# Problem

You want to form a target string of lowercase letters.

At the beginning, your sequence is target.length '?' marks.  You also have a stamp of lowercase letters.

On each turn, you may place the stamp over the sequence, and replace every letter in the sequence with the corresponding letter from the stamp.  You can make up to 10 * target.length turns.

For example, if the initial sequence is “?????”, and your stamp is "abc",  then you may make “abc??”, “?abc?”, “??abc” in the first turn.  (Note that the stamp must be fully contained in the boundaries of the sequence in order to stamp.)

If the sequence is possible to stamp, then return an array of the index of the left-most letter being stamped at each turn.  If the sequence is not possible to stamp, return an empty array.

For example, if the sequence is “ababc”, and the stamp is "abc", then we could return the answer [0, 2], corresponding to the moves “?????” -> “abc??” -> “ababc”.

Also, if the sequence is possible to stamp, it is guaranteed it is possible to stamp within 10 * target.length moves.  Any answers specifying more than this number of moves will not be accepted.

Example 1:

Input: stamp = "abc", target = "ababc"
Output: [0,2]
([1,0,2] would also be accepted as an answer, as well as some other answers.)


Example 2:

Input: stamp = "abca", target = "aabcaca"
Output: [3,0,1]

Note:

1. 1 <= stamp.length <= target.length <= 1000
2. stamp and target only contain lowercase letters.

# Solution: Greedy + Reverse Simulation

Reverse the stamping process. Each time find a full or partial match. Replace the matched char to ‘?’.

Don’t forget the reverse the answer as well.

T = “ababc”, S = “abc”

T = “ab???”, index = 2

T = “?????”, index = 0

ans = [0, 2]

Time complexity: O((T – S)*S)

Space complexity: O(T)

# Problem

You have an initial power P, an initial score of 0 points, and a bag of tokens.

Each token can be used at most once, has a value token[i], and has potentially two ways to use it.

• If we have at least token[i] power, we may play the token face up, losing token[i] power, and gaining 1 point.
• If we have at least 1 point, we may play the token face down, gaining token[i]power, and losing 1 point.

Return the largest number of points we can have after playing any number of tokens.

Example 1:

Input: tokens = [100], P = 50
Output: 0


Example 2:

Input: tokens = [100,200], P = 150
Output: 1


Example 3:

Input: tokens = [100,200,300,400], P = 200
Output: 2


Note:

1. tokens.length <= 1000
2. 0 <= tokens[i] < 10000
3. 0 <= P < 10000

# Solution: Greedy + Two Pointers

Sort the tokens, gain points from the low end gain power from the high end.

Time complexity: O(nlogn)

Space complexity: O(1)

# Problem

Given an array of integers A, a move consists of choosing any A[i], and incrementing it by 1.

Return the least number of moves to make every value in A unique.

Example 1:

Input: [1,2,2]
Output: 1
Explanation:  After 1 move, the array could be [1, 2, 3].


Example 2:

Input: [3,2,1,2,1,7]
Output: 6
Explanation:  After 6 moves, the array could be [3, 4, 1, 2, 5, 7].
It can be shown with 5 or less moves that it is impossible for the array to have all unique values.


Note:

1. 0 <= A.length <= 40000
2. 0 <= A[i] < 40000

# Solution: Greedy

Sort the elements, make sure A[i] >= A[i-1] + 1, if not increase A[i] to A[i – 1] + 1

Time complexity: O(nlogn)

Space complexity: O(1)

# Problem

Given a string S that only contains “I” (increase) or “D” (decrease), let N = S.length.

Return any permutation A of [0, 1, ..., N] such that for all i = 0, ..., N-1:

• If S[i] == "I", then A[i] < A[i+1]
• If S[i] == "D", then A[i] > A[i+1]

Example 1:

Input: "IDID"
Output: [0,4,1,3,2]


Example 2:

Input: "III"
Output: [0,1,2,3]


Example 3:

Input: "DDI"
Output: [3,2,0,1]

Note:

1. 1 <= S.length <= 10000
2. S only contains characters "I" or "D".

# Solution: Greedy

“I” -> use the smallest possible number

“D” -> use the largest possible number

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(n)

# Problem

Given an array of non-negative integers, you are initially positioned at the first index of the array.

Each element in the array represents your maximum jump length at that position.

Determine if you are able to reach the last index.

Example 1:

Input: [2,3,1,1,4]
Output: true
Explanation: Jump 1 step from index 0 to 1, then 3 steps to the last index.


Example 2:

Input: [3,2,1,0,4]
Output: false
Explanation: You will always arrive at index 3 no matter what. Its maximum
jump length is 0, which makes it impossible to reach the last index.


# Solution: Greedy

Always jump as far as you can.

Init far = nums[0].

far = max(far, i + nums[i])

check far >= n – 1

ex 1 [2,3,1,1,4]

ex 2 [3,2,1,0,4]

## C++

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