Press "Enter" to skip to content

Posts published in “Hashtable”

花花酱 LeetCode 822. Card Flipping Game



On a table are N cards, with a positive integer printed on the front and back of each card (possibly different).

We flip any number of cards, and after we choose one card.

If the number X on the back of the chosen card is not on the front of any card, then this number X is good.

What is the smallest number that is good?  If no number is good, output 0.

Here, fronts[i] and backs[i] represent the number on the front and back of card i.

A flip swaps the front and back numbers, so the value on the front is now on the back and vice versa.


Input: fronts = [1,2,4,4,7], backs = [1,3,4,1,3]
Output: 2
Explanation: If we flip the second card, the fronts are [1,3,4,4,7] and the backs are [1,2,4,1,3]. We choose the second card, which has number 2 on the back, and it isn't on the front of any card, so 2 is good.


  1. 1 <= fronts.length == backs.length <= 1000.
  2. 1 <= fronts[i] <= 2000.
  3. 1 <= backs[i] <= 2000.

Solution: Hashset



花花酱 LeetCode 820. Short Encoding of Words


Given a list of words, we may encode it by writing a reference string S and a list of indexes A.

For example, if the list of words is ["time", "me", "bell"], we can write it as S = "time#bell#" and indexes = [0, 2, 5].

Then for each index, we will recover the word by reading from the reference string from that index until we reach a “#” character.

What is the length of the shortest reference string S possible that encodes the given words?


Input: words = ["time", "me", "bell"] Output: 10 Explanation: S = "time#bell#" and indexes = [0, 2, 5].


  1. 1 <= words.length <= 2000.
  2. 1 <= words[i].length <= 7.
  3. Each word has only lowercase letters.


Remove all the words that are suffix of other words.


Time complexity: O(n*l^2)

Space complexity: O(n*l)


花花酱 LeetCode 819. Most Common Word



Given a paragraph and a list of banned words, return the most frequent word that is not in the list of banned words.  It is guaranteed there is at least one word that isn’t banned, and that the answer is unique.

Words in the list of banned words are given in lowercase, and free of punctuation.  Words in the paragraph are not case sensitive.  The answer is in lowercase.

paragraph = "Bob hit a ball, the hit BALL flew far after it was hit."
banned = ["hit"]
Output: "ball"
"hit" occurs 3 times, but it is a banned word.
"ball" occurs twice (and no other word does), so it is the most frequent non-banned word in the paragraph. 
Note that words in the paragraph are not case sensitive,
that punctuation is ignored (even if adjacent to words, such as "ball,"), 
and that "hit" isn't the answer even though it occurs more because it is banned.



  • 1 <= paragraph.length <= 1000.
  • 1 <= banned.length <= 100.
  • 1 <= banned[i].length <= 10.
  • The answer is unique, and written in lowercase (even if its occurrences in paragraph may have uppercase symbols, and even if it is a proper noun.)
  • paragraph only consists of letters, spaces, or the punctuation symbols !?',;.
  • Different words in paragraph are always separated by a space.
  • There are no hyphens or hyphenated words.
  • Words only consist of letters, never apostrophes or other punctuation symbols.

Solution: Hashtable


花花酱 LeetCode 432. All O`one Data Structure



Implement a data structure supporting the following operations:

  1. Inc(Key) – Inserts a new key with value 1. Or increments an existing key by 1. Key is guaranteed to be a non-empty string.
  2. Dec(Key) – If Key’s value is 1, remove it from the data structure. Otherwise decrements an existing key by 1. If the key does not exist, this function does nothing. Key is guaranteed to be a non-empty string.
  3. GetMaxKey() – Returns one of the keys with maximal value. If no element exists, return an empty string "".
  4. GetMinKey() – Returns one of the keys with minimal value. If no element exists, return an empty string "".

Challenge: Perform all these in O(1) time complexity.


Time complexity: O(1)

Space complexity: O(n), n = # of unique keys

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 599. Minimum Index Sum of Two Lists


Suppose Andy and Doris want to choose a restaurant for dinner, and they both have a list of favorite restaurants represented by strings.

You need to help them find out their common interest with the least list index sum. If there is a choice tie between answers, output all of them with no order requirement. You could assume there always exists an answer.

Example 1:

["Shogun", "Tapioca Express", "Burger King", "KFC"]
["Piatti", "The Grill at Torrey Pines", "Hungry Hunter Steakhouse", "Shogun"]
Output: ["Shogun"]
Explanation: The only restaurant they both like is "Shogun".

Example 2:

["Shogun", "Tapioca Express", "Burger King", "KFC"]
["KFC", "Shogun", "Burger King"]
Output: ["Shogun"]
Explanation: The restaurant they both like and have the least index sum is "Shogun" with index sum 1 (0+1).


  1. The length of both lists will be in the range of [1, 1000].
  2. The length of strings in both lists will be in the range of [1, 30].
  3. The index is starting from 0 to the list length minus 1.
  4. No duplicates in both lists.


Time complexity: O(n+m)

Space complexity: O(n)