# Posts published in “Binary Search”

Given an integer array sorted in non-decreasing order, there is exactly one integer in the array that occurs more than 25% of the time.

Return that integer.

Example 1:

Constraints:

• 1 <= arr.length <= 10^4
• 0 <= arr[i] <= 10^5

## Solution 1: Linear Scan

if arr[i] == arr[i + len/4] => arr[i] is the special integer.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## Solution 2: Binary Search

The answer must be one of (s, s[l/4], s[l/2], s[l*3/4])
Using binary search to find the range of each number, the one has more than 1/4 of total elements is the answer.

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Given an array of integers nums and an integer threshold, we will choose a positive integer divisor and divide all the array by it and sum the result of the division. Find the smallest divisor such that the result mentioned above is less than or equal to threshold.

Each result of division is rounded to the nearest integer greater than or equal to that element. (For example: 7/3 = 3 and 10/2 = 5).

It is guaranteed that there will be an answer.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,5,9], threshold = 6
Output: 5
Explanation: We can get a sum to 17 (1+2+5+9) if the divisor is 1.
If the divisor is 4 we can get a sum to 7 (1+1+2+3) and if the divisor is 5 the sum will be 5 (1+1+1+2).


Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,3,5,7,11], threshold = 11
Output: 3


Example 3:

Input: nums = , threshold = 5
Output: 4

## Solution: Binary Search

Time complexity: O(nlogk)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Given an array of strings products and a string searchWord. We want to design a system that suggests at most three product names from products after each character of searchWord is typed. Suggested products should have common prefix with the searchWord. If there are more than three products with a common prefix return the three lexicographically minimums products.

Return list of lists of the suggested products after each character of searchWord is typed.

Example 1:

Input: products = ["mobile","mouse","moneypot","monitor","mousepad"], searchWord = "mouse"
Output: [
["mobile","moneypot","monitor"],
["mobile","moneypot","monitor"],
]
Explanation: products sorted lexicographically = ["mobile","moneypot","monitor","mouse","mousepad"]
After typing m and mo all products match and we show user ["mobile","moneypot","monitor"]
After typing mou, mous and mouse the system suggests ["mouse","mousepad"]


Example 2:

Input: products = ["havana"], searchWord = "havana"
Output: [["havana"],["havana"],["havana"],["havana"],["havana"],["havana"]]


Example 3:

Input: products = ["bags","baggage","banner","box","cloths"], searchWord = "bags"
Output: [["baggage","bags","banner"],["baggage","bags","banner"],["baggage","bags"],["bags"]]


Example 4:

Input: products = ["havana"], searchWord = "tatiana"
Output: [[],[],[],[],[],[],[]]


Constraints:

• 1 <= products.length <= 1000
• 1 <= Σ products[i].length <= 2 * 10^4
• All characters of products[i] are lower-case English letters.
• 1 <= searchWord.length <= 1000
• All characters of searchWord are lower-case English letters.

## Solution 1: Binary Search

Sort the input array and do two binary searches.
One for prefix of the search word as lower bound, another for prefix + ‘~’ as upper bound.
‘~’ > ‘z’

Time complexity: O(nlogn + l * logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## Solution 2: Trie

Initialization: Sum(len(products[i]))
Query: O(len(searchWord))

## C++

Write a program to find the n-th ugly number.

Ugly numbers are positive integers which are divisible by a or b or c.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, a = 2, b = 3, c = 5
Output: 4
Explanation: The ugly numbers are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10... The 3rd is 4.

Example 2:

Input: n = 4, a = 2, b = 3, c = 4
Output: 6
Explanation: The ugly numbers are 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12... The 4th is 6.


Example 3:

Input: n = 5, a = 2, b = 11, c = 13
Output: 10
Explanation: The ugly numbers are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13... The 5th is 10.


Example 4:

Input: n = 1000000000, a = 2, b = 217983653, c = 336916467
Output: 1999999984


Constraints:

• 1 <= n, a, b, c <= 10^9
• 1 <= a * b * c <= 10^18
• It’s guaranteed that the result will be in range [1, 2 * 10^9]

## Solution: Binary Search

Number of ugly numbers that are <= m are:

m / a + m / b + m / c – (m / LCM(a,b) + m / LCM(a, c) + m / LCM(b, c) + m / LCM(a, LCM(b, c))

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Given an array of integers nums sorted in ascending order, find the starting and ending position of a given target value.

Your algorithm’s runtime complexity must be in the order of O(log n).

If the target is not found in the array, return [-1, -1].

Example 1:

Input: nums = [5,7,7,8,8,10], target = 8
Output: [3,4]

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,7,7,8,8,10], target = 6
Output: [-1,-1]

## Solution: Binary Search

Basically this problem asks you to implement lower_bound and upper_bound using binary search.

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

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