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花花酱 LeetCode 218. The Skyline Problem


A city’s skyline is the outer contour of the silhouette formed by all the buildings in that city when viewed from a distance. Now suppose you are given the locations and height of all the buildings as shown on a cityscape photo (Figure A), write a program to output the skyline formed by these buildings collectively (Figure B).

Buildings Skyline Contour

The geometric information of each building is represented by a triplet of integers [Li, Ri, Hi], where Li and Ri are the x coordinates of the left and right edge of the ith building, respectively, and Hi is its height. It is guaranteed that 0 ≤ Li, Ri ≤ INT_MAX0 < Hi ≤ INT_MAX, and Ri - Li > 0. You may assume all buildings are perfect rectangles grounded on an absolutely flat surface at height 0.

For instance, the dimensions of all buildings in Figure A are recorded as: [ [2 9 10], [3 7 15], [5 12 12], [15 20 10], [19 24 8] ] .

The output is a list of “key points” (red dots in Figure B) in the format of [ [x1,y1], [x2, y2], [x3, y3], ... ] that uniquely defines a skyline. A key point is the left endpoint of a horizontal line segment. Note that the last key point, where the rightmost building ends, is merely used to mark the termination of the skyline, and always has zero height. Also, the ground in between any two adjacent buildings should be considered part of the skyline contour.

For instance, the skyline in Figure B should be represented as:[ [2 10], [3 15], [7 12], [12 0], [15 10], [20 8], [24, 0] ].


  • The number of buildings in any input list is guaranteed to be in the range [0, 10000].
  • The input list is already sorted in ascending order by the left x position Li.
  • The output list must be sorted by the x position.
  • There must be no consecutive horizontal lines of equal height in the output skyline. For instance, [...[2 3], [4 5], [7 5], [11 5], [12 7]...] is not acceptable; the three lines of height 5 should be merged into one in the final output as such: [...[2 3], [4 5], [12 7], ...]



Sweep line

Time Complexity:


Space Complexity:


Solution1: Heap 



Solution 2: Multiset



花花酱 LeetCode 677. Map Sum Pairs


Implement a MapSum class with insert, and sum methods.

For the method insert, you’ll be given a pair of (string, integer). The string represents the key and the integer represents the value. If the key already existed, then the original key-value pair will be overridden to the new one.

For the method sum, you’ll be given a string representing the prefix, and you need to return the sum of all the pairs’ value whose key starts with the prefix.

Example 1:


Prefix tree

Solution 1

Solution 2:

with std::unique_ptr


花花酱 LeetCode 297. Serialize and Deserialize Binary Tree


Serialization is the process of converting a data structure or object into a sequence of bits so that it can be stored in a file or memory buffer, or transmitted across a network connection link to be reconstructed later in the same or another computer environment.

Design an algorithm to serialize and deserialize a binary tree. There is no restriction on how your serialization/deserialization algorithm should work. You just need to ensure that a binary tree can be serialized to a string and this string can be deserialized to the original tree structure.

For example, you may serialize the following tree

as "[1,2,3,null,null,4,5]", just the same as how LeetCode OJ serializes a binary tree. You do not necessarily need to follow this format, so please be creative and come up with different approaches yourself.

Note: Do not use class member/global/static variables to store states. Your serialize and deserialize algorithms should be stateless.



Time Complexity O(n)

Solution 1: ASCII


Solution 2: Binary


C++ (string)

Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 295. Find Median from Data Stream O(logn) + O(1)


Median is the middle value in an ordered integer list. If the size of the list is even, there is no middle value. So the median is the mean of the two middle value.


[2,3,4] , the median is 3

[2,3], the median is (2 + 3) / 2 = 2.5

Design a data structure that supports the following two operations:

  • void addNum(int num) – Add a integer number from the data stream to the data structure.
  • double findMedian() – Return the median of all elements so far.

For example:



  1. Min/Max heap
  2. Balanced binary search tree

Time Complexity:

add(num): O(logn)

findMedian(): O(logn)



Solution 2:


Related Problems

花花酱 LeetCode 145. Binary Tree Postorder Traversal


Given a binary tree, return the postorder traversal of its nodes’ values.

For example:
Given binary tree {1,#,2,3},

return [3,2,1].

Note: Recursive solution is trivial, could you do it iteratively?

Solution 1:

Solution 2:

Solution 3: