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花花酱 LeetCode 2303. Calculate Amount Paid in Taxes

You are given a 0-indexed 2D integer array brackets where brackets[i] = [upperi, percenti] means that the ith tax bracket has an upper bound of upperi and is taxed at a rate of percenti. The brackets are sorted by upper bound (i.e. upperi-1 < upperi for 0 < i < brackets.length).

Tax is calculated as follows:

  • The first upper0 dollars earned are taxed at a rate of percent0.
  • The next upper1 - upper0 dollars earned are taxed at a rate of percent1.
  • The next upper2 - upper1 dollars earned are taxed at a rate of percent2.
  • And so on.

You are given an integer income representing the amount of money you earned. Return the amount of money that you have to pay in taxes. Answers within 10-5 of the actual answer will be accepted.

Example 1:

Input: brackets = [[3,50],[7,10],[12,25]], income = 10
Output: 2.65000
Explanation:
The first 3 dollars you earn are taxed at 50%. You have to pay $3 * 50% = $1.50 dollars in taxes.
The next 7 - 3 = 4 dollars you earn are taxed at 10%. You have to pay $4 * 10% = $0.40 dollars in taxes.
The final 10 - 7 = 3 dollars you earn are taxed at 25%. You have to pay $3 * 25% = $0.75 dollars in taxes.
You have to pay a total of $1.50 + $0.40 + $0.75 = $2.65 dollars in taxes.

Example 2:

Input: brackets = [[1,0],[4,25],[5,50]], income = 2
Output: 0.25000
Explanation:
The first dollar you earn is taxed at 0%. You have to pay $1 * 0% = $0 dollars in taxes.
The second dollar you earn is taxed at 25%. You have to pay $1 * 25% = $0.25 dollars in taxes.
You have to pay a total of $0 + $0.25 = $0.25 dollars in taxes.

Example 3:

Input: brackets = [[2,50]], income = 0
Output: 0.00000
Explanation:
You have no income to tax, so you have to pay a total of $0 dollars in taxes.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= brackets.length <= 100
  • 1 <= upperi <= 1000
  • 0 <= percenti <= 100
  • 0 <= income <= 1000
  • upperi is sorted in ascending order.
  • All the values of upperi are unique.
  • The upper bound of the last tax bracket is greater than or equal to income.

Solution: Follow the rules

“Nothing is certain except death and taxes” – Benjamin Franklin

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2270. Number of Ways to Split Array

You are given a 0-indexed integer array nums of length n.

nums contains a valid split at index i if the following are true:

  • The sum of the first i + 1 elements is greater than or equal to the sum of the last n - i - 1 elements.
  • There is at least one element to the right of i. That is, 0 <= i < n - 1.

Return the number of valid splits in nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [10,4,-8,7]
Output: 2
Explanation: 
There are three ways of splitting nums into two non-empty parts:
- Split nums at index 0. Then, the first part is [10], and its sum is 10. The second part is [4,-8,7], and its sum is 3. Since 10 >= 3, i = 0 is a valid split.
- Split nums at index 1. Then, the first part is [10,4], and its sum is 14. The second part is [-8,7], and its sum is -1. Since 14 >= -1, i = 1 is a valid split.
- Split nums at index 2. Then, the first part is [10,4,-8], and its sum is 6. The second part is [7], and its sum is 7. Since 6 < 7, i = 2 is not a valid split.
Thus, the number of valid splits in nums is 2.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,3,1,0]
Output: 2
Explanation: 
There are two valid splits in nums:
- Split nums at index 1. Then, the first part is [2,3], and its sum is 5. The second part is [1,0], and its sum is 1. Since 5 >= 1, i = 1 is a valid split. 
- Split nums at index 2. Then, the first part is [2,3,1], and its sum is 6. The second part is [0], and its sum is 0. Since 6 >= 0, i = 2 is a valid split.

