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Posts published in “Algorithms”

花花酱 LeetCode 1773. Count Items Matching a Rule

You are given an array items, where each items[i] = [typei, colori, namei] describes the type, color, and name of the ith item. You are also given a rule represented by two strings, ruleKey and ruleValue.

The ith item is said to match the rule if one of the following is true:

  • ruleKey == "type" and ruleValue == typei.
  • ruleKey == "color" and ruleValue == colori.
  • ruleKey == "name" and ruleValue == namei.

Return the number of items that match the given rule.

Example 1:

Input: items = [["phone","blue","pixel"],["computer","silver","lenovo"],["phone","gold","iphone"]], ruleKey = "color", ruleValue = "silver"
Output: 1
Explanation: There is only one item matching the given rule, which is ["computer","silver","lenovo"].

Example 2:

Input: items = [["phone","blue","pixel"],["computer","silver","phone"],["phone","gold","iphone"]], ruleKey = "type", ruleValue = "phone"
Output: 2
Explanation: There are only two items matching the given rule, which are ["phone","blue","pixel"] and ["phone","gold","iphone"]. Note that the item ["computer","silver","phone"] does not match.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= items.length <= 104
  • 1 <= typei.length, colori.length, namei.length, ruleValue.length <= 10
  • ruleKey is equal to either "type""color", or "name".
  • All strings consist only of lowercase letters.

Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1764. Form Array by Concatenating Subarrays of Another Array

You are given a 2D integer array groups of length n. You are also given an integer array nums.

You are asked if you can choose n disjoint subarrays from the array nums such that the ith subarray is equal to groups[i] (0-indexed), and if i > 0, the (i-1)th subarray appears before the ith subarray in nums (i.e. the subarrays must be in the same order as groups).

Return true if you can do this task, and false otherwise.

Note that the subarrays are disjoint if and only if there is no index k such that nums[k] belongs to more than one subarray. A subarray is a contiguous sequence of elements within an array.

Example 1:

Input: groups = [[1,-1,-1],[3,-2,0]], nums = [1,-1,0,1,-1,-1,3,-2,0]
Output: true
Explanation: You can choose the 0th subarray as [1,-1,0,1,-1,-1,3,-2,0] and the 1st one as [1,-1,0,1,-1,-1,3,-2,0].
These subarrays are disjoint as they share no common nums[k] element.

Example 2:

Input: groups = [[10,-2],[1,2,3,4]], nums = [1,2,3,4,10,-2]
Output: false
Explanation: Note that choosing the subarrays [1,2,3,4,10,-2] and [1,2,3,4,10,-2] is incorrect because they are not in the same order as in groups.
[10,-2] must come before [1,2,3,4].

Example 3:

Input: groups = [[1,2,3],[3,4]], nums = [7,7,1,2,3,4,7,7]
Output: false
Explanation: Note that choosing the subarrays [7,7,1,2,3,4,7,7] and [7,7,1,2,3,4,7,7] is invalid because they are not disjoint.
They share a common elements nums[4] (0-indexed).

Constraints:

  • groups.length == n
  • 1 <= n <= 103
  • 1 <= groups[i].length, sum(groups[i].length) <= 103
  • 1 <= nums.length <= 103
  • -107 <= groups[i][j], nums[k] <= 107

Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n^2?)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1760. Minimum Limit of Balls in a Bag

You are given an integer array nums where the ith bag contains nums[i] balls. You are also given an integer maxOperations.

You can perform the following operation at most maxOperations times:

  • Take any bag of balls and divide it into two new bags with a positive number of balls.
    • For example, a bag of 5 balls can become two new bags of 1 and 4 balls, or two new bags of 2 and 3 balls.

Your penalty is the maximum number of balls in a bag. You want to minimize your penalty after the operations.

