# Posts published in “Priority Queue”

There is a special kind of apple tree that grows apples every day for n days. On the ith day, the tree grows apples[i] apples that will rot after days[i] days, that is on day i + days[i] the apples will be rotten and cannot be eaten. On some days, the apple tree does not grow any apples, which are denoted by apples[i] == 0 and days[i] == 0.

You decided to eat at most one apple a day (to keep the doctors away). Note that you can keep eating after the first n days.

Given two integer arrays days and apples of length n, return the maximum number of apples you can eat.

Example 1:

Input: apples = [1,2,3,5,2], days = [3,2,1,4,2]
Output: 7
Explanation: You can eat 7 apples:
- On the first day, you eat an apple that grew on the first day.
- On the second day, you eat an apple that grew on the second day.
- On the third day, you eat an apple that grew on the second day. After this day, the apples that grew on the third day rot.
- On the fourth to the seventh days, you eat apples that grew on the fourth day.


Example 2:

Input: apples = [3,0,0,0,0,2], days = [3,0,0,0,0,2]
Output: 5
Explanation: You can eat 5 apples:
- On the first to the third day you eat apples that grew on the first day.
- Do nothing on the fouth and fifth days.
- On the sixth and seventh days you eat apples that grew on the sixth day.


Constraints:

• apples.length == n
• days.length == n
• 1 <= n <= 2 * 104
• 0 <= apples[i], days[i] <= 2 * 104
• days[i] = 0 if and only if apples[i] = 0.

## Solution: PriorityQueue

Sort by rotten day in ascending order, only push onto the queue when that day has come (be able to grow apples).

Time complexity: O((n+ d)logn)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

You are given an array nums of n positive integers.

You can perform two types of operations on any element of the array any number of times:

• If the element is evendivide it by 2.
• For example, if the array is [1,2,3,4], then you can do this operation on the last element, and the array will be [1,2,3,2].
• If the element is oddmultiply it by 2.
• For example, if the array is [1,2,3,4], then you can do this operation on the first element, and the array will be [2,2,3,4].

The deviation of the array is the maximum difference between any two elements in the array.

Return the minimum deviation the array can have after performing some number of operations.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4]
Output: 1
Explanation: You can transform the array to [1,2,3,2], then to [2,2,3,2], then the deviation will be 3 - 2 = 1.


Example 2:

Input: nums = [4,1,5,20,3]
Output: 3
Explanation: You can transform the array after two operations to [4,2,5,5,3], then the deviation will be 5 - 2 = 3.


Example 3:

Input: nums = [2,10,8]
Output: 3


Constraints:

• n == nums.length
• 2 <= n <= 105
• 1 <= nums[i] <= 109

## Solution: Priority Queue

If we double an odd number it becomes an even number, then we can only divide it by two which gives us back the original number. So we can pre-double all the odd numbers and only do division in the following process.

We push all numbers including pre-doubled odd ones onto a priority queue, and track the difference between the largest and smallest number.

Each time, we pop the largest number out and divide it by two then put it back to the priority queue, until the largest number becomes odd. We can not discard it and divide any other smaller numbers by two will only increase the max difference, so we can stop here.

ex1: [3, 5, 8] => [6, 8, 10] (pre-double) => [5, 6, 8] => [4, 5, 6] => [3, 4, 5] max diff is 5 – 3 = 2
ex2: [4,1,5,20,3] => [2, 4, 6, 10, 20] (pre-double) => [2, 4, 6, 10] => [2, 4, 5, 6] => [2,3,4,5] max diff = 5-2 = 3

Time complexity: O(n*logm*logn)
Space complexity: O(n)