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Posts published in “Dynamic Programming”

花花酱 LeetCode 1774. Closest Dessert Cost

You would like to make dessert and are preparing to buy the ingredients. You have n ice cream base flavors and m types of toppings to choose from. You must follow these rules when making your dessert:

  • There must be exactly one ice cream base.
  • You can add one or more types of topping or have no toppings at all.
  • There are at most two of each type of topping.

You are given three inputs:

  • baseCosts, an integer array of length n, where each baseCosts[i] represents the price of the ith ice cream base flavor.
  • toppingCosts, an integer array of length m, where each toppingCosts[i] is the price of one of the ith topping.
  • target, an integer representing your target price for dessert.

You want to make a dessert with a total cost as close to target as possible.

Return the closest possible cost of the dessert to target. If there are multiple, return the lower one.

Example 1:

Input: baseCosts = [1,7], toppingCosts = [3,4], target = 10
Output: 10
Explanation: Consider the following combination (all 0-indexed):
- Choose base 1: cost 7
- Take 1 of topping 0: cost 1 x 3 = 3
- Take 0 of topping 1: cost 0 x 4 = 0
Total: 7 + 3 + 0 = 10.

Example 2:

Input: baseCosts = [2,3], toppingCosts = [4,5,100], target = 18
Output: 17
Explanation: Consider the following combination (all 0-indexed):
- Choose base 1: cost 3
- Take 1 of topping 0: cost 1 x 4 = 4
- Take 2 of topping 1: cost 2 x 5 = 10
- Take 0 of topping 2: cost 0 x 100 = 0
Total: 3 + 4 + 10 + 0 = 17. You cannot make a dessert with a total cost of 18.

Example 3:

Input: baseCosts = [3,10], toppingCosts = [2,5], target = 9
Output: 8
Explanation: It is possible to make desserts with cost 8 and 10. Return 8 as it is the lower cost.

Example 4:

Input: baseCosts = [10], toppingCosts = [1], target = 1
Output: 10
Explanation: Notice that you don't have to have any toppings, but you must have exactly one base.

Constraints:

  • n == baseCosts.length
  • m == toppingCosts.length
  • 1 <= n, m <= 10
  • 1 <= baseCosts[i], toppingCosts[i] <= 104
  • 1 <= target <= 104

Solution: DP / Knapsack

Pre-compute the costs of all possible combinations of toppings.

Time complexity: O(sum(toppings) * 2 * (m + n)) ~ O(10^6)
Space complexity: O(sum(toppings)) ~ O(10^5)

C++

Solution 2: DFS

Combination

Time complexity: O(3^m * n)
Space complexity: O(m)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1771. Maximize Palindrome Length From Subsequences

You are given two strings, word1 and word2. You want to construct a string in the following manner:

  • Choose some non-empty subsequence subsequence1 from word1.
  • Choose some non-empty subsequence subsequence2 from word2.
  • Concatenate the subsequences: subsequence1 + subsequence2, to make the string.

Return the length of the longest palindrome that can be constructed in the described manner. If no palindromes can be constructed, return 0.

subsequence of a string s is a string that can be made by deleting some (possibly none) characters from s without changing the order of the remaining characters.

palindrome is a string that reads the same forward as well as backward.

Example 1:

Input: word1 = "cacb", word2 = "cbba"
Output: 5
Explanation: Choose "ab" from word1 and "cba" from word2 to make "abcba", which is a palindrome.

Example 2:

Input: word1 = "ab", word2 = "ab"
Output: 3
Explanation: Choose "ab" from word1 and "a" from word2 to make "aba", which is a palindrome.

Example 3:

Input: word1 = "aa", word2 = "bb"
Output: 0
Explanation: You cannot construct a palindrome from the described method, so return 0.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= word1.length, word2.length <= 1000
  • word1 and word2 consist of lowercase English letters.

Solution: DP

Similar to 花花酱 LeetCode 516. Longest Palindromic Subsequence

Let s = word1 + word2, build dp table on s. We just need to make sure there’s at least one char from each string.

Time complexity: O((m+n)^2)
Space complexity: O((m+n)^2)

C++

O(m+n) Space complexity

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1770. Maximum Score from Performing Multiplication Operations

You are given two integer arrays nums and multipliersof size n and m respectively, where n >= m. The arrays are 1-indexed.

You begin with a score of 0. You want to perform exactly m operations. On the ith operation (1-indexed), you will:

  • Choose one integer x from either the start or the end of the array nums.
  • Add multipliers[i] * x to your score.
  • Remove x from the array nums.

