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Posts tagged as “hashtable”

花花酱 LeetCode 1577. Number of Ways Where Square of Number Is Equal to Product of Two Numbers

Given two arrays of integers nums1 and nums2, return the number of triplets formed (type 1 and type 2) under the following rules:

  • Type 1: Triplet (i, j, k) if nums1[i]2 == nums2[j] * nums2[k] where 0 <= i < nums1.length and 0 <= j < k < nums2.length.
  • Type 2: Triplet (i, j, k) if nums2[i]2 == nums1[j] * nums1[k] where 0 <= i < nums2.length and 0 <= j < k < nums1.length.

Example 1:

Input: nums1 = [7,4], nums2 = [5,2,8,9]
Output: 1
Explanation: Type 1: (1,1,2), nums1[1]^2 = nums2[1] * nums2[2]. (4^2 = 2 * 8). 

Example 2:

Input: nums1 = [1,1], nums2 = [1,1,1]
Output: 9
Explanation: All Triplets are valid, because 1^2 = 1 * 1.
Type 1: (0,0,1), (0,0,2), (0,1,2), (1,0,1), (1,0,2), (1,1,2).  nums1[i]^2 = nums2[j] * nums2[k].
Type 2: (0,0,1), (1,0,1), (2,0,1). nums2[i]^2 = nums1[j] * nums1[k].

Example 3:

Input: nums1 = [7,7,8,3], nums2 = [1,2,9,7]
Output: 2
Explanation: There are 2 valid triplets.
Type 1: (3,0,2).  nums1[3]^2 = nums2[0] * nums2[2].
Type 2: (3,0,1).  nums2[3]^2 = nums1[0] * nums1[1].

Example 4:

Input: nums1 = [4,7,9,11,23], nums2 = [3,5,1024,12,18]
Output: 0
Explanation: There are no valid triplets.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums1.length, nums2.length <= 1000
  • 1 <= nums1[i], nums2[i] <= 10^5

Solution: Hashtable

For each number y in the second array, count its frequency.

For each number x in the first, if x * x % y == 0, let r = x * x / y
if r == y: ans += f[y] * f[y-1]
else ans += f[y] * f[r]

Final ans /= 2

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1562. Find Latest Group of Size M

Given an array arr that represents a permutation of numbers from 1 to n. You have a binary string of size n that initially has all its bits set to zero.

At each step i (assuming both the binary string and arr are 1-indexed) from 1 to n, the bit at position arr[i] is set to 1. You are given an integer m and you need to find the latest step at which there exists a group of ones of length m. A group of ones is a contiguous substring of 1s such that it cannot be extended in either direction.

Return the latest step at which there exists a group of ones of length exactly mIf no such group exists, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [3,5,1,2,4], m = 1
Output: 4
Explanation:
Step 1: "00100", groups: ["1"]
Step 2: "00101", groups: ["1", "1"]
Step 3: "10101", groups: ["1", "1", "1"]
Step 4: "11101", groups: ["111", "1"]
Step 5: "11111", groups: ["11111"]
The latest step at which there exists a group of size 1 is step 4.

Example 2:

Input: arr = [3,1,5,4,2], m = 2
Output: -1
Explanation:
Step 1: "00100", groups: ["1"]
Step 2: "10100", groups: ["1", "1"]
Step 3: "10101", groups: ["1", "1", "1"]
Step 4: "10111", groups: ["1", "111"]
Step 5: "11111", groups: ["11111"]
No group of size 2 exists during any step.

Example 3:

Input: arr = [1], m = 1
Output: 1

Example 4:

Input: arr = [2,1], m = 2
Output: 2

Constraints:

  • n == arr.length
  • 1 <= n <= 10^5
  • 1 <= arr[i] <= n
  • All integers in arr are distinct.
  • 1 <= m <= arr.length

Solution: Hashtable

Similar to LC 128

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1546. Maximum Number of Non-Overlapping Subarrays With Sum Equals Target

Given an array nums and an integer target.

Return the maximum number of non-empty non-overlapping subarrays such that the sum of values in each subarray is equal to target.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,1,1,1,1], target = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: There are 2 non-overlapping subarrays [1,1,1,1,1] with sum equals to target(2).

