# Posts tagged as “dp”

Given the integer n representing the number of courses at some university labeled from 1 to n, and the array dependencies where dependencies[i] = [xi, yi]  represents a prerequisite relationship, that is, the course xi must be taken before the course yi.  Also, you are given the integer k.

In one semester you can take at most k courses as long as you have taken all the prerequisites for the courses you are taking.

Return the minimum number of semesters to take all courses. It is guaranteed that you can take all courses in some way.

Example 1:

Input: n = 4, dependencies = [[2,1],[3,1],[1,4]], k = 2
Output: 3
Explanation: The figure above represents the given graph. In this case we can take courses 2 and 3 in the first semester, then take course 1 in the second semester and finally take course 4 in the third semester.


Example 2:

Input: n = 5, dependencies = [[2,1],[3,1],[4,1],[1,5]], k = 2
Output: 4
Explanation: The figure above represents the given graph. In this case one optimal way to take all courses is: take courses 2 and 3 in the first semester and take course 4 in the second semester, then take course 1 in the third semester and finally take course 5 in the fourth semester.


Example 3:

Input: n = 11, dependencies = [], k = 2
Output: 6


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 15
• 1 <= k <= n
• 0 <= dependencies.length <= n * (n-1) / 2
• dependencies[i].length == 2
• 1 <= xi, yi <= n
• xi != yi
• All prerequisite relationships are distinct, that is, dependencies[i] != dependencies[j].
• The given graph is a directed acyclic graph.

NOTE: This is a NP problem, any polynomial-time algorithm is incorrect otherwise P = NP.

Variant 1:
dp[m] := whether state m is reachable, where m is the bitmask of courses studied.
For each semester, we enumerate all possible states from 0 to 2^n – 1, if that state is reachable, then we choose c (c <= k) courses from n and check whether we can study those courses.
If we can study those courses, we have a new reachable state, we set dp[m | courses] = true.

Time complexity: O(n*2^n*2^n) = O(n*n^4) <– This will be much smaller in practice.
and can be reduced to O(n*3^n).
Space complexity: O(2^n)

## C++

Variant 2:
dp[m] := min semesters to reach state m.
dp[m | c] = min{dp[m | c], dp[m] + 1}, if we can reach m | c from m.
This allows us to get rid of enumerate n semesters.
Time complexity: O(2^n*2^n) <– This will be much smaller in practice.
and can be reduced to O(3^n).
Space complexity: O(2^n)

## C++

Given a binary array nums, you should delete one element from it.

Return the size of the longest non-empty subarray containing only 1’s in the resulting array.

Return 0 if there is no such subarray.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,1,0,1]
Output: 3
Explanation: After deleting the number in position 2, [1,1,1] contains 3 numbers with value of 1's.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [0,1,1,1,0,1,1,0,1]
Output: 5
Explanation: After deleting the number in position 4, [0,1,1,1,1,1,0,1] longest subarray with value of 1's is [1,1,1,1,1].

Example 3:

Input: nums = [1,1,1]
Output: 2
Explanation: You must delete one element.

Example 4:

Input: nums = [1,1,0,0,1,1,1,0,1]
Output: 4


Example 5:

Input: nums = [0,0,0]
Output: 0


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length <= 10^5
• nums[i] is either 0 or 1.

## Solution 1: DP

Preprocess:
l[i] := longest 1s from left side ends with nums[i], l[i] = nums[i] + nums[i] * l[i – 1]
r[i] := longest 1s from right side ends with nums[i], r[i] = nums[i] + nums[i] * r[i + 1]

Use each node as a bridge (ignored), the total number of consecutive 1s = l[i – 1] + r[i + 1].

ans = max{l[i-1] + r[i +1]}
Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Solution 2: DP

dp[i] := longest subarray ends with nums[i] has no ones.
dp[i] := longest subarray ends with nums[i] has 1 one.
if nums[i] == 1:
dp[i] = dp[i – 1] + 1
dp[i] = dp[i – 1] + 1
if nums[i] == 0:
dp[i] = 0
dp[i] = dp[i – 1] + 1
Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n) -> O(1)

## Solution 3: Sliding Window

Maintain a sliding window l ~ r s.t sum(num[l~r]) >= r – l. There can be at most one 0 in the window.
ans = max{r – l} for all valid windows.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Given the array houses and an integer k. where houses[i] is the location of the ith house along a street, your task is to allocate k mailboxes in the street.

