# Posts tagged as “substring”

The k-beauty of an integer num is defined as the number of substrings of num when it is read as a string that meet the following conditions:

• It has a length of k.
• It is a divisor of num.

Given integers num and k, return the k-beauty of num.

Note:

• Leading zeros are allowed.
• 0 is not a divisor of any value.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters in a string.

Example 1:

Input: num = 240, k = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: The following are the substrings of num of length k:
- "24" from "240": 24 is a divisor of 240.
- "40" from "240": 40 is a divisor of 240.
Therefore, the k-beauty is 2.


Example 2:

Input: num = 430043, k = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: The following are the substrings of num of length k:
- "43" from "430043": 43 is a divisor of 430043.
- "30" from "430043": 30 is not a divisor of 430043.
- "00" from "430043": 0 is not a divisor of 430043.
- "04" from "430043": 4 is not a divisor of 430043.
- "43" from "430043": 43 is a divisor of 430043.
Therefore, the k-beauty is 2.


Constraints:

• 1 <= num <= 109
• 1 <= k <= num.length (taking num as a string)

## Solution: Substring

Note: the substring can be 0, e.g. “00”

Time complexity: O((l-k)*k)
Space complexity: O(l + k) -> O(1)

## C++

You are given a string num, which represents a large integer. You are also given a 0-indexed integer array change of length 10 that maps each digit 0-9 to another digit. More formally, digit d maps to digit change[d].

You may choose to mutate a single substring of num. To mutate a substring, replace each digit num[i] with the digit it maps to in change (i.e. replace num[i] with change[num[i]]).

Return a string representing the largest possible integer after mutating (or choosing not to) a single substring of num.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters within the string.

Example 1:

Input: num = "132", change = [9,8,5,0,3,6,4,2,6,8]
Output: "832"
Explanation: Replace the substring "1":
- 1 maps to change = 8.
Thus, "132" becomes "832".
"832" is the largest number that can be created, so return it.


Example 2:

Input: num = "021", change = [9,4,3,5,7,2,1,9,0,6]
Output: "934"
Explanation: Replace the substring "021":
- 0 maps to change = 9.
- 2 maps to change = 3.
- 1 maps to change = 4.
Thus, "021" becomes "934".
"934" is the largest number that can be created, so return it.


Example 3:

Input: num = "5", change = [1,4,7,5,3,2,5,6,9,4]
Output: "5"
Explanation: "5" is already the largest number that can be created, so return it.


Constraints:

• 1 <= num.length <= 105
• num consists of only digits 0-9.
• change.length == 10
• 0 <= change[d] <= 9

## Solution: Greedy

Find the first digit that is less equal to the mutated one as the start of the substring, keep replacing as long as mutated >= current.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

wonderful string is a string where at most one letter appears an odd number of times.

• For example, "ccjjc" and "abab" are wonderful, but "ab" is not.

Given a string word that consists of the first ten lowercase English letters ('a' through 'j'), return the number of wonderful non-empty substrings in word. If the same substring appears multiple times in word, then count each occurrence separately.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters in a string.

Example 1:

Input: word = "aba"
Output: 4
Explanation: The four wonderful substrings are underlined below:
- "aba" -> "a"
- "aba" -> "b"
- "aba" -> "a"
- "aba" -> "aba"


Example 2:

Input: word = "aabb"
Output: 9
Explanation: The nine wonderful substrings are underlined below:
- "aabb" -> "a"
- "aabb" -> "aa"
- "aabb" -> "aab"
- "aabb" -> "aabb"
- "aabb" -> "a"
- "aabb" -> "abb"
- "aabb" -> "b"
- "aabb" -> "bb"
- "aabb" -> "b"


Example 3:

Input: word = "he"
Output: 2
Explanation: The two wonderful substrings are underlined below:
- "he" -> "h"
- "he" -> "e"


Constraints:

• 1 <= word.length <= 105
• word consists of lowercase English letters from 'a' to 'j'.

## Solution: Prefix Bitmask + Hashtable

Similar to 花花酱 LeetCode 1371. Find the Longest Substring Containing Vowels in Even Counts, we use a bitmask to represent the occurrence (odd or even) of each letter and use a hashtable to store the frequency of each bitmask seen so far.

1. “0000000000” means all letters occur even times.
2. “0000000101” means all letters occur even times expect letter ‘a’ and ‘c’ that occur odd times.

We scan the word from left to right and update the bitmask: bitmask ^= (1 << (c-‘a’)).
However, the bitmask only represents the state of the prefix, i.e. word[0:i], then how can we count substrings? The answer is hashtable. If the same bitmask occurs c times before, which means there are c indices that word[0~j1], word[0~j2], …, word[0~jc] have the same state as word[0~i] that means for word[j1+1~i], word[j2+1~i], …, word[jc+1~i], all letters occurred even times.
For the “at most one odd” case, we toggle each bit of the bitmask and check how many times it occurred before.

ans += freq[mask] + sum(freq[mask ^ (1 << i)] for i in range(k))

Time complexity: O(n*k)
Space complexity: O(2k)
where k = j – a + 1 = 10

## C++

You are given a string s and an array of strings words of the same length. Return all starting indices of substring(s) in s that is a concatenation of each word in words exactly oncein any order, and without any intervening characters.

You can return the answer in any order.

Example 1:

Input: s = "barfoothefoobarman", words = ["foo","bar"]
Output: [0,9]
Explanation: Substrings starting at index 0 and 9 are "barfoo" and "foobar" respectively.
The output order does not matter, returning [9,0] is fine too.


Example 2:

Input: s = "wordgoodgoodgoodbestword", words = ["word","good","best","word"]
Output: []


Example 3:

Input: s = "barfoofoobarthefoobarman", words = ["bar","foo","the"]
Output: [6,9,12]


Constraints:

• 1 <= s.length <= 104
• s consists of lower-case English letters.
• 1 <= words.length <= 5000
• 1 <= words[i].length <= 30
• words[i] consists of lower-case English letters.

## Solution: Hashtable + Brute Force

Try every index and use a hashtable to check coverage.

Time complexity: O(n*m*l)
Space complexity: O(m*l)

## C++

For a string sequence, a string word is k-repeating if word concatenated k times is a substring of sequence. The word‘s maximum k-repeating value is the highest value k where word is k-repeating in sequence. If word is not a substring of sequenceword‘s maximum k-repeating value is 0.

Given strings sequence and word, return the maximum k-repeating value of word in sequence.

Example 1:

Input: sequence = "ababc", word = "ab"
Output: 2
Explanation: "abab" is a substring in "ababc".


Example 2:

Input: sequence = "ababc", word = "ba"
Output: 1
Explanation: "ba" is a substring in "ababc". "baba" is not a substring in "ababc".


Example 3:

Input: sequence = "ababc", word = "ac"
Output: 0
Explanation: "ac" is not a substring in "ababc".


Constraints:

• 1 <= sequence.length <= 100
• 1 <= word.length <= 100
• sequence and word contains only lowercase English letters.

## Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(n)