Return the maximum score after performing m operations.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3], multipliers = [3,2,1]
Output: 14
Explanation: An optimal solution is as follows:
- Choose from the end, [1,2,3], adding 3 * 3 = 9 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [1,2], adding 2 * 2 = 4 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [1], adding 1 * 1 = 1 to the score.
The total score is 9 + 4 + 1 = 14.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [-5,-3,-3,-2,7,1], multipliers = [-10,-5,3,4,6]
Output: 102
Explanation: An optimal solution is as follows:
- Choose from the start, [-5,-3,-3,-2,7,1], adding -5 * -10 = 50 to the score.
- Choose from the start, [-3,-3,-2,7,1], adding -3 * -5 = 15 to the score.
- Choose from the start, [-3,-2,7,1], adding -3 * 3 = -9 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [-2,7,1], adding 1 * 4 = 4 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [-2,7], adding 7 * 6 = 42 to the score. 
The total score is 50 + 15 - 9 + 4 + 42 = 102.

Constraints:

  • n == nums.length
  • m == multipliers.length
  • 1 <= m <= 103
  • m <= n <= 105
  • -1000 <= nums[i], multipliers[i] <= 1000

Solution: DP

dp(i, j) := max score we can get with nums[i~j] left.

k = n – (j – i + 1)
dp(i, j) = max(dp(i + 1, j) + nums[i] * multipliers[k], dp(i, j-1) + nums[j] * multipliers[k])

Time complexity: O(m*m)
Space complexity: O(m*m)

C++/Top-Down

C++/Bottom-UP

花花酱 LeetCode 1769. Minimum Number of Operations to Move All Balls to Each Box

You have n boxes. You are given a binary string boxes of length n, where boxes[i] is '0' if the ith box is empty, and '1' if it contains one ball.

In one operation, you can move one ball from a box to an adjacent box. Box i is adjacent to box j if abs(i - j) == 1. Note that after doing so, there may be more than one ball in some boxes.

Return an array answer of size n, where answer[i] is the minimum number of operations needed to move all the balls to the ith box.

Each answer[i] is calculated considering the initial state of the boxes.

Example 1:

Input: boxes = "110"
Output: [1,1,3]
Explanation: The answer for each box is as follows:
1) First box: you will have to move one ball from the second box to the first box in one operation.
2) Second box: you will have to move one ball from the first box to the second box in one operation.
3) Third box: you will have to move one ball from the first box to the third box in two operations, and move one ball from the second box to the third box in one operation.

Example 2:

Input: boxes = "001011"
Output: [11,8,5,4,3,4]

Constraints:

  • n == boxes.length
  • 1 <= n <= 2000
  • boxes[i] is either '0' or '1'

Solution: Prefix Sum + DP

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1751. Maximum Number of Events That Can Be Attended II

You are given an array of events where events[i] = [startDayi, endDayi, valuei]. The ith event starts at startDayiand ends at endDayi, and if you attend this event, you will receive a value of valuei. You are also given an integer k which represents the maximum number of events you can attend.

You can only attend one event at a time. If you choose to attend an event, you must attend the entire event. Note that the end day is inclusive: that is, you cannot attend two events where one of them starts and the other ends on the same day.

Return the maximum sum of values that you can receive by attending events.

Example 1:

Input: events = [[1,2,4],[3,4,3],[2,3,1]], k = 2
Output: 7
Explanation: Choose the green events, 0 and 1 (0-indexed) for a total value of 4 + 3 = 7.

Example 2:

Input: events = [[1,2,4],[3,4,3],[2,3,10]], k = 2
Output: 10
Explanation: Choose event 2 for a total value of 10.
Notice that you cannot attend any other event as they overlap, and that you do not have to attend k events.

Example 3:

Input: events = [[1,1,1],[2,2,2],[3,3,3],[4,4,4]], k = 3
Output: 9
Explanation: Although the events do not overlap, you can only attend 3 events. Pick the highest valued three.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= k <= events.length
  • 1 <= k * events.length <= 106
  • 1 <= startDayi <= endDayi <= 109
  • 1 <= valuei <= 106

Solution: DP + Binary Search

Sort events by ending time.
dp[i][j] := max value we can get by attending at most j events among events[0~i].
dp[i][j] = max(dp[i – 1][j], dp[p][j – 1] + value[i])
p is the first event that does not overlap with the current one.

Time complexity: O(nlogn + nk)
Space complexity: O(nk)

C++