Return the minimum total distance between each house and its nearest mailbox.

The answer is guaranteed to fit in a 32-bit signed integer.

Example 1:

Input: houses = [1,4,8,10,20], k = 3
Output: 5
Explanation: Allocate mailboxes in position 3, 9 and 20.
Minimum total distance from each houses to nearest mailboxes is |3-1| + |4-3| + |9-8| + |10-9| + |20-20| = 5


Example 2:

Input: houses = [2,3,5,12,18], k = 2
Output: 9
Explanation: Allocate mailboxes in position 3 and 14.
Minimum total distance from each houses to nearest mailboxes is |2-3| + |3-3| + |5-3| + |12-14| + |18-14| = 9.


Example 3:

Input: houses = [7,4,6,1], k = 1
Output: 8


Example 4:

Input: houses = [3,6,14,10], k = 4
Output: 0


Constraints:

• n == houses.length
• 1 <= n <= 100
• 1 <= houses[i] <= 10^4
• 1 <= k <= n
• Array houses contain unique integers.

## Solution: DP

First, we need to sort the houses by their location.

This is a partitioning problem, e.g. optimal solution to partition first N houses into K groups. (allocating K mailboxes for the first N houses).

The key of this problem is to solve a base case, optimally allocating one mailbox for houses[i~j], The intuition is to put the mailbox in the middle location, this only works if there are only tow houses, or all the houses are evenly distributed. The correct location is the “median position” of a set of houses. For example, if the sorted locations are [1,2,3,100], the average will be 26 which costs 146 while the median is 2, and the cost becomes 100.

dp[i][k] := min cost to allocate k mailboxes houses[0~i].

base cases:

1. dp[i] = cost(0, i), min cost to allocate one mailbox.
2. dp[i][k] = 0 if k > i, more mailboxes than houses. // this is actually a pruning.

transition:

dp[i][k] = min(dp[p][k-1] + cost(p + 1, i)) 0 <= p < i,

allocate k-1 mailboxes for houses[0~p], and allocate one for houses[p+1~i]

ans:

dp[n-1][k]

Time complexity: O(n^3)
Space complexity: O(n^2) -> O(n)

## C++

O(1) time to compute cost. O(n) Time and space for pre-processing.

## C++

There is a row of m houses in a small city, each house must be painted with one of the n colors (labeled from 1 to n), some houses that has been painted last summer should not be painted again.

A neighborhood is a maximal group of continuous houses that are painted with the same color. (For example: houses = [1,2,2,3,3,2,1,1] contains 5 neighborhoods  [{1}, {2,2}, {3,3}, {2}, {1,1}]).

Given an array houses, an m * n matrix cost and an integer target where:

• houses[i]: is the color of the house i0 if the house is not painted yet.
• cost[i][j]: is the cost of paint the house i with the color j+1.

Return the minimum cost of painting all the remaining houses in such a way that there are exactly target neighborhoods, if not possible return -1.

Example 1:

Input: houses = [0,0,0,0,0], cost = [[1,10],[10,1],[10,1],[1,10],[5,1]], m = 5, n = 2, target = 3
Output: 9
Explanation: Paint houses of this way [1,2,2,1,1]
This array contains target = 3 neighborhoods, [{1}, {2,2}, {1,1}].
Cost of paint all houses (1 + 1 + 1 + 1 + 5) = 9.


Example 2:

Input: houses = [0,2,1,2,0], cost = [[1,10],[10,1],[10,1],[1,10],[5,1]], m = 5, n = 2, target = 3
Output: 11
Explanation: Some houses are already painted, Paint the houses of this way [2,2,1,2,2]
This array contains target = 3 neighborhoods, [{2,2}, {1}, {2,2}].
Cost of paint the first and last house (10 + 1) = 11.


Example 3:

Input: houses = [0,0,0,0,0], cost = [[1,10],[10,1],[1,10],[10,1],[1,10]], m = 5, n = 2, target = 5
Output: 5


Example 4:

Input: houses = [3,1,2,3], cost = [[1,1,1],[1,1,1],[1,1,1],[1,1,1]], m = 4, n = 3, target = 3
Output: -1
Explanation: Houses are already painted with a total of 4 neighborhoods [{3},{1},{2},{3}] different of target = 3.


