# Posts tagged as “string”

You are given a 0-indexed array of string words and two integers left and right.

A string is called a vowel string if it starts with a vowel character and ends with a vowel character where vowel characters are 'a''e''i''o', and 'u'.

Return the number of vowel strings words[i] where i belongs to the inclusive range [left, right].

Example 1:

Input: words = ["are","amy","u"], left = 0, right = 2
Output: 2
Explanation:
- "are" is a vowel string because it starts with 'a' and ends with 'e'.
- "amy" is not a vowel string because it does not end with a vowel.
- "u" is a vowel string because it starts with 'u' and ends with 'u'.
The number of vowel strings in the mentioned range is 2.


Example 2:

Input: words = ["hey","aeo","mu","ooo","artro"], left = 1, right = 4
Output: 3
Explanation:
- "aeo" is a vowel string because it starts with 'a' and ends with 'o'.
- "mu" is not a vowel string because it does not start with a vowel.
- "ooo" is a vowel string because it starts with 'o' and ends with 'o'.
- "artro" is a vowel string because it starts with 'a' and ends with 'o'.
The number of vowel strings in the mentioned range is 3.


Constraints:

• 1 <= words.length <= 1000
• 1 <= words[i].length <= 10
• words[i] consists of only lowercase English letters.
• 0 <= left <= right < words.length

## Solution:

Iterator overs words, from left to right. Check the first and last element of the string.

Time complexity: O(|right – left + 1|)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given a binary string s, and a 2D integer array queries where queries[i] = [firsti, secondi].

For the ith query, find the shortest substring of s whose decimal valueval, yields secondi when bitwise XORed with firsti. In other words, val ^ firsti == secondi.

The answer to the ith query is the endpoints (0-indexed) of the substring [lefti, righti] or [-1, -1] if no such substring exists. If there are multiple answers, choose the one with the minimum lefti.

Return an array ans where ans[i] = [lefti, righti] is the answer to the ith query.

substring is a contiguous non-empty sequence of characters within a string.

Example 1:

Input: s = "101101", queries = [[0,5],[1,2]]
Output: [[0,2],[2,3]]
Explanation: For the first query the substring in range [0,2] is "101" which has a decimal value of 5, and 5 ^ 0 = 5, hence the answer to the first query is [0,2]. In the second query, the substring in range [2,3] is "11", and has a decimal value of 3, and 3 ^ 1 = 2. So, [2,3] is returned for the second query.


Example 2:

Input: s = "0101", queries = [[12,8]]
Output: [[-1,-1]]
Explanation: In this example there is no substring that answers the query, hence [-1,-1] is returned.


Example 3:

Input: s = "1", queries = [[4,5]]
Output: [[0,0]]
Explanation: For this example, the substring in range [0,0] has a decimal value of 1, and 1 ^ 4 = 5. So, the answer is [0,0].


Constraints:

• 1 <= s.length <= 104
• s[i] is either '0' or '1'.
• 1 <= queries.length <= 105
• 0 <= firsti, secondi <= 109

## Solution: Pre-compute

We can pre-compute all possible substrings

Time complexity: O(n*32 + m)
Space complexity: O(n*32)

## C++

You are given a 0-indexed array of strings words and a 2D array of integers queries.

Each query queries[i] = [li, ri] asks us to find the number of strings present in the range li to ri (both inclusive) of words that start and end with a vowel.

Return an array ans of size queries.length, where ans[i] is the answer to the ith query.

Note that the vowel letters are 'a''e''i''o', and 'u'.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["aba","bcb","ece","aa","e"], queries = [[0,2],[1,4],[1,1]]
Output: [2,3,0]
Explanation: The strings starting and ending with a vowel are "aba", "ece", "aa" and "e".
The answer to the query [0,2] is 2 (strings "aba" and "ece").
to query [1,4] is 3 (strings "ece", "aa", "e").
to query [1,1] is 0.
We return [2,3,0].


Example 2:

Input: words = ["a","e","i"], queries = [[0,2],[0,1],[2,2]]
Output: [3,2,1]
Explanation: Every string satisfies the conditions, so we return [3,2,1].

Constraints:

• 1 <= words.length <= 105
• 1 <= words[i].length <= 40
• words[i] consists only of lowercase English letters.
• sum(words[i].length) <= 3 * 105
• 1 <= queries.length <= 105
• 0 <= li <= ri < words.length

## Solution: Prefix Sum

Let sum[i] := number of valid strings in words[0:i]

For each query [l, r], answer will be sum[r + 1] – sum[l]

Time complexity: O(n + q)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

You are given two string arrays, queries and dictionary. All words in each array comprise of lowercase English letters and have the same length.

In one edit you can take a word from queries, and change any letter in it to any other letter. Find all words from queries that, after a maximum of two edits, equal some word from dictionary.

Return a list of all words from queriesthat match with some word from dictionary after a maximum of two edits. Return the words in the same order they appear in queries.

Example 1:

Input: queries = ["word","note","ants","wood"], dictionary = ["wood","joke","moat"]
Output: ["word","note","wood"]
Explanation:
- Changing the 'r' in "word" to 'o' allows it to equal the dictionary word "wood".
- Changing the 'n' to 'j' and the 't' to 'k' in "note" changes it to "joke".
- It would take more than 2 edits for "ants" to equal a dictionary word.
- "wood" can remain unchanged (0 edits) and match the corresponding dictionary word.
Thus, we return ["word","note","wood"].


Example 2:

Input: queries = ["yes"], dictionary = ["not"]
Output: []
Explanation:
Applying any two edits to "yes" cannot make it equal to "not". Thus, we return an empty array.


Constraints:

• 1 <= queries.length, dictionary.length <= 100
• n == queries[i].length == dictionary[j].length
• 1 <= n <= 100
• All queries[i] and dictionary[j] are composed of lowercase English letters.

## Solution: Hamming distance + Brute Force

For each query word q, check the hamming distance between it and all words in the dictionary.

Time complexity: O(|q|*|d|*n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You are given an array of equal-length strings words. Assume that the length of each string is n.

Each string words[i] can be converted into a difference integer array difference[i] of length n - 1 where difference[i][j] = words[i][j+1] - words[i][j] where 0 <= j <= n - 2. Note that the difference between two letters is the difference between their positions in the alphabet i.e. the position of 'a' is 0'b' is 1, and 'z' is 25.

• For example, for the string "acb", the difference integer array is [2 - 0, 1 - 2] = [2, -1].

All the strings in words have the same difference integer array, except one. You should find that string.

Return the string in words that has different difference integer array.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["adc","wzy","abc"]
Output: "abc"
Explanation:
- The difference integer array of "adc" is [3 - 0, 2 - 3] = [3, -1].
- The difference integer array of "wzy" is [25 - 22, 24 - 25]= [3, -1].
- The difference integer array of "abc" is [1 - 0, 2 - 1] = [1, 1].
The odd array out is [1, 1], so we return the corresponding string, "abc".


Example 2:

Input: words = ["aaa","bob","ccc","ddd"]
Output: "bob"
Explanation: All the integer arrays are [0, 0] except for "bob", which corresponds to [13, -13].


Constraints:

• 3 <= words.length <= 100
• n == words[i].length
• 2 <= n <= 20
• words[i] consists of lowercase English letters.

## Solution: Comparing with first string.

Let us pick words[0] as a reference for comparison, assuming it’s valid. If we only found one instance say words[i], that is different than words[0], we know that words[i] is bad, otherwise we should see m – 1 different words which means words[0] itself is bad.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(1)