# Posts tagged as “sorting”

You are given a binary matrix matrix of size m x n, and you are allowed to rearrange the columns of the matrix in any order.

Return the area of the largest submatrix within matrix where every element of the submatrix is 1 after reordering the columns optimally.

Example 1:

Input: matrix = [[0,0,1],[1,1,1],[1,0,1]]
Output: 4
Explanation: You can rearrange the columns as shown above.
The largest submatrix of 1s, in bold, has an area of 4.


Example 2:

Input: matrix = [[1,0,1,0,1]]
Output: 3
Explanation: You can rearrange the columns as shown above.
The largest submatrix of 1s, in bold, has an area of 3.


Example 3:

Input: matrix = [[1,1,0],[1,0,1]]
Output: 2
Explanation: Notice that you must rearrange entire columns, and there is no way to make a submatrix of 1s larger than an area of 2.

Example 4:

Input: matrix = [[0,0],[0,0]]
Output: 0
Explanation: As there are no 1s, no submatrix of 1s can be formed and the area is 0.

Constraints:

• m == matrix.length
• n == matrix[i].length
• 1 <= m * n <= 105
• matrix[i][j] is 0 or 1.

## Solution: DP + Sorting

Preprocess each column, for col j, matrix[i][j] := length consecutive ones of col j.

[0,0,1]    [0,0,1]
[1,1,1] => [1,1,2]
[1,0,1]    [2,0,3]

Then we enumerate ending row, for each ending row i, we sort row[i] in deceasing order

e.g. i = 2

[0,0,1]                  [-,-,-]
[1,1,2] sort by row 2 => [-,-,-]
[2,0,3]                  [3,2,0]

row = 3, means there is a 3×1 all ones sub matrix, area = 3
row = 2, means there is a 2×2 all ones sub matrix, area = 4.

Time complexity: O(m*n*log(n))
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given an array nums consisting of non-negative integers. You are also given a queries array, where queries[i] = [xi, mi].

The answer to the ith query is the maximum bitwise XOR value of xi and any element of nums that does not exceed mi. In other words, the answer is max(nums[j] XOR xi) for all j such that nums[j] <= mi. If all elements in nums are larger than mi, then the answer is -1.

Return an integer array answer where answer.length == queries.length and answer[i] is the answer to the ith query.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [0,1,2,3,4], queries = [[3,1],[1,3],[5,6]]
Output: [3,3,7]
Explanation:
1) 0 and 1 are the only two integers not greater than 1. 0 XOR 3 = 3 and 1 XOR 3 = 2. The larger of the two is 3.
2) 1 XOR 2 = 3.
3) 5 XOR 2 = 7.


Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,2,4,6,6,3], queries = [[12,4],[8,1],[6,3]]
Output: [15,-1,5]


Constraints:

• 1 <= nums.length, queries.length <= 105
• queries[i].length == 2
• 0 <= nums[j], xi, mi <= 109

## Solution: Trie on the fly

We can build the trie on the fly by sorting nums in ascending order and queries by its limit, insert nums into the trie up the limit.

Time complexity: O(nlogn + QlogQ)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

There is a special kind of apple tree that grows apples every day for n days. On the ith day, the tree grows apples[i] apples that will rot after days[i] days, that is on day i + days[i] the apples will be rotten and cannot be eaten. On some days, the apple tree does not grow any apples, which are denoted by apples[i] == 0 and days[i] == 0.

You decided to eat at most one apple a day (to keep the doctors away). Note that you can keep eating after the first n days.

Given two integer arrays days and apples of length n, return the maximum number of apples you can eat.

Example 1:

Input: apples = [1,2,3,5,2], days = [3,2,1,4,2]
Output: 7
Explanation: You can eat 7 apples:
- On the first day, you eat an apple that grew on the first day.
- On the second day, you eat an apple that grew on the second day.
- On the third day, you eat an apple that grew on the second day. After this day, the apples that grew on the third day rot.
- On the fourth to the seventh days, you eat apples that grew on the fourth day.


Example 2:

Input: apples = [3,0,0,0,0,2], days = [3,0,0,0,0,2]
Output: 5
Explanation: You can eat 5 apples:
- On the first to the third day you eat apples that grew on the first day.
- Do nothing on the fouth and fifth days.
- On the sixth and seventh days you eat apples that grew on the sixth day.


Constraints:

• apples.length == n
• days.length == n
• 1 <= n <= 2 * 104
• 0 <= apples[i], days[i] <= 2 * 104
• days[i] = 0 if and only if apples[i] = 0.

## Solution: PriorityQueue

Sort by rotten day in ascending order, only push onto the queue when that day has come (be able to grow apples).

Time complexity: O((n+ d)logn)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

An undirected graph of n nodes is defined by edgeList, where edgeList[i] = [ui, vi, disi] denotes an edge between nodes ui and vi with distance disi. Note that there may be multiple edges between two nodes.