Constraints:

• m == houses.length == cost.length
• n == cost[i].length
• 1 <= m <= 100
• 1 <= n <= 20
• 1 <= target <= m
• 0 <= houses[i] <= n
• 1 <= cost[i][j] <= 10^4

## Solution: DP

dp[k][i][c] := min cost to form k neighbors with first i houses and i-th house is in color c.

dp[k][i][c] := min{dp[k-(c != cj)][j][cj] for cj in 1..n} + 0 if houses[i] == c else cost[i][c]

init: dp[*] = 0 otherwise inf
ans = min(dp[target][m])

Time complexity: O(T*M*N^2)
Space complexity: O(T*M*N) -> O(M*N)

## C++

Given 2n balls of k distinct colors. You will be given an integer array balls of size k where balls[i] is the number of balls of color i

All the balls will be shuffled uniformly at random, then we will distribute the first n balls to the first box and the remaining n balls to the other box (Please read the explanation of the second example carefully).

Please note that the two boxes are considered different. For example, if we have two balls of colors a and b, and two boxes [] and (), then the distribution [a] (b) is considered different than the distribution [b] (a) (Please read the explanation of the first example carefully).

We want to calculate the probability that the two boxes have the same number of distinct balls.

Example 1:

Input: balls = [1,1]
Output: 1.00000
Explanation: Only 2 ways to divide the balls equally:
- A ball of color 1 to box 1 and a ball of color 2 to box 2
- A ball of color 2 to box 1 and a ball of color 1 to box 2
In both ways, the number of distinct colors in each box is equal. The probability is 2/2 = 1


Example 2:

Input: balls = [2,1,1]
Output: 0.66667
Explanation: We have the set of balls [1, 1, 2, 3]
This set of balls will be shuffled randomly and we may have one of the 12 distinct shuffles with equale probability (i.e. 1/12):
[1,1 / 2,3], [1,1 / 3,2], [1,2 / 1,3], [1,2 / 3,1], [1,3 / 1,2], [1,3 / 2,1], [2,1 / 1,3], [2,1 / 3,1], [2,3 / 1,1], [3,1 / 1,2], [3,1 / 2,1], [3,2 / 1,1]
After that we add the first two balls to the first box and the second two balls to the second box.
We can see that 8 of these 12 possible random distributions have the same number of distinct colors of balls in each box.
Probability is 8/12 = 0.66667


Example 3:

Input: balls = [1,2,1,2]
Output: 0.60000
Explanation: The set of balls is [1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4]. It is hard to display all the 180 possible random shuffles of this set but it is easy to check that 108 of them will have the same number of distinct colors in each box.
Probability = 108 / 180 = 0.6


Example 4:

Input: balls = [3,2,1]
Output: 0.30000
Explanation: The set of balls is [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 3]. It is hard to display all the 60 possible random shuffles of this set but it is easy to check that 18 of them will have the same number of distinct colors in each box.
Probability = 18 / 60 = 0.3


Example 5:

Input: balls = [6,6,6,6,6,6]
Output: 0.90327


Constraints:

• 1 <= balls.length <= 8
• 1 <= balls[i] <= 6
• sum(balls) is even.
• Answers within 10^-5 of the actual value will be accepted as correct.

## Solution 0: Permutation (TLE)

Enumerate all permutations of the balls, count valid ones and divide that by the total.

Time complexity: O((8*6)!) = O(48!)
After deduplication: O(48!/(6!)^8) ~ 1.7e38
Space complexity: O(8*6)

## Solution 1: Combination

For each color, put n_i balls into box1, the left t_i – n_i balls go to box2.
permutations = fact(n//2) / PROD(fact(n_i)) * fact(n//2) * PROD(fact(t_i – n_i))
E.g
balls = [1×2, 2×6, 3×4]
One possible combination:
box1: 1 22 333
box2: 1 2222 3
permutations = 6! / (1! * 2! * 3!) * 6! / (1! * 4! * 1!) = 1800

Time complexity: O((t+1)^k) = O(7^8)
Space complexity: O(k + (t*k)) = O(8 + 48)

vector version

## C++

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