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花花酱 LeetCode 1770. Maximum Score from Performing Multiplication Operations

You are given two integer arrays nums and multipliersof size n and m respectively, where n >= m. The arrays are 1-indexed.

You begin with a score of 0. You want to perform exactly m operations. On the ith operation (1-indexed), you will:

  • Choose one integer x from either the start or the end of the array nums.
  • Add multipliers[i] * x to your score.
  • Remove x from the array nums.

Return the maximum score after performing m operations.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3], multipliers = [3,2,1]
Output: 14
Explanation: An optimal solution is as follows:
- Choose from the end, [1,2,3], adding 3 * 3 = 9 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [1,2], adding 2 * 2 = 4 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [1], adding 1 * 1 = 1 to the score.
The total score is 9 + 4 + 1 = 14.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [-5,-3,-3,-2,7,1], multipliers = [-10,-5,3,4,6]
Output: 102
Explanation: An optimal solution is as follows:
- Choose from the start, [-5,-3,-3,-2,7,1], adding -5 * -10 = 50 to the score.
- Choose from the start, [-3,-3,-2,7,1], adding -3 * -5 = 15 to the score.
- Choose from the start, [-3,-2,7,1], adding -3 * 3 = -9 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [-2,7,1], adding 1 * 4 = 4 to the score.
- Choose from the end, [-2,7], adding 7 * 6 = 42 to the score. 
The total score is 50 + 15 - 9 + 4 + 42 = 102.

Constraints:

  • n == nums.length
  • m == multipliers.length
  • 1 <= m <= 103
  • m <= n <= 105
  • -1000 <= nums[i], multipliers[i] <= 1000

Solution: DP

dp(i, j) := max score we can get with nums[i~j] left.

k = n – (j – i + 1)
dp(i, j) = max(dp(i + 1, j) + nums[i] * multipliers[k], dp(i, j-1) + nums[j] * multipliers[k])

Time complexity: O(m*m)
Space complexity: O(m*m)

C++/Top-Down

C++/Bottom-UP

花花酱 LeetCode 1769. Minimum Number of Operations to Move All Balls to Each Box

You have n boxes. You are given a binary string boxes of length n, where boxes[i] is '0' if the ith box is empty, and '1' if it contains one ball.

In one operation, you can move one ball from a box to an adjacent box. Box i is adjacent to box j if abs(i - j) == 1. Note that after doing so, there may be more than one ball in some boxes.

Return an array answer of size n, where answer[i] is the minimum number of operations needed to move all the balls to the ith box.

Each answer[i] is calculated considering the initial state of the boxes.

Example 1:

Input: boxes = "110"
Output: [1,1,3]
Explanation: The answer for each box is as follows:
1) First box: you will have to move one ball from the second box to the first box in one operation.
2) Second box: you will have to move one ball from the first box to the second box in one operation.
3) Third box: you will have to move one ball from the first box to the third box in two operations, and move one ball from the second box to the third box in one operation.

Example 2:

Input: boxes = "001011"
Output: [11,8,5,4,3,4]

Constraints:

  • n == boxes.length
  • 1 <= n <= 2000
  • boxes[i] is either '0' or '1'

Solution: Prefix Sum + DP

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1768. Merge Strings Alternately

You are given two strings word1 and word2. Merge the strings by adding letters in alternating order, starting with word1. If a string is longer than the other, append the additional letters onto the end of the merged string.

Return the merged string.

Example 1:

Input: word1 = "abc", word2 = "pqr"
Output: "apbqcr"
Explanation: The merged string will be merged as so:
word1:  a   b   c
word2:    p   q   r
merged: a p b q c r

Example 2:

Input: word1 = "ab", word2 = "pqrs"
Output: "apbqrs"
Explanation: Notice that as word2 is longer, "rs" is appended to the end.
word1:  a   b 
word2:    p   q   r   s
merged: a p b q   r   s

Example 3:

Input: word1 = "abcd", word2 = "pq"
Output: "apbqcd"
Explanation: Notice that as word1 is longer, "cd" is appended to the end.
word1:  a   b   c   d
word2:    p   q 
merged: a p b q c   d

Constraints:

  • 1 <= word1.length, word2.length <= 100
  • word1 and word2 consist of lowercase English letters.

