Posts published in “Simulation”

Normally, the factorial of a positive integer n is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to n.  For example, factorial(10) = 10 * 9 * 8 * 7 * 6 * 5 * 4 * 3 * 2 * 1.

We instead make a clumsy factorial: using the integers in decreasing order, we swap out the multiply operations for a fixed rotation of operations: multiply (*), divide (/), add (+) and subtract (-) in this order.

For example, clumsy(10) = 10 * 9 / 8 + 7 - 6 * 5 / 4 + 3 - 2 * 1.  However, these operations are still applied using the usual order of operations of arithmetic: we do all multiplication and division steps before any addition or subtraction steps, and multiplication and division steps are processed left to right.

Additionally, the division that we use is floor division such that 10 * 9 / 8 equals 11.  This guarantees the result is an integer.

Implement the clumsy function as defined above: given an integer N, it returns the clumsy factorial of N.

Example 1:

Input: 4
Output: 7
Explanation: 7 = 4 * 3 / 2 + 1

Example 2:

Input: 10
Output: 12
Explanation: 12 = 10 * 9 / 8 + 7 - 6 * 5 / 4 + 3 - 2 * 1

Note:

1. 1 <= N <= 10000
2. -2^31 <= answer <= 2^31 - 1  (The answer is guaranteed to fit within a 32-bit integer.)

Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

On an 8 x 8 chessboard, there is one white rook.  There also may be empty squares, white bishops, and black pawns.  These are given as characters ‘R’, ‘.’, ‘B’, and ‘p’ respectively. Uppercase characters represent white pieces, and lowercase characters represent black pieces.

The rook moves as in the rules of Chess: it chooses one of four cardinal directions (north, east, west, and south), then moves in that direction until it chooses to stop, reaches the edge of the board, or captures an opposite colored pawn by moving to the same square it occupies.  Also, rooks cannot move into the same square as other friendly bishops.

Return the number of pawns the rook can capture in one move.

Example 1:

Input: [[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".","p",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".","R",".",".",".","p"],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".","p",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."]]
Output: 3
Explanation:
In this example the rook is able to capture all the pawns.

Example 2:

Input: [[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".","p","p","p","p","p",".","."],[".","p","p","B","p","p",".","."],[".","p","B","R","B","p",".","."],[".","p","p","B","p","p",".","."],[".","p","p","p","p","p",".","."],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."]]
Output: 0
Explanation:
Bishops are blocking the rook to capture any pawn.

Example 3:

Input: [[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".","p",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".","p",".",".",".","."],["p","p",".","R",".","p","B","."],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".","B",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".","p",".",".",".","."],[".",".",".",".",".",".",".","."]]
Output: 3
Explanation:
The rook can capture the pawns at positions b5, d6 and f5.

Note:

1. board.length == board[i].length == 8
2. board[i][j] is either 'R''.''B', or 'p'
3. There is exactly one cell with board[i][j] == 'R'

Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(1)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

For a non-negative integer X, the array-form of X is an array of its digits in left to right order.  For example, if X = 1231, then the array form is [1,2,3,1].

Given the array-form A of a non-negative integer X, return the array-form of the integer X+K.

Example 1:

Input: A = [1,2,0,0], K = 34
Output: [1,2,3,4]
Explanation: 1200 + 34 = 1234

Example 2:

Input: A = [2,7,4], K = 181
Output: [4,5,5]
Explanation: 274 + 181 = 455

Example 3:

Input: A = [2,1,5], K = 806
Output: [1,0,2,1]
Explanation: 215 + 806 = 1021

Example 4:

Input: A = [9,9,9,9,9,9,9,9,9,9], K = 1
Output: [1,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0]
Explanation: 9999999999 + 1 = 10000000000

Note：

1. 1 <= A.length <= 10000
2. 0 <= A[i] <= 9
3. 0 <= K <= 10000
4. If A.length > 1, then A != 0

Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n) Space complexity: O(n)

Problem

We have an array A of integers, and an array queries of queries.

For the i-th query val = queries[i], index = queries[i], we add val to A[index].  Then, the answer to the i-th query is the sum of the even values of A.

(Here, the given index = queries[i] is a 0-based index, and each query permanently modifies the array A.)

Return the answer to all queries.  Your answer array should have answer[i] as the answer to the i-th query.

Example 1:

Input: A = [1,2,3,4], queries = [[1,0],[-3,1],[-4,0],[2,3]]
Output: [8,6,2,4]
Explanation:
At the beginning, the array is [1,2,3,4].
After adding 1 to A, the array is [2,2,3,4], and the sum of even values is 2 + 2 + 4 = 8.
After adding -3 to A, the array is [2,-1,3,4], and the sum of even values is 2 + 4 = 6.
After adding -4 to A, the array is [-2,-1,3,4], and the sum of even values is -2 + 4 = 2.
After adding 2 to A, the array is [-2,-1,3,6], and the sum of even values is -2 + 6 = 4.

Note:

1. 1 <= A.length <= 10000
2. -10000 <= A[i] <= 10000
3. 1 <= queries.length <= 10000
4. -10000 <= queries[i] <= 10000
5. 0 <= queries[i] < A.length

Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n + |Q|)
Space complexity: O(n)

Python3

Given an array A, we can perform a pancake flip: We choose some positive integer k <= A.length, then reverse the order of the first k elements of A.  We want to perform zero or more pancake flips (doing them one after another in succession) to sort the array A.

Return the k-values corresponding to a sequence of pancake flips that sort A.  Any valid answer that sorts the array within 10 * A.length flips will be judged as correct.

Example 1:

Input: [3,2,4,1]
Output: [4,2,4,3]
Explanation:
We perform 4 pancake flips, with k values 4, 2, 4, and 3.
Starting state: A = [3, 2, 4, 1]
After 1st flip (k=4): A = [1, 4, 2, 3]
After 2nd flip (k=2): A = [4, 1, 2, 3]
After 3rd flip (k=4): A = [3, 2, 1, 4]
After 4th flip (k=3): A = [1, 2, 3, 4], which is sorted.

Example 2:

Input: [1,2,3]
Output: []
Explanation: The input is already sorted, so there is no need to flip anything.
Note that other answers, such as [3, 3], would also be accepted.

Note:

1. 1 <= A.length <= 100
2. A[i] is a permutation of [1, 2, ..., A.length]

Solution: Simulation

Put the largest element to its position. Each element requires two flips
e.g. [3, 2, 4, 1]
largest element: 4, index: 2
flip1: [4, 2, 3, 1]
flip2: [1, 3, 2, 4]
Repeat for [1, 3, 2]…

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

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