There is a hidden integer array arr that consists of n non-negative integers.

It was encoded into another integer array encoded of length n - 1, such that encoded[i] = arr[i] XOR arr[i + 1]. For example, if arr = [1,0,2,1], then encoded = [1,2,3].

You are given the encoded array. You are also given an integer first, that is the first element of arr, i.e. arr[0].

Return the original array arr. It can be proved that the answer exists and is unique.

Example 1:

Input: encoded = [1,2,3], first = 1
Output: [1,0,2,1]
Explanation: If arr = [1,0,2,1], then first = 1 and encoded = [1 XOR 0, 0 XOR 2, 2 XOR 1] = [1,2,3]


Example 2:

Input: encoded = [6,2,7,3], first = 4
Output: [4,2,0,7,4]


Constraints:

• 2 <= n <= 104
• encoded.length == n - 1
• 0 <= encoded[i] <= 105
• 0 <= first <= 105

## Solution: XOR

encoded[i] = arr[i] ^ arr[i + 1]
encoded[i] ^ arr[i] = arr[i] ^ arr[i] ^ arr[i + 1]
arr[i+1] = encoded[i]^arr[i]

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

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