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# Problem

In a string S of lowercase letters, these letters form consecutive groups of the same character.

For example, a string like S = "abbxxxxzyy" has the groups "a""bb""xxxx""z" and "yy".

Call a group large if it has 3 or more characters.  We would like the starting and ending positions of every large group.

The final answer should be in lexicographic order.

Example 1:

Input: "abbxxxxzzy"
Output: [[3,6]]
Explanation: "xxxx" is the single large group with starting 3 and ending positions 6.

Example 2:

Input: "abc"
Output: []
Explanation: We have "a","b" and "c" but no large group.


Example 3:

Input: "abcdddeeeeaabbbcd"
Output: [[3,5],[6,9],[12,14]]

Note:  1 <= S.length <= 1000

# Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(n)

C++

# Problem

A sentence S is given, composed of words separated by spaces. Each word consists of lowercase and uppercase letters only.

We would like to convert the sentence to “Goat Latin” (a made-up language similar to Pig Latin.)

The rules of Goat Latin are as follows:

• If a word begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, or u), append "ma" to the end of the word.
For example, the word ‘apple’ becomes ‘applema’.
• If a word begins with a consonant (i.e. not a vowel), remove the first letter and append it to the end, then add "ma".
For example, the word "goat" becomes "oatgma".
• Add one letter 'a' to the end of each word per its word index in the sentence, starting with 1.
For example, the first word gets "a" added to the end, the second word gets "aa" added to the end and so on.

Return the final sentence representing the conversion from S to Goat Latin.

Example 1:

Input: "I speak Goat Latin"
Output: "Imaa peaksmaaa oatGmaaaa atinLmaaaaa"


Example 2:

Input: "The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog"
Output: "heTmaa uickqmaaa rownbmaaaa oxfmaaaaa umpedjmaaaaaa overmaaaaaaa hetmaaaaaaaa azylmaaaaaaaaa ogdmaaaaaaaaaa"


Notes:

• S contains only uppercase, lowercase and spaces. Exactly one space between each word.
• 1 <= S.length <= 100.

C++

# Problem

Given a list of words, we may encode it by writing a reference string S and a list of indexes A.

For example, if the list of words is ["time", "me", "bell"], we can write it as S = "time#bell#" and indexes = [0, 2, 5].

Then for each index, we will recover the word by reading from the reference string from that index until we reach a “#” character.

What is the length of the shortest reference string S possible that encodes the given words?

Example:

Input: words = ["time", "me", "bell"] Output: 10 Explanation: S = "time#bell#" and indexes = [0, 2, 5].

Note:

1. 1 <= words.length <= 2000.
2. 1 <= words[i].length <= 7.
3. Each word has only lowercase letters.

# Idea

Remove all the words that are suffix of other words.

# Solution

Time complexity: O(n*l^2)

Space complexity: O(n*l)

# Problem

https://leetcode.com/problems/shortest-distance-to-a-character/description/

Given a string S and a character C, return an array of integers representing the shortest distance from the character C in the string.

Example 1:

Input: S = "loveleetcode", C = 'e'
Output: [3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 1, 2, 2, 1, 0]


Note:

1. S string length is in [1, 10000].
2. C is a single character, and guaranteed to be in string S.
3. All letters in S and C are lowercase.

# Solution: Two Pass

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(n)

C++

V2

# Problem

https://leetcode.com/problems/license-key-formatting/description/

You are given a license key represented as a string S which consists only alphanumeric character and dashes. The string is separated into N+1 groups by N dashes.

Given a number K, we would want to reformat the strings such that each group contains exactly K characters, except for the first group which could be shorter than K, but still must contain at least one character. Furthermore, there must be a dash inserted between two groups and all lowercase letters should be converted to uppercase.

Given a non-empty string S and a number K, format the string according to the rules described above.

Example 1:

Input: S = "5F3Z-2e-9-w", K = 4

Output: "5F3Z-2E9W"

Explanation: The string S has been split into two parts, each part has 4 characters.
Note that the two extra dashes are not needed and can be removed.


Example 2:

Input: S = "2-5g-3-J", K = 2

Output: "2-5G-3J"

Explanation: The string S has been split into three parts, each part has 2 characters except the first part as it could be shorter as mentioned above.


Note:

1. The length of string S will not exceed 12,000, and K is a positive integer.
2. String S consists only of alphanumerical characters (a-z and/or A-Z and/or 0-9) and dashes(-).
3. String S is non-empty.

# Solution

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(n)

C++

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