# Posts published in “Algorithms”

There are several consecutive houses along a street, each of which has some money inside. There is also a robber, who wants to steal money from the homes, but he refuses to steal from adjacent homes.

The capability of the robber is the maximum amount of money he steals from one house of all the houses he robbed.

You are given an integer array nums representing how much money is stashed in each house. More formally, the ith house from the left has nums[i] dollars.

You are also given an integer k, representing the minimum number of houses the robber will steal from. It is always possible to steal at least k houses.

Return the minimum capability of the robber out of all the possible ways to steal at least k houses.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [2,3,5,9], k = 2
Output: 5
Explanation:
There are three ways to rob at least 2 houses:
- Rob the houses at indices 0 and 2. Capability is max(nums[0], nums[2]) = 5.
- Rob the houses at indices 0 and 3. Capability is max(nums[0], nums[3]) = 9.
- Rob the houses at indices 1 and 3. Capability is max(nums[1], nums[3]) = 9.
Therefore, we return min(5, 9, 9) = 5.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,7,9,3,1], k = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: There are 7 ways to rob the houses. The way which leads to minimum capability is to rob the house at index 0 and 4. Return max(nums[0], nums[4]) = 2.

Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 105
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 109
• 1 <= k <= (nums.length + 1)/2

## Solution 1: Binary Search + DP

It’s easy to see that higher capability means more houses we can rob. Thus this can be formulate as a binary search algorithm e.g. find the minimum C s.t. we can rob at least k houses.

Then we can use dp(i) to calculate maximum houses we can rob if starting from the i’th house.
dp(i) = max(1 + dp(i + 2) if nums[i] <= C else 0, dp(i + 1))

Time complexity: O(n log m)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Solution 2: Binary Search + Greedy

From: dp(i) = max(1 + dp(i + 2) if nums[i] <= C else 0, dp(i + 1)) we can see that if we can pick the i-th one, it will be the same or better if we skip and start from dp(i + 1). Thus we can convert this from DP to greedy. As long as we can pick the current one, we pick it first.

Time complexity: O(n log m)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given a 0-indexed array of strings words and a 2D array of integers queries.

Each query queries[i] = [li, ri] asks us to find the number of strings present in the range li to ri (both inclusive) of words that start and end with a vowel.

Return an array ans of size queries.length, where ans[i] is the answer to the ith query.

Note that the vowel letters are 'a''e''i''o', and 'u'.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["aba","bcb","ece","aa","e"], queries = [[0,2],[1,4],[1,1]]
Output: [2,3,0]
Explanation: The strings starting and ending with a vowel are "aba", "ece", "aa" and "e".
The answer to the query [0,2] is 2 (strings "aba" and "ece").
to query [1,4] is 3 (strings "ece", "aa", "e").
to query [1,1] is 0.
We return [2,3,0].

Example 2:

Input: words = ["a","e","i"], queries = [[0,2],[0,1],[2,2]]
Output: [3,2,1]
Explanation: Every string satisfies the conditions, so we return [3,2,1].

Constraints:

• 1 <= words.length <= 105
• 1 <= words[i].length <= 40
• words[i] consists only of lowercase English letters.
• sum(words[i].length) <= 3 * 105
• 1 <= queries.length <= 105
• 0 <= li <= ri < words.length

## Solution: Prefix Sum

Let sum[i] := number of valid strings in words[0:i]

For each query [l, r], answer will be sum[r + 1] – sum[l]

Time complexity: O(n + q)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

You are given the root of a binary search tree and an array queries of size n consisting of positive integers.

Find a 2D array answer of size n where answer[i] = [mini, maxi]:

• mini is the largest value in the tree that is smaller than or equal to queries[i]. If a such value does not exist, add -1 instead.
• maxi is the smallest value in the tree that is greater than or equal to queries[i]. If a such value does not exist, add -1 instead.

Example 1:

Input: root = [6,2,13,1,4,9,15,null,null,null,null,null,null,14], queries = [2,5,16]
Output: [[2,2],[4,6],[15,-1]]
Explanation: We answer the queries in the following way:
- The largest number that is smaller or equal than 2 in the tree is 2, and the smallest number that is greater or equal than 2 is still 2. So the answer for the first query is [2,2].
- The largest number that is smaller or equal than 5 in the tree is 4, and the smallest number that is greater or equal than 5 is 6. So the answer for the second query is [4,6].
- The largest number that is smaller or equal than 16 in the tree is 15, and the smallest number that is greater or equal than 16 does not exist. So the answer for the third query is [15,-1].

Example 2:

Input: root = [4,null,9], queries = [3]
Output: [[-1,4]]
Explanation: The largest number that is smaller or equal to 3 in the tree does not exist, and the smallest number that is greater or equal to 3 is 4. So the answer for the query is [-1,4].

Constraints:

• The number of nodes in the tree is in the range [2, 105].
• 1 <= Node.val <= 106
• n == queries.length
• 1 <= n <= 105
• 1 <= queries[i] <= 106

## Solution: Convert to sorted array

Since we don’t know whether the tree is balanced or not, the safest and easiest way is to convert the tree into a sorted array using inorder traversal. Or just any traversal and sort the array later on.

Once we have a sorted array, we can use lower_bound / upper_bound to query.

Time complexity: O(qlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

One binary search per query.

## C++

You are given a 0-indexed array of positive integers nums. Find the number of triplets (i, j, k) that meet the following conditions:

• 0 <= i < j < k < nums.length
• nums[i]nums[j], and nums[k] are pairwise distinct.
• In other words, nums[i] != nums[j]nums[i] != nums[k], and nums[j] != nums[k].

Return the number of triplets that meet the conditions.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [4,4,2,4,3]
Output: 3
Explanation: The following triplets meet the conditions:
- (0, 2, 4) because 4 != 2 != 3
- (1, 2, 4) because 4 != 2 != 3
- (2, 3, 4) because 2 != 4 != 3
Since there are 3 triplets, we return 3.
Note that (2, 0, 4) is not a valid triplet because 2 > 0.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,1,1,1,1]
Output: 0
Explanation: No triplets meet the conditions so we return 0.

Constraints:

• 3 <= nums.length <= 100
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 1000

## Solution 1: Brute Force

Enumerate i, j, k.

Time complexity: O(n3)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given an integer array nums of size n.

Consider a non-empty subarray from nums that has the maximum possible bitwise AND.

• In other words, let k be the maximum value of the bitwise AND of any subarray of nums. Then, only subarrays with a bitwise AND equal to k should be considered.

Return the length of the longest such subarray.

The bitwise AND of an array is the bitwise AND of all the numbers in it.

subarray is a contiguous sequence of elements within an array.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,3,2,2]
Output: 2
Explanation:
The maximum possible bitwise AND of a subarray is 3.
The longest subarray with that value is [3,3], so we return 2.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4]
Output: 1
Explanation:
The maximum possible bitwise AND of a subarray is 4.
The longest subarray with that value is [4], so we return 1.

Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 105
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 106

## Solution: Find the largest number

a & b <= a
a & b <= b
if b > a, a & b < b, we choose to start a new sequence of “b” instead of continuing with “ab”

Basically, we find the largest number in the array and count the longest sequence of it. Note, there will be some tricky cases like.
b b b b a b
b a b b b b
We need to return 4 instead of 1.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)