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花花酱 LeetCode 2451. Odd String Difference

You are given an array of equal-length strings words. Assume that the length of each string is n.

Each string words[i] can be converted into a difference integer array difference[i] of length n - 1 where difference[i][j] = words[i][j+1] - words[i][j] where 0 <= j <= n - 2. Note that the difference between two letters is the difference between their positions in the alphabet i.e. the position of 'a' is 0'b' is 1, and 'z' is 25.

  • For example, for the string "acb", the difference integer array is [2 - 0, 1 - 2] = [2, -1].

All the strings in words have the same difference integer array, except one. You should find that string.

Return the string in words that has different difference integer array.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["adc","wzy","abc"]
Output: "abc"
Explanation: 
- The difference integer array of "adc" is [3 - 0, 2 - 3] = [3, -1].
- The difference integer array of "wzy" is [25 - 22, 24 - 25]= [3, -1].
- The difference integer array of "abc" is [1 - 0, 2 - 1] = [1, 1]. 
The odd array out is [1, 1], so we return the corresponding string, "abc".

Example 2:

Input: words = ["aaa","bob","ccc","ddd"]
Output: "bob"
Explanation: All the integer arrays are [0, 0] except for "bob", which corresponds to [13, -13].

Constraints:

  • 3 <= words.length <= 100
  • n == words[i].length
  • 2 <= n <= 20
  • words[i] consists of lowercase English letters.

Solution: Comparing with first string.

Let us pick words[0] as a reference for comparison, assuming it’s valid. If we only found one instance say words[i], that is different than words[0], we know that words[i] is bad, otherwise we should see m – 1 different words which means words[0] itself is bad.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2441. Largest Positive Integer That Exists With Its Negative

Given an integer array nums that does not contain any zeros, find the largest positive integer k such that -k also exists in the array.

Return the positive integer k. If there is no such integer, return -1.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [-1,2,-3,3]
Output: 3
Explanation: 3 is the only valid k we can find in the array.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [-1,10,6,7,-7,1]
Output: 7
Explanation: Both 1 and 7 have their corresponding negative values in the array. 7 has a larger value.

Example 3:

Input: nums = [-10,8,6,7,-2,-3]
Output: -1
Explanation: There is no a single valid k, we return -1.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 1000
  • -1000 <= nums[i] <= 1000
  • nums[i] != 0

Solution 1: Hashtable

We can do in one pass by checking whether -x in the hashtable and update ans with abs(x) if so.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution 2: Sorting

Sort the array by abs(x) in descending order.

[-1,10,6,7,-7,1] becomes = [-1, 1, 6, -7, 7, 10]

Check whether arr[i] = -arr[i-1].

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Solution 3: Two Pointers

Sort the array.

Let sum = nums[i] + nums[j], sum == 0, we find one pair, if sum < 0, ++i else –j.

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2435. Paths in Matrix Whose Sum Is Divisible by K

You are given a 0-indexed m x n integer matrix grid and an integer k. You are currently at position (0, 0) and you want to reach position (m - 1, n - 1) moving only down or right.

Return the number of paths where the sum of the elements on the path is divisible by k. Since the answer may be very large, return it modulo 109 + 7.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [[5,2,4],[3,0,5],[0,7,2]], k = 3
Output: 2
Explanation: There are two paths where the sum of the elements on the path is divisible by k.
The first path highlighted in red has a sum of 5 + 2 + 4 + 5 + 2 = 18 which is divisible by 3.
The second path highlighted in blue has a sum of 5 + 3 + 0 + 5 + 2 = 15 which is divisible by 3.

Example 2:

Input: grid = [[0,0]], k = 5
Output: 1
Explanation: The path highlighted in red has a sum of 0 + 0 = 0 which is divisible by 5.

Example 3:

Input: grid = [[7,3,4,9],[2,3,6,2],[2,3,7,0]], k = 1
Output: 10
Explanation: Every integer is divisible by 1 so the sum of the elements on every possible path is divisible by k.

Constraints:

  • m == grid.length
  • n == grid[i].length
  • 1 <= m, n <= 5 * 104
  • 1 <= m * n <= 5 * 104
  • 0 <= grid[i][j] <= 100
  • 1 <= k <= 50

Solution: DP

Let dp[i][j][r] := # of paths from (0,0) to (i,j) with path sum % k == r.

init: dp[0][0][grid[0][0] % k] = 1

dp[i][j][(r + grid[i][j]) % k] = dp[i-1][j][r] + dp[i][j-1][r]

ans = dp[m-1][n-1][0]

Time complexity: O(m*n*k)
Space complexity: O(m*n*k) -> O(n*k)

C++

Related Problems:

花花酱 LeetCode 2420. Find All Good Indices

You are given a 0-indexed integer array nums of size n and a positive integer k.

We call an index i in the range k <= i < n - k good if the following conditions are satisfied:

  • The k elements that are just before the index i are in non-increasing order.
  • The k elements that are just after the index i are in non-decreasing order.

Return an array of all good indices sorted in increasing order.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [2,1,1,1,3,4,1], k = 2
Output: [2,3]
Explanation: There are two good indices in the array:
- Index 2. The subarray [2,1] is in non-increasing order, and the subarray [1,3] is in non-decreasing order.
- Index 3. The subarray [1,1] is in non-increasing order, and the subarray [3,4] is in non-decreasing order.
Note that the index 4 is not good because [4,1] is not non-decreasing.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,1,1,2], k = 2
Output: []
Explanation: There are no good indices in this array.

Constraints:

  • n == nums.length
  • 3 <= n <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 106
  • 1 <= k <= n / 2

Solution: Prefix Sum

Let before[i] = length of longest non-increasing subarray ends of nums[i].
Let after[i] = length of longest non-decreasing subarray ends of nums[i].

An index is good if nums[i – 1] >= k and nums[i + k] >= k

Time complexity: O(n + (n – 2*k))
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2419. Longest Subarray With Maximum Bitwise AND

You are given an integer array nums of size n.

Consider a non-empty subarray from nums that has the maximum possible bitwise AND.

  • In other words, let k be the maximum value of the bitwise AND of any subarray of nums. Then, only subarrays with a bitwise AND equal to k should be considered.

Return the length of the longest such subarray.

The bitwise AND of an array is the bitwise AND of all the numbers in it.

subarray is a contiguous sequence of elements within an array.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,3,2,2]
Output: 2
Explanation:
The maximum possible bitwise AND of a subarray is 3.
The longest subarray with that value is [3,3], so we return 2.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,2,3,4]
Output: 1
Explanation:
The maximum possible bitwise AND of a subarray is 4.
The longest subarray with that value is [4], so we return 1.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 106

Solution: Find the largest number

a & b <= a
a & b <= b
if b > a, a & b < b, we choose to start a new sequence of “b” instead of continuing with “ab”

Basically, we find the largest number in the array and count the longest sequence of it. Note, there will be some tricky cases like.
b b b b a b
b a b b b b
We need to return 4 instead of 1.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++