# Posts published in “Algorithms”

Given an integer array nums (0-indexed) and two integers target and start, find an index i such that nums[i] == target and abs(i - start) is minimized. Note that abs(x) is the absolute value of x.

Return abs(i - start).

It is guaranteed that target exists in nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4,5], target = 5, start = 3
Output: 1
Explanation: nums = 5 is the only value equal to target, so the answer is abs(4 - 3) = 1.


Example 2:

Input: nums = , target = 1, start = 0
Output: 0
Explanation: nums = 1 is the only value equal to target, so the answer is abs(0 - 0) = 1.


Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1], target = 1, start = 0
Output: 0
Explanation: Every value of nums is 1, but nums minimizes abs(i - start), which is abs(0 - 0) = 0.


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 1000
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 104
• 0 <= start < nums.length
• target is in nums.

## Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

There is a hotel with n rooms. The rooms are represented by a 2D integer array rooms where rooms[i] = [roomIdi, sizei] denotes that there is a room with room number roomIdi and size equal to sizei. Each roomIdi is guaranteed to be unique.

You are also given k queries in a 2D array queries where queries[j] = [preferredj, minSizej]. The answer to the jth query is the room number id of a room such that:

• The room has a size of at least minSizej, and
• abs(id - preferredj) is minimized, where abs(x) is the absolute value of x.

If there is a tie in the absolute difference, then use the room with the smallest such id. If there is no such room, the answer is -1.

Return an array answer of length k where answer[j] contains the answer to the jth query.

Example 1:

Input: rooms = [[2,2],[1,2],[3,2]], queries = [[3,1],[3,3],[5,2]]
Output: [3,-1,3]
Explanation: The answers to the queries are as follows:
Query = [3,1]: Room number 3 is the closest as abs(3 - 3) = 0, and its size of 2 is at least 1. The answer is 3.
Query = [3,3]: There are no rooms with a size of at least 3, so the answer is -1.
Query = [5,2]: Room number 3 is the closest as abs(3 - 5) = 2, and its size of 2 is at least 2. The answer is 3.

Example 2:

Input: rooms = [[1,4],[2,3],[3,5],[4,1],[5,2]], queries = [[2,3],[2,4],[2,5]]
Output: [2,1,3]
Explanation: The answers to the queries are as follows:
Query = [2,3]: Room number 2 is the closest as abs(2 - 2) = 0, and its size of 3 is at least 3. The answer is 2.
Query = [2,4]: Room numbers 1 and 3 both have sizes of at least 4. The answer is 1 since it is smaller.
Query = [2,5]: Room number 3 is the only room with a size of at least 5. The answer is 3.

Constraints:

• n == rooms.length
• 1 <= n <= 105
• k == queries.length
• 1 <= k <= 104
• 1 <= roomIdi, preferredj <= 107
• 1 <= sizei, minSizej <= 107

## Solution: Off Processing: Sort + Binary Search

Time complexity: O(nlogn + mlogm)
Space complexity: O(n + m)

Sort queries and rooms by size in descending order, only add valid rooms (size >= min_size) to the treeset for binary search.

## Solution 2: Fenwick Tree

Time complexity: O(nlogS + mlogSlogn)
Space complexity: O(nlogS)

## C++

You are given an array of positive integers arr. Perform some operations (possibly none) on arr so that it satisfies these conditions:

• The value of the first element in arr must be 1.
• The absolute difference between any 2 adjacent elements must be less than or equal to 1. In other words, abs(arr[i] - arr[i - 1]) <= 1 for each i where 1 <= i < arr.length (0-indexed). abs(x) is the absolute value of x.

There are 2 types of operations that you can perform any number of times:

• Decrease the value of any element of arr to a smaller positive integer.
• Rearrange the elements of arr to be in any order.

Return the maximum possible value of an element in arr after performing the operations to satisfy the conditions.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [2,2,1,2,1]
Output: 2
Explanation:
We can satisfy the conditions by rearranging arr so it becomes [1,2,2,2,1].
The largest element in arr is 2.


Example 2:

Input: arr = [100,1,1000]
Output: 3
Explanation:
One possible way to satisfy the conditions is by doing the following:
1. Rearrange arr so it becomes [1,100,1000].
2. Decrease the value of the second element to 2.
3. Decrease the value of the third element to 3.
Now arr = [1,2,3], which satisfies the conditions.
The largest element in arr is 3.


Example 3:

Input: arr = [1,2,3,4,5]
Output: 5
Explanation: The array already satisfies the conditions, and the largest element is 5.


Constraints:

• 1 <= arr.length <= 105
• 1 <= arr[i] <= 109

## Solution: Sort

arr = 1,
arr[i] = min(arr[i], arr[i – 1] + 1)

ans = arr[n – 1]

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You want to build n new buildings in a city. The new buildings will be built in a line and are labeled from 1 to n.

However, there are city restrictions on the heights of the new buildings:

• The height of each building must be a non-negative integer.
• The height of the first building must be 0.
• The height difference between any two adjacent buildings cannot exceed 1.

Additionally, there are city restrictions on the maximum height of specific buildings. These restrictions are given as a 2D integer array restrictions where restrictions[i] = [idi, maxHeighti] indicates that building idi must have a height less than or equal to maxHeighti.

It is guaranteed that each building will appear at most once in restrictions, and building 1 will not be in restrictions.

Return the maximum possible height of the tallest building.

Example 1:

Input: n = 5, restrictions = [[2,1],[4,1]]
Output: 2
Explanation: The green area in the image indicates the maximum allowed height for each building.
We can build the buildings with heights [0,1,2,1,2], and the tallest building has a height of 2.

Example 2:

Input: n = 6, restrictions = []
Output: 5
Explanation: The green area in the image indicates the maximum allowed height for each building.
We can build the buildings with heights [0,1,2,3,4,5], and the tallest building has a height of 5.


Example 3:

Constraints:

• 2 <= n <= 109
• 0 <= restrictions.length <= min(n - 1, 105)
• 2 <= idi <= n
• idi is unique.
• 0 <= maxHeighti <= 109

## Solution: Two Passes

Trim the max heights based on neighboring max heights.
Two passes: left to right, right to left.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given an integer array nums (0-indexed). In one operation, you can choose an element of the array and increment it by 1.

• For example, if nums = [1,2,3], you can choose to increment nums to make nums = [1,3,3].

Return the minimum number of operations needed to make nums strictly increasing.

An array nums is strictly increasing if nums[i] < nums[i+1] for all 0 <= i < nums.length - 1. An array of length 1 is trivially strictly increasing.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,1,1]
Output: 3
Explanation: You can do the following operations:
1) Increment nums, so nums becomes [1,1,2].
2) Increment nums, so nums becomes [1,2,2].
3) Increment nums, so nums becomes [1,2,3].


Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,5,2,4,1]
Output: 14


Example 3:

Input: nums = 
Output: 0


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 5000
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 104

## Solution: Track Last

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)