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Posts published in “Algorithms”

花花酱 LeetCode 48. Rotate Image

You are given an n x n 2D matrix representing an image.

Rotate the image by 90 degrees (clockwise).

Note:

You have to rotate the image in-place, which means you have to modify the input 2D matrix directly. DO NOT allocate another 2D matrix and do the rotation.

Example 1:

Given input matrix = 
[
  [1,2,3],
  [4,5,6],
  [7,8,9]
],

rotate the input matrix in-place such that it becomes:
[
  [7,4,1],
  [8,5,2],
  [9,6,3]
]

Example 2:

Given input matrix =
[
  [ 5, 1, 9,11],
  [ 2, 4, 8,10],
  [13, 3, 6, 7],
  [15,14,12,16]
], 

rotate the input matrix in-place such that it becomes:
[
  [15,13, 2, 5],
  [14, 3, 4, 1],
  [12, 6, 8, 9],
  [16, 7,10,11]
]

Solution: 2 Passes

First pass: mirror around diagonal
Second pass: mirror around y axis

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 75. Sort Colors

Given an array with n objects colored red, white or blue, sort them in-place so that objects of the same color are adjacent, with the colors in the order red, white and blue.

Here, we will use the integers 0, 1, and 2 to represent the color red, white, and blue respectively.

Note: You are not suppose to use the library’s sort function for this problem.

Example:

Input: [2,0,2,1,1,0]
Output: [0,0,1,1,2,2]

Follow up:

  • A rather straight forward solution is a two-pass algorithm using counting sort.
    First, iterate the array counting number of 0’s, 1’s, and 2’s, then overwrite array with total number of 0’s, then 1’s and followed by 2’s.
  • Could you come up with a one-pass algorithm using only constant space?

Solution 1: Counting sort

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Solution 2: Two pointers

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 80. Remove Duplicates from Sorted Array II

Given a sorted array nums, remove the duplicates in-place such that duplicates appeared at most twice and return the new length.

Do not allocate extra space for another array, you must do this by modifying the input array in-place with O(1) extra memory.

Example 1:

Given nums = [1,1,1,2,2,3],

Your function should return length = 5, with the first five elements of nums being 1, 1, 2, 2 and 3 respectively.

It doesn't matter what you leave beyond the returned length.

Example 2:

Given nums = [0,0,1,1,1,1,2,3,3],

Your function should return length = 7, with the first seven elements of nums being modified to 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 3 and 3 respectively.

It doesn't matter what values are set beyond the returned length.

Solution:

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 1201. Ugly Number III

Write a program to find the n-th ugly number.

Ugly numbers are positive integers which are divisible by a or b or c.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, a = 2, b = 3, c = 5
Output: 4
Explanation: The ugly numbers are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10... The 3rd is 4.

Example 2:

Input: n = 4, a = 2, b = 3, c = 4
Output: 6
Explanation: The ugly numbers are 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 12... The 4th is 6.

Example 3:

Input: n = 5, a = 2, b = 11, c = 13
Output: 10
Explanation: The ugly numbers are 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13... The 5th is 10.

Example 4:

Input: n = 1000000000, a = 2, b = 217983653, c = 336916467
Output: 1999999984

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n, a, b, c <= 10^9
  • 1 <= a * b * c <= 10^18
  • It’s guaranteed that the result will be in range [1, 2 * 10^9]

Solution: Binary Search

Number of ugly numbers that are <= m are:

m / a + m / b + m / c – (m / LCM(a,b) + m / LCM(a, c) + m / LCM(b, c) + m / LCM(a, LCM(b, c))

Time complexity: O(logn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1184. Distance Between Bus Stops

A bus has n stops numbered from 0 to n - 1 that form a circle. We know the distance between all pairs of neighboring stops where distance[i] is the distance between the stops number i and (i + 1) % n.

The bus goes along both directions i.e. clockwise and counterclockwise.

Return the shortest distance between the given start and destination stops.

Example 1:

Input: distance = [1,2,3,4], start = 0, destination = 1
Output: 1
Explanation: Distance between 0 and 1 is 1 or 9, minimum is 1.

Example 2:

Input: distance = [1,2,3,4], start = 0, destination = 2
Output: 3
Explanation: Distance between 0 and 2 is 3 or 7, minimum is 3.

Example 3:

Input: distance = [1,2,3,4], start = 0, destination = 3
Output: 4
Explanation: Distance between 0 and 3 is 6 or 4, minimum is 4.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 10^4
  • distance.length == n
  • 0 <= start, destination < n
  • 0 <= distance[i] <= 10^4

Solution: Summation

  1. compute the total sum
  2. compute the sum from s to d, c
  3. ans = min(c, sum – c)

Time complexity: O(d-s)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++