Return the minimum possible penalty after performing the operations.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [9], maxOperations = 2
Output: 3
Explanation: 
- Divide the bag with 9 balls into two bags of sizes 6 and 3. [9] -> [6,3].
- Divide the bag with 6 balls into two bags of sizes 3 and 3. [6,3] -> [3,3,3].
The bag with the most number of balls has 3 balls, so your penalty is 3 and you should return 3.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,4,8,2], maxOperations = 4
Output: 2
Explanation:
- Divide the bag with 8 balls into two bags of sizes 4 and 4. [2,4,8,2] -> [2,4,4,4,2].
- Divide the bag with 4 balls into two bags of sizes 2 and 2. [2,4,4,4,2] -> [2,2,2,4,4,2].
- Divide the bag with 4 balls into two bags of sizes 2 and 2. [2,2,2,4,4,2] -> [2,2,2,2,2,4,2].
- Divide the bag with 4 balls into two bags of sizes 2 and 2. [2,2,2,2,2,4,2] -> [2,2,2,2,2,2,2,2].
The bag with the most number of balls has 2 balls, so your penalty is 2 an you should return 2.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [7,17], maxOperations = 2
Output: 7

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= maxOperations, nums[i] <= 109

Solution: Binary Search

Find the smallest penalty that requires less or equal ops than max_ops.

Time complexity: O(nlogm)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1755. Closest Subsequence Sum

You are given an integer array nums and an integer goal.

You want to choose a subsequence of nums such that the sum of its elements is the closest possible to goal. That is, if the sum of the subsequence’s elements is sum, then you want to minimize the absolute difference abs(sum - goal).

Return the minimum possible value of abs(sum - goal).

Note that a subsequence of an array is an array formed by removing some elements (possibly all or none) of the original array.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [5,-7,3,5], goal = 6
Output: 0
Explanation: Choose the whole array as a subsequence, with a sum of 6.
This is equal to the goal, so the absolute difference is 0.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [7,-9,15,-2], goal = -5
Output: 1
Explanation: Choose the subsequence [7,-9,-2], with a sum of -4.
The absolute difference is abs(-4 - (-5)) = abs(1) = 1, which is the minimum.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,2,3], goal = -7
Output: 7

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 40
  • -107 <= nums[i] <= 107
  • -109 <= goal <= 109

Solution: Binary Search

Since n is too large to generate sums for all subsets O(2^n), we have to split the array into half, generate two sum sets. O(2^(n/2)).

Then the problem can be reduced to find the closet sum by picking one number (sum) each from two different arrays which can be solved in O(mlogm), where m = 2^(n/2).

So final time complexity is O(n * 2^(n/2))
Space complexity: O(2^(n/2))

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1752. Check if Array Is Sorted and Rotated

Given an array nums, return true if the array was originally sorted in non-decreasing order, then rotated some number of positions (including zero). Otherwise, return false.

There may be duplicates in the original array.

Note: An array A rotated by x positions results in an array B of the same length such that A[i] == B[(i+x) % A.length], where % is the modulo operation.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [3,4,5,1,2]
Output: true
Explanation: [1,2,3,4,5] is the original sorted array.
You can rotate the array by x = 3 positions to begin on the the element of value 3: [3,4,5,1,2].

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,1,3,4]
Output: false
Explanation: There is no sorted array once rotated that can make nums.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,2,3]
Output: true
Explanation: [1,2,3] is the original sorted array.
You can rotate the array by x = 0 positions (i.e. no rotation) to make nums.

Example 4:

Input: nums = [1,1,1]
Output: true
Explanation: [1,1,1] is the original sorted array.
You can rotate any number of positions to make nums.

Example 5:

Input: nums = [2,1]
Output: true
Explanation: [1,2] is the original sorted array.
You can rotate the array by x = 5 positions to begin on the element of value 2: [2,1].

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 100
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 100

Solution: Counting and checking

Count how many turning points (nums[i] < nums[i – 1]) in the array. Return false if there are more than 1.
For the turning point r, (nums[r] < nums[r – 1), return true if both of the following conditions are satisfied:
1. nums[r – 1] is the largest number, e.g. nums[r – 1] >= nums[n – 1]
2. nums[r] is the smallest number, e.g. nums[r] <= nums[0]

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++