# Posts published in “Binary Search”

You are given a 0-indexed integer array candies. Each element in the array denotes a pile of candies of size candies[i]. You can divide each pile into any number of sub piles, but you cannot merge two piles together.

You are also given an integer k. You should allocate piles of candies to k children such that each child gets the same number of candies. Each child can take at most one pile of candies and some piles of candies may go unused.

Return the maximum number of candies each child can get.

Example 1:

Input: candies = [5,8,6], k = 3
Output: 5
Explanation: We can divide candies into 2 piles of size 5 and 3, and candies into 2 piles of size 5 and 1. We now have five piles of candies of sizes 5, 5, 3, 5, and 1. We can allocate the 3 piles of size 5 to 3 children. It can be proven that each child cannot receive more than 5 candies.


Example 2:

Input: candies = [2,5], k = 11
Output: 0
Explanation: There are 11 children but only 7 candies in total, so it is impossible to ensure each child receives at least one candy. Thus, each child gets no candy and the answer is 0.


Constraints:

• 1 <= candies.length <= 105
• 1 <= candies[i] <= 107
• 1 <= k <= 1012

## Solution: Binary Search

Find the smallest L s.t. we can allocate candies to less than k children.

ans = L – 1.

Time complexity: O(nlogm) where n is number of piles, m is sum(candies) / k.
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given an array time where time[i] denotes the time taken by the ith bus to complete one trip.

Each bus can make multiple trips successively; that is, the next trip can start immediately after completing the current trip. Also, each bus operates independently; that is, the trips of one bus do not influence the trips of any other bus.

You are also given an integer totalTrips, which denotes the number of trips all buses should make in total. Return the minimum time required for all buses to complete at least totalTrips trips.

Example 1:

Input: time = [1,2,3], totalTrips = 5
Output: 3
Explanation:
- At time t = 1, the number of trips completed by each bus are [1,0,0].
The total number of trips completed is 1 + 0 + 0 = 1.
- At time t = 2, the number of trips completed by each bus are [2,1,0].
The total number of trips completed is 2 + 1 + 0 = 3.
- At time t = 3, the number of trips completed by each bus are [3,1,1].
The total number of trips completed is 3 + 1 + 1 = 5.
So the minimum time needed for all buses to complete at least 5 trips is 3.


Example 2:

Input: time = , totalTrips = 1
Output: 2
Explanation:
There is only one bus, and it will complete its first trip at t = 2.
So the minimum time needed to complete 1 trip is 2.


Constraints:

• 1 <= time.length <= 105
• 1 <= time[i], totalTrips <= 107

## Solution: Binary Search

Find the smallest t s.t. trips >= totalTrips.

Time complexity: O(nlogm), where m ~= 1e15
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You have n computers. You are given the integer n and a 0-indexed integer array batteries where the ith battery can run a computer for batteries[i] minutes. You are interested in running all n computers simultaneously using the given batteries.

Initially, you can insert at most one battery into each computer. After that and at any integer time moment, you can remove a battery from a computer and insert another battery any number of times. The inserted battery can be a totally new battery or a battery from another computer. You may assume that the removing and inserting processes take no time.

Note that the batteries cannot be recharged.

Return the maximum number of minutes you can run all the n computers simultaneously.

Example 1:

Input: n = 2, batteries = [3,3,3]
Output: 4
Explanation:
Initially, insert battery 0 into the first computer and battery 1 into the second computer.
After two minutes, remove battery 1 from the second computer and insert battery 2 instead. Note that battery 1 can still run for one minute.
At the end of the third minute, battery 0 is drained, and you need to remove it from the first computer and insert battery 1 instead.
By the end of the fourth minute, battery 1 is also drained, and the first computer is no longer running.
We can run the two computers simultaneously for at most 4 minutes, so we return 4.



Example 2:

Input: n = 2, batteries = [1,1,1,1]
Output: 2
Explanation:
Initially, insert battery 0 into the first computer and battery 2 into the second computer.
After one minute, battery 0 and battery 2 are drained so you need to remove them and insert battery 1 into the first computer and battery 3 into the second computer.
After another minute, battery 1 and battery 3 are also drained so the first and second computers are no longer running.
We can run the two computers simultaneously for at most 2 minutes, so we return 2.


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= batteries.length <= 105
• 1 <= batteries[i] <= 109

## Solution: Binary Search

Find the smallest L that we can not run, ans = L – 1.

For a guessing m, we check the total battery powers T = sum(min(m, batteries[i])), if T >= m * n, it means there is a way (doesn’t need to figure out how) to run n computers for m minutes by fully unitize those batteries.

Proof: If T >= m*n holds, there are two cases:

1. There are only n batteries, can not swap, but each of them has power >= m.
2. At least one of the batteries have power less than m, but there are more than n batteries and total power is sufficient, we can swap them with others.

Time complexity: O(Slogn) where S = sum(batteries)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Given a 0-indexed integer array nums, return the number of distinct quadruplets (a, b, c, d) such that:

• nums[a] + nums[b] + nums[c] == nums[d], and
• a < b < c < d

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,6]
Output: 1
Explanation: The only quadruplet that satisfies the requirement is (0, 1, 2, 3) because 1 + 2 + 3 == 6.


Example 2:

Input: nums = [3,3,6,4,5]
Output: 0
Explanation: There are no such quadruplets in [3,3,6,4,5].


Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,1,1,3,5]
Output: 4
Explanation: The 4 quadruplets that satisfy the requirement are:
- (0, 1, 2, 3): 1 + 1 + 1 == 3
- (0, 1, 3, 4): 1 + 1 + 3 == 5
- (0, 2, 3, 4): 1 + 1 + 3 == 5
- (1, 2, 3, 4): 1 + 1 + 3 == 5


Constraints:

• 4 <= nums.length <= 50
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 100

## Solution 1: Brute force (224ms)

Enumerate a, b, c, d.

Time complexity: O(C(n, 4)) = O(n4/24)
Space complexity: O(1)

## Solution 2: Static frequency table + binary search (39ms)

For each element, we store its indices (sorted).

Given a, b, c, target t = nums[a] + nums[b] + nums[c], we check the hashtable and use binary search to find how many times it occurred after index c.

Time complexity: O(n3/6*logn)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Solution 3: Dynamic frequency table (29ms)

Similar to 花花酱 LeetCode 1. Two Sum, we dynamically add elements (from right to left) into the hashtable.

Time complexity: O(n3/6)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

Given an integer array arr and a target value target, return the integer value such that when we change all the integers larger than value in the given array to be equal to value, the sum of the array gets as close as possible (in absolute difference) to target.

In case of a tie, return the minimum such integer.

Notice that the answer is not neccesarilly a number from arr.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [4,9,3], target = 10
Output: 3
Explanation: When using 3 arr converts to [3, 3, 3] which sums 9 and that's the optimal answer.


Example 2:

Input: arr = [2,3,5], target = 10
Output: 5


Example 3:

Input: arr = [60864,25176,27249,21296,20204], target = 56803
Output: 11361


Constraints:

• 1 <= arr.length <= 104
• 1 <= arr[i], target <= 105

## Solution: Binary Search

Find the smallest number x s.t. sum of the mutated array is >= target. Answer must be either x or x – 1.

Note, the search range should be [0, max(arr))

Time complexity: O(nlogm)
Space complexity: O(1)