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Posts tagged as “subsequence”

花花酱 LeetCode 1092. Shortest Common Supersequence

Given two strings str1 and str2, return the shortest string that has both str1 and str2 as subsequences.  If multiple answers exist, you may return any of them.

(A string S is a subsequence of string T if deleting some number of characters from T (possibly 0, and the characters are chosen anywherefrom T) results in the string S.)

Example 1:

Input: str1 = "abac", str2 = "cab"
Output: "cabac"
Explanation: 
str1 = "abac" is a substring of "cabac" because we can delete the first "c".
str2 = "cab" is a substring of "cabac" because we can delete the last "ac".
The answer provided is the shortest such string that satisfies these properties.

Note:

  1. 1 <= str1.length, str2.length <= 1000
  2. str1 and str2 consist of lowercase English letters.

Solution: LCS

Find the LCS (longest common sub-sequence) of two strings, and insert unmatched characters into the LCS.

Time complexity: O(mn)
Space complexity: O(mn)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 960. Delete Columns to Make Sorted III

We are given an array A of N lowercase letter strings, all of the same length.

Now, we may choose any set of deletion indices, and for each string, we delete all the characters in those indices.

For example, if we have an array A = ["babca","bbazb"] and deletion indices {0, 1, 4}, then the final array after deletions is ["bc","az"].

Suppose we chose a set of deletion indices D such that after deletions, the final array has every element (row) in lexicographic order.

For clarity, A[0] is in lexicographic order (ie. A[0][0] <= A[0][1] <= ... <= A[0][A[0].length - 1]), A[1] is in lexicographic order (ie. A[1][0] <= A[1][1] <= ... <= A[1][A[1].length - 1]), and so on.

Return the minimum possible value of D.length.

Example 1:

Input: ["babca","bbazb"]
Output: 3
Explanation: After deleting columns 0, 1, and 4, the final array is A = ["bc", "az"].
Both these rows are individually in lexicographic order (ie. A[0][0] <= A[0][1] and A[1][0] <= A[1][1]).
Note that A[0] > A[1] - the array A isn't necessarily in lexicographic order.

Example 2:

Input: ["edcba"]
Output: 4
Explanation: If we delete less than 4 columns, the only row won't be lexicographically sorted.

Example 3:

Input: ["ghi","def","abc"]
Output: 0
Explanation: All rows are already lexicographically sorted.

Note:

  1. 1 <= A.length <= 100
  2. 1 <= A[i].length <= 100

Solution: DP

dp[i] := max length of increasing sub-sequence (of all strings) ends with i-th letter.
dp[i] = max(dp[j] + 1) if all A[*][j] <= A[*][i], j < i
Time complexity: (n*L^2)
Space complexity: O(L)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 940. Distinct Subsequences II

Problem

Given a string S, count the number of distinct, non-empty subsequences of S .

Since the result may be large, return the answer modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: "abc"
Output: 7
Explanation: The 7 distinct subsequences are "a", "b", "c", "ab", "ac", "bc", and "abc".

Example 2:

Input: "aba"
Output: 6
Explanation: The 6 distinct subsequences are "a", "b", "ab", "ba", "aa" and "aba".

Example 3:

Input: "aaa"
Output: 3
Explanation: The 3 distinct subsequences are "a", "aa" and "aaa".

Note:

  1. S contains only lowercase letters.
  2. 1 <= S.length <= 2000

Solution: DP

counts[i][j] := # of distinct sub sequences of s[1->i] and ends with letter j. (‘a'<= j <= ‘z’)

Initialization:

counts[*][*] = 0

Transition:

counts[i][j] = sum(counts[i-1]) + 1 if s[i] == j  else counts[i-1][j]

ans = sum(counts[n])

e.g. S = “abc”

counts[1] = {‘a’ : 1}
counts[2] = {‘a’ : 1, ‘b’ : 1 + 1 = 2}
counts[3] = {‘a’ : 1, ‘b’ : 2, ‘c’: 1 + 2 + 1 = 4}
ans = sum(counts[3]) = 1 + 2 + 4 = 7

Time complexity: O(N*26)

Space complexity: O(N*26) -> O(26)

C++

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 891. Sum of Subsequence Widths

Problem

Given an array of integers A, consider all non-empty subsequences of A.

For any sequence S, let the width of S be the difference between the maximum and minimum element of S.

Return the sum of the widths of all subsequences of A.

As the answer may be very large, return the answer modulo 10^9 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: [2,1,3]
Output: 6
Explanation:
Subsequences are [1], [2], [3], [2,1], [2,3], [1,3], [2,1,3].
The corresponding widths are 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 2.
The sum of these widths is 6.

Note:

  • 1 <= A.length <= 20000
  • 1 <= A[i] <= 20000

 

Solution: Math

Sort the array, for A[i]:

  • i numbers <= A[i]. A[i] is the upper bound of 2^i subsequences.
  • n – i – 1 numbers >= A[i]. A[i] is the lower bound of 2^(n – i – 1) subsequences.
  • A[i] contributes A[i] * 2^i – A[i] * 2^(n – i – 1) to the ans.

\(ans = \sum\limits_{i=0}^{n-1}A_{i}2^{i} – A_{i}2^{n – i – 1} =\sum\limits_{i=0}^{n-1}(A_i – A_{n-i-1})2^{i}\)

Time complexity: O(nlogn)

Space complexity: O(1)

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(n)

Counting sort

 

花花酱 LeetCode 115. Distinct Subsequences

Problem

Given a string S and a string T, count the number of distinct subsequences of S which equals T.

A subsequence of a string is a new string which is formed from the original string by deleting some (can be none) of the characters without disturbing the relative positions of the remaining characters. (ie, "ACE" is a subsequence of "ABCDE" while "AEC" is not).

Example 1:

Input: S = "rabbbit", T = "rabbit"
Output: 3
Explanation:  As shown below, there are 3 ways you can generate "rabbit" from S. (The caret symbol ^ means the chosen letters) 
rabbbit
^^^^ ^^
rabbbit
^^ ^^^^
rabbbit
^^^ ^^^

Example 2:

Input: S = "babgbag", T = "bag"
Output: 5
Explanation:  As shown below, there are 5 ways you can generate "bag" from S. (The caret symbol ^ means the chosen letters)
babgbag
^^ ^
babgbag
^^ ^
babgbag
^ ^^
babgbag
^ ^^
babgbag
^^^

Solution: DP

Time complexity: O(|s| * |t|)

Space complexity: O(|s| * |t|)

C++

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