Given an array queries, where queries[j] = [pj, qj, limitj], your task is to determine for each queries[j] whether there is a path between pj and qjsuch that each edge on the path has a distance strictly less than limitj .

Return boolean array answer, where answer.length == queries.length and the jth value of answer is true if there is a path for queries[j] is true, and false otherwise.

Example 1:

Input: n = 3, edgeList = [[0,1,2],[1,2,4],[2,0,8],[1,0,16]], queries = [[0,1,2],[0,2,5]]
Output: [false,true]
Explanation: The above figure shows the given graph. Note that there are two overlapping edges between 0 and 1 with distances 2 and 16.
For the first query, between 0 and 1 there is no path where each distance is less than 2, thus we return false for this query.
For the second query, there is a path (0 -> 1 -> 2) of two edges with distances less than 5, thus we return true for this query.


Example 2:

Input: n = 5, edgeList = [[0,1,10],[1,2,5],[2,3,9],[3,4,13]], queries = [[0,4,14],[1,4,13]]
Output: [true,false]
Exaplanation: The above figure shows the given graph.


Constraints:

• 2 <= n <= 105
• 1 <= edgeList.length, queries.length <= 105
• edgeList[i].length == 3
• queries[j].length == 3
• 0 <= ui, vi, pj, qj <= n - 1
• ui != vi
• pj != qj
• 1 <= disi, limitj <= 109
• There may be multiple edges between two nodes.

## Solution: Union Find

Since queries are offline, we can reorder them to optimize time complexity. Answer queries by their limits in ascending order while union edges by weights up to the limit. In this case, we just need to go through the entire edge list at most once.

Time complexity: O(QlogQ + ElogE)
Space complexity: O(Q + E)

## C++

Given n cuboids where the dimensions of the ith cuboid is cuboids[i] = [widthi, lengthi, heighti] (0-indexed). Choose a subset of cuboids and place them on each other.

You can place cuboid i on cuboid j if widthi <= widthj and lengthi <= lengthj and heighti <= heightj. You can rearrange any cuboid’s dimensions by rotating it to put it on another cuboid.

Return the maximum height of the stacked cuboids.

Example 1:

Input: cuboids = [[50,45,20],[95,37,53],[45,23,12]]
Output: 190
Explanation:
Cuboid 1 is placed on the bottom with the 53x37 side facing down with height 95.
Cuboid 0 is placed next with the 45x20 side facing down with height 50.
Cuboid 2 is placed next with the 23x12 side facing down with height 45.
The total height is 95 + 50 + 45 = 190.


Example 2:

Input: cuboids = [[38,25,45],[76,35,3]]
Output: 76
Explanation:
You can't place any of the cuboids on the other.
We choose cuboid 1 and rotate it so that the 35x3 side is facing down and its height is 76.


Example 3:

Input: cuboids = [[7,11,17],[7,17,11],[11,7,17],[11,17,7],[17,7,11],[17,11,7]]
Output: 102
Explanation:
After rearranging the cuboids, you can see that all cuboids have the same dimension.
You can place the 11x7 side down on all cuboids so their heights are 17.
The maximum height of stacked cuboids is 6 * 17 = 102.


Constraints:

• n == cuboids.length
• 1 <= n <= 100
• 1 <= widthi, lengthi, heighti <= 100

## Solution: Math/Greedy + DP

Direct DP is very hard, since there is no orders.

We have to find some way to sort the cuboids such that cuboid i can NOT stack on cuboid j if i > j. Then dp[i] = max(dp[j]) + height[i], 0 <= j < i, for each i, find the best base j and stack on top of it.
ans = max(dp)

We can sort the cuboids by their sorted dimensions, and cuboid i can stack stack onto cuboid j if and only if w[i] <= w[j] and l[i] <= l[j] and h[i] <= h[j].

First of all, we need to prove that all heights must come from the largest dimension of each cuboid.

1. If the top of the stack is A1*A2*A3, A3 < max(A1, A2), we can easily swap A3 with max(A1, A2), it’s still stackable but we get larger heights.
e.g. 3x5x4, base is 3×5, height is 4, we can rotate to get base of 3×4 with height of 5.

2. If a middle cuboid A of size A1*A2*A3, assuming A1 >= A2, A1 > A3, on top of A we have another cuboid B of size B1*B2*B3, B1 <= B2 <= B3.
We have A1 >= B1, A2 >= B2, A3 >= B3, by rotating A we have A3*A2*A1
A3 >= B3 >= B1, A2 >= B2, A1 > A3 >= B3, so B can be still on top of A, and we get larger height.

e.g. A: 3x5x4, B: 2x3x4
A -> 3x4x5, B is still stackable.

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(n^2)