  • 1 <= k <= n

Solution: DP

dp(n, k) = dp(n – 1, k – 1) + (n-1) * dp(n-1, k)

Time complexity: O(n*k)
Space complexity: O(n*k) -> O(k)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1824. Minimum Sideway Jumps

There is a 3 lane road of length n that consists of n + 1 points labeled from 0 to n. A frog starts at point 0 in the second laneand wants to jump to point n. However, there could be obstacles along the way.

You are given an array obstacles of length n + 1 where each obstacles[i] (ranging from 0 to 3) describes an obstacle on the lane obstacles[i] at point i. If obstacles[i] == 0, there are no obstacles at point i. There will be at most one obstacle in the 3 lanes at each point.

  • For example, if obstacles[2] == 1, then there is an obstacle on lane 1 at point 2.

The frog can only travel from point i to point i + 1 on the same lane if there is not an obstacle on the lane at point i + 1. To avoid obstacles, the frog can also perform a side jump to jump to another lane (even if they are not adjacent) at the same point if there is no obstacle on the new lane.

  • For example, the frog can jump from lane 3 at point 3 to lane 1 at point 3.

Return the minimum number of side jumps the frog needs to reach any lane at point n starting from lane 2 at point 0.

Note: There will be no obstacles on points 0 and n.

Example 1:

Input: obstacles = [0,1,2,3,0]
Output: 2 
Explanation: The optimal solution is shown by the arrows above. There are 2 side jumps (red arrows).
Note that the frog can jump over obstacles only when making side jumps (as shown at point 2).

Example 2:

Input: obstacles = [0,1,1,3,3,0]
Output: 0
Explanation: There are no obstacles on lane 2. No side jumps are required.

Example 3:

Input: obstacles = [0,2,1,0,3,0]
Output: 2
Explanation: The optimal solution is shown by the arrows above. There are 2 side jumps.

Constraints:

  • obstacles.length == n + 1
  • 1 <= n <= 5 * 105
  • 0 <= obstacles[i] <= 3
  • obstacles[0] == obstacles[n] == 0

Solution: DP

Time complexity: O(n*k)
Space complexity: O(n*k) -> O(k)

C++

C++/O(1) Space