Example 2:

Input: nums = [-1,3,5,1,4,2,-9], target = 6
Output: 2
Explanation: There are 3 subarrays with sum equal to 6.
([5,1], [4,2], [3,5,1,4,2,-9]) but only the first 2 are non-overlapping.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [-2,6,6,3,5,4,1,2,8], target = 10
Output: 3

Example 4:

Input: nums = [0,0,0], target = 0
Output: 3

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 10^5
  • -10^4 <= nums[i] <= 10^4
  • 0 <= target <= 10^6

Solution: Prefix Sum + DP

Use a hashmap index to record the last index when a given prefix sum occurs.
dp[i] := max # of non-overlapping subarrays of nums[0~i], nums[i] is not required to be included.
dp[i+1] = max(dp[i], // skip nums[i]
dp[index[sum – target] + 1] + 1) // use nums[i] to form a new subarray
ans = dp[n]

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1542. Find Longest Awesome Substring

Given a string s. An awesome substring is a non-empty substring of s such that we can make any number of swaps in order to make it palindrome.

Return the length of the maximum length awesome substring of s.

Example 1:

Input: s = "3242415"
Output: 5
Explanation: "24241" is the longest awesome substring, we can form the palindrome "24142" with some swaps.

Example 2:

Input: s = "12345678"
Output: 1

Example 3:

Input: s = "213123"
Output: 6
Explanation: "213123" is the longest awesome substring, we can form the palindrome "231132" with some swaps.

Example 4:

Input: s = "00"
Output: 2

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length <= 10^5
  • s consists only of digits.

Solution: Prefix mask + Hashtable

For a palindrome all digits must occurred even times expect one. We can use a 10 bit mask to track the occurrence of each digit for prefix s[0~i]. 0 is even, 1 is odd.

We use a hashtable to track the first index of each prefix state.
If s[0~i] and s[0~j] have the same state which means every digits in s[i+1~j] occurred even times (zero is also even) and it’s an awesome string. Then (j – (i+1) + 1) = j – i is the length of the palindrome. So far so good.

But we still need to consider the case when there is a digit with odd occurrence. We can enumerate all possible ones from 0 to 9, and temporarily flip the bit of the digit and see whether that state happened before.

fisrt_index[0] = -1, first_index[*] = inf
ans = max(ans, j – first_index[mask])

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(2^10) = O(1)

C++

Java

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1540. Can Convert String in K Moves

Given two strings s and t, your goal is to convert s into t in kmoves or less.

During the ith (1 <= i <= k) move you can:

  • Choose any index j (1-indexed) from s, such that 1 <= j <= s.length and j has not been chosen in any previous move, and shift the character at that index i times.
  • Do nothing.

Shifting a character means replacing it by the next letter in the alphabet (wrapping around so that 'z' becomes 'a'). Shifting a character by i means applying the shift operations i times.

Remember that any index j can be picked at most once.

Return true if it’s possible to convert s into t in no more than k moves, otherwise return false.

Example 1:

Input: s = "input", t = "ouput", k = 9
Output: true
Explanation: In the 6th move, we shift 'i' 6 times to get 'o'. And in the 7th move we shift 'n' to get 'u'.

Example 2:

Input: s = "abc", t = "bcd", k = 10
Output: false
Explanation: We need to shift each character in s one time to convert it into t. We can shift 'a' to 'b' during the 1st move. However, there is no way to shift the other characters in the remaining moves to obtain t from s.

Example 3:

Input: s = "aab", t = "bbb", k = 27
Output: true
Explanation: In the 1st move, we shift the first 'a' 1 time to get 'b'. In the 27th move, we shift the second 'a' 27 times to get 'b'.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s.length, t.length <= 10^5
  • 0 <= k <= 10^9
  • st contain only lowercase English letters.

Solution: HashTable

Count how many times a d-shift has occurred.
a -> c is a 2-shift, z -> b is also 2-shift
a -> d is a 3-shift
a -> a is a 0-shift that we can skip
if a d-shift happened for the first time, we need at least d moves
However, if it happened for c times, we need at least d + 26 * c moves
e.g. we can do a 2-shift at the 2nd move, do another one at 2 + 26 = 28th move and do another at 2 + 26*2 = 54th move, and so on.
Need to find maximum move we need and make sure that one is <= k.
Since we can pick any index to shift, so the order doesn’t matter. We can start from left to right.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(26) = O(1)

C++