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Posts tagged as “grid”

花花酱 LeetCode 174. Dungeon Game


The demons had captured the princess (P) and imprisoned her in the bottom-right corner of a dungeon. The dungeon consists of M x N rooms laid out in a 2D grid. Our valiant knight (K) was initially positioned in the top-left room and must fight his way through the dungeon to rescue the princess.

The knight has an initial health point represented by a positive integer. If at any point his health point drops to 0 or below, he dies immediately.

Some of the rooms are guarded by demons, so the knight loses health (negative integers) upon entering these rooms; other rooms are either empty (0’s) or contain magic orbs that increase the knight’s health (positive integers).

In order to reach the princess as quickly as possible, the knight decides to move only rightward or downward in each step.

Write a function to determine the knight’s minimum initial health so that he is able to rescue the princess.

For example, given the dungeon below, the initial health of the knight must be at least 7 if he follows the optimal path RIGHT-> RIGHT -> DOWN -> DOWN.

-2 (K) -3 3
-5 -10 1
10 30 -5 (P)


  • The knight’s health has no upper bound.
  • Any room can contain threats or power-ups, even the first room the knight enters and the bottom-right room where the princess is imprisoned.

Solution: DP

Time complexity: O(mn)

Space complexity: O(mn) -> O(n)


O(n) space


花花酱 LeetCode 864. Shortest Path to Get All Keys


We are given a 2-dimensional grid"." is an empty cell, "#" is a wall, "@" is the starting point, ("a""b", …) are keys, and ("A""B", …) are locks.

We start at the starting point, and one move consists of walking one space in one of the 4 cardinal directions.  We cannot walk outside the grid, or walk into a wall.  If we walk over a key, we pick it up.  We can’t walk over a lock unless we have the corresponding key.

For some 1 <= K <= 6, there is exactly one lowercase and one uppercase letter of the first K letters of the English alphabet in the grid.  This means that there is exactly one key for each lock, and one lock for each key; and also that the letters used to represent the keys and locks were chosen in the same order as the English alphabet.

Return the lowest number of moves to acquire all keys.  If it’s impossible, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: ["@.a.#","###.#","b.A.B"]
Output: 8

Example 2:

Input: ["@..aA","..B#.","....b"]
Output: 6


  1. 1 <= grid.length <= 30
  2. 1 <= grid[0].length <= 30
  3. grid[i][j] contains only '.''#''@''a'-'f' and 'A'-'F'
  4. The number of keys is in [1, 6].  Each key has a different letter and opens exactly one lock.

Solution: BFS

Time complexity: O(m*n*64)

Space complexity: O(m*n*64)



Related Problems


花花酱 LeetCode 807. Max Increase to Keep City Skyline



In a 2 dimensional array grid, each value grid[i][j] represents the height of a building located there. We are allowed to increase the height of any number of buildings, by any amount (the amounts can be different for different buildings). Height 0 is considered to be a building as well.

At the end, the “skyline” when viewed from all four directions of the grid, i.e. top, bottom, left, and right, must be the same as the skyline of the original grid. A city’s skyline is the outer contour of the rectangles formed by all the buildings when viewed from a distance. See the following example.

What is the maximum total sum that the height of the buildings can be increased?

Input: grid = [[3,0,8,4],[2,4,5,7],[9,2,6,3],[0,3,1,0]]
Output: 35
The grid is:
[ [3, 0, 8, 4], 
  [2, 4, 5, 7],
  [9, 2, 6, 3],
  [0, 3, 1, 0] ]

The skyline viewed from top or bottom is: [9, 4, 8, 7]
The skyline viewed from left or right is: [8, 7, 9, 3]

The grid after increasing the height of buildings without affecting skylines is:

gridNew = [ [8, 4, 8, 7],
            [7, 4, 7, 7],
            [9, 4, 8, 7],
            [3, 3, 3, 3] ]


  • 1 < grid.length = grid[0].length <= 50.
  • All heights grid[i][j] are in the range [0, 100].
  • All buildings in grid[i][j] occupy the entire grid cell: that is, they are a 1 x 1 x grid[i][j] rectangular prism.

Solution: Greedy

Find the max of each row and column, increase the height of building at i,j to min(max_row[i], max_col[j]).

Time Complexity: O(m*n)

Space complexity: O(m+n)