Solution: Find the shorter one

Time complexity: O(m+n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1766. Tree of Coprimes

There is a tree (i.e., a connected, undirected graph that has no cycles) consisting of n nodes numbered from 0 to n - 1 and exactly n - 1 edges. Each node has a value associated with it, and the root of the tree is node 0.

To represent this tree, you are given an integer array nums and a 2D array edges. Each nums[i] represents the ith node’s value, and each edges[j] = [uj, vj] represents an edge between nodes uj and vj in the tree.

Two values x and y are coprime if gcd(x, y) == 1 where gcd(x, y) is the greatest common divisor of x and y.

An ancestor of a node i is any other node on the shortest path from node i to the root. A node is not considered an ancestor of itself.

Return an array ans of size nwhere ans[i] is the closest ancestor to node i such that nums[i] and nums[ans[i]] are coprime, or -1 if there is no such ancestor.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [2,3,3,2], edges = [[0,1],[1,2],[1,3]]
Output: [-1,0,0,1]
Explanation: In the above figure, each node's value is in parentheses.
- Node 0 has no coprime ancestors.
- Node 1 has only one ancestor, node 0. Their values are coprime (gcd(2,3) == 1).
- Node 2 has two ancestors, nodes 1 and 0. Node 1's value is not coprime (gcd(3,3) == 3), but node 0's
  value is (gcd(2,3) == 1), so node 0 is the closest valid ancestor.
- Node 3 has two ancestors, nodes 1 and 0. It is coprime with node 1 (gcd(3,2) == 1), so node 1 is its
  closest valid ancestor.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,6,10,2,3,6,15], edges = [[0,1],[0,2],[1,3],[1,4],[2,5],[2,6]]
Output: [-1,0,-1,0,0,0,-1]

Constraints:

  • nums.length == n
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 50
  • 1 <= n <= 105
  • edges.length == n - 1
  • edges[j].length == 2
  • 0 <= uj, vj < n
  • uj != vj

Solution: DFS + Stack

Pre-compute for coprimes for each number.

For each node, enumerate all it’s coprime numbers, find the deepest occurrence.

Time complexity: O(n * max(nums))
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1765. Map of Highest Peak

You are given an integer matrix isWater of size m x n that represents a map of land and water cells.

  • If isWater[i][j] == 0, cell (i, j) is a land cell.
  • If isWater[i][j] == 1, cell (i, j) is a water cell.

You must assign each cell a height in a way that follows these rules:

  • The height of each cell must be non-negative.
  • If the cell is a water cell, its height must be 0.
  • Any two adjacent cells must have an absolute height difference of at most 1. A cell is adjacent to another cell if the former is directly north, east, south, or west of the latter (i.e., their sides are touching).

Find an assignment of heights such that the maximum height in the matrix is maximized.

Return an integer matrix height of size m x n where height[i][j] is cell (i, j)‘s height. If there are multiple solutions, return any of them.

Example 1:

Input: isWater = [[0,1],[0,0]]
Output: [[1,0],[2,1]]
Explanation: The image shows the assigned heights of each cell.
The blue cell is the water cell, and the green cells are the land cells.

Example 2:

Input: isWater = [[0,0,1],[1,0,0],[0,0,0]]
Output: [[1,1,0],[0,1,1],[1,2,2]]
Explanation: A height of 2 is the maximum possible height of any assignment.
Any height assignment that has a maximum height of 2 while still meeting the rules will also be accepted.

Constraints:

  • m == isWater.length
  • n == isWater[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 1000
  • isWater[i][j] is 0 or 1.
  • There is at least one water cell.

Solution: BFS

h[y][x] = min distance of (x, y) to any water cell.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

C++