Constraints:

  • 2 <= nums.length <= 105
  • -105 <= nums[i] <= 105

Solution: Prefix/Suffix Sum

Note: sum can be greater than 2^31, use long!

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2256. Minimum Average Difference

You are given a 0-indexed integer array nums of length n.

The average difference of the index i is the absolute difference between the average of the first i + 1 elements of nums and the average of the last n - i - 1 elements. Both averages should be rounded down to the nearest integer.

Return the index with the minimum average difference. If there are multiple such indices, return the smallest one.

Note:

  • The absolute difference of two numbers is the absolute value of their difference.
  • The average of n elements is the sum of the n elements divided (integer division) by n.
  • The average of 0 elements is considered to be 0.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [2,5,3,9,5,3]
Output: 3
Explanation:
- The average difference of index 0 is: |2 / 1 - (5 + 3 + 9 + 5 + 3) / 5| = |2 / 1 - 25 / 5| = |2 - 5| = 3.
- The average difference of index 1 is: |(2 + 5) / 2 - (3 + 9 + 5 + 3) / 4| = |7 / 2 - 20 / 4| = |3 - 5| = 2.
- The average difference of index 2 is: |(2 + 5 + 3) / 3 - (9 + 5 + 3) / 3| = |10 / 3 - 17 / 3| = |3 - 5| = 2.
- The average difference of index 3 is: |(2 + 5 + 3 + 9) / 4 - (5 + 3) / 2| = |19 / 4 - 8 / 2| = |4 - 4| = 0.
- The average difference of index 4 is: |(2 + 5 + 3 + 9 + 5) / 5 - 3 / 1| = |24 / 5 - 3 / 1| = |4 - 3| = 1.
- The average difference of index 5 is: |(2 + 5 + 3 + 9 + 5 + 3) / 6 - 0| = |27 / 6 - 0| = |4 - 0| = 4.
The average difference of index 3 is the minimum average difference so return 3.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [0]
Output: 0
Explanation:
The only index is 0 so return 0.
The average difference of index 0 is: |0 / 1 - 0| = |0 - 0| = 0.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 0 <= nums[i] <= 105

Solution: Prefix / Suffix Sum

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2239. Find Closest Number to Zero

Given an integer array nums of size n, return the number with the value closest to 0 in nums. If there are multiple answers, return the number with the largest value.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [-4,-2,1,4,8]
Output: 1
Explanation:
The distance from -4 to 0 is |-4| = 4.
The distance from -2 to 0 is |-2| = 2.
The distance from 1 to 0 is |1| = 1.
The distance from 4 to 0 is |4| = 4.
The distance from 8 to 0 is |8| = 8.
Thus, the closest number to 0 in the array is 1.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,-1,1]
Output: 1
Explanation: 1 and -1 are both the closest numbers to 0, so 1 being larger is returned.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 1000
  • -105 <= nums[i] <= 105

Solution: ABS

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2231. Largest Number After Digit Swaps by Parity

You are given a positive integer num. You may swap any two digits of num that have the same parity (i.e. both odd digits or both even digits).

Return the largest possible value of num after any number of swaps.

Example 1:

Input: num = 1234
Output: 3412
Explanation: Swap the digit 3 with the digit 1, this results in the number 3214.
Swap the digit 2 with the digit 4, this results in the number 3412.
Note that there may be other sequences of swaps but it can be shown that 3412 is the largest possible number.
Also note that we may not swap the digit 4 with the digit 1 since they are of different parities.

Example 2:

Input: num = 65875
Output: 87655
Explanation: Swap the digit 8 with the digit 6, this results in the number 85675.
Swap the first digit 5 with the digit 7, this results in the number 87655.
Note that there may be other sequences of swaps but it can be shown that 87655 is the largest possible number.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= num <= 109

Solution:

Put all even digits into one array, all odd digits into another one, all digits into the third. Sort two arrays, and generate a new number from sorted arrays.

Time complexity: O(logn*loglogn)
Space complexity: O(logn)

C++