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花花酱 LeetCode 1250. Check If It Is a Good Array

Given an array nums of positive integers. Your task is to select some subset of nums, multiply each element by an integer and add all these numbers. The array is said to be good if you can obtain a sum of 1 from the array by any possible subset and multiplicand.

Return True if the array is good otherwise return False.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [12,5,7,23]
Output: true
Explanation: Pick numbers 5 and 7.
5*3 + 7*(-2) = 1

Example 2:

Input: nums = [29,6,10]
Output: true
Explanation: Pick numbers 29, 6 and 10.
29*1 + 6*(-3) + 10*(-1) = 1

Example 3:

Input: nums = [3,6]
Output: false

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 10^5
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 10^9

Solution: Math

Bézout’s lemma: b[1] * A[1] + b[2] * A[2] + …. + b[n] * A[n] = 1 <==> gcd(A[1], A[2], …, A[n]) = 1 <=> at least two numbers are co-prime

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1247. Minimum Swaps to Make Strings Equal

You are given two strings s1 and s2 of equal length consisting of letters "x" and "y" only. Your task is to make these two strings equal to each other. You can swap any two characters that belong to different strings, which means: swap s1[i] and s2[j].

Return the minimum number of swaps required to make s1 and s2 equal, or return -1 if it is impossible to do so.

Example 1:

Input: s1 = "xx", s2 = "yy"
Output: 1
Explanation: 
Swap s1[0] and s2[1], s1 = "yx", s2 = "yx".

Example 2: 

Input: s1 = "xy", s2 = "yx"
Output: 2
Explanation: 
Swap s1[0] and s2[0], s1 = "yy", s2 = "xx".
Swap s1[0] and s2[1], s1 = "xy", s2 = "xy".
Note that you can't swap s1[0] and s1[1] to make s1 equal to "yx", cause we can only swap chars in different strings.

Example 3:

Input: s1 = "xx", s2 = "xy"
Output: -1

Example 4:

Input: s1 = "xxyyxyxyxx", s2 = "xyyxyxxxyx"
Output: 4

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s1.length, s2.length <= 1000
  • s1, s2 only contain 'x' or 'y'.

Solution: Math

if s1[i] == s2[i] than no need to swap, so we can only look for
case1. s1[i] = x, s2[i] = y, xy
case2. s1[i] = y, s2[i] = x, yx

If case1 + case2 is odd, then there’s no solution.

Otherwise we can use one swap to fix two xys (or two yxs)
xx, yy => xy, yx

One special case is there an extra xy and and extra yx, which takes two swaps
xy, yx => yy, xx => xy, xy

Finally,
ans = (case1 + 1) / 2 + (case2 + 1) / 2

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1239. Maximum Length of a Concatenated String with Unique Characters

Given an array of strings arr. String s is a concatenation of a sub-sequence of arr which have unique characters.

Return the maximum possible length of s.

Example 1:

Input: arr = ["un","iq","ue"]
Output: 4
Explanation: All possible concatenations are "","un","iq","ue","uniq" and "ique".
Maximum length is 4.

Example 2:

Input: arr = ["cha","r","act","ers"]
Output: 6
Explanation: Possible solutions are "chaers" and "acters".

Example 3:

Input: arr = ["abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"]
Output: 26

Constraints:

  • 1 <= arr.length <= 16
  • 1 <= arr[i].length <= 26
  • arr[i] contains only lower case English letters.

Solution: Combination + Bit

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution 2: DP

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(2^n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1238. Circular Permutation in Binary Representation

Given 2 integers n and start. Your task is return any permutation p of (0,1,2.....,2^n -1) such that :

  • p[0] = start
  • p[i] and p[i+1] differ by only one bit in their binary representation.
  • p[0] and p[2^n -1] must also differ by only one bit in their binary representation.

Example 1:

Input: n = 2, start = 3
Output: [3,2,0,1]
Explanation: The binary representation of the permutation is (11,10,00,01). 
All the adjacent element differ by one bit. Another valid permutation is [3,1,0,2]

Example 2:

Input: n = 3, start = 2
Output: [2,6,7,5,4,0,1,3]
Explanation: The binary representation of the permutation is (010,110,111,101,100,000,001,011).

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 16
  • 0 <= start < 2 ^ n

Solution 1: Gray Code (DP) + Rotation

Gray code starts with 0, need to rotate after generating the list.

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(2^n)

C++

Solution 2: Gray code with a start

Time complexity: O(2^n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1237. Find Positive Integer Solution for a Given Equation

Given a function  f(x, y) and a value z, return all positive integer pairs x and y where f(x,y) == z.

The function is constantly increasing, i.e.:

  • f(x, y) < f(x + 1, y)
  • f(x, y) < f(x, y + 1)

The function interface is defined like this: 

interface CustomFunction {
public:
  // Returns positive integer f(x, y) for any given positive integer x and y.
  int f(int x, int y);
};

For custom testing purposes you’re given an integer function_id and a target z as input, where function_id represent one function from an secret internal list, on the examples you’ll know only two functions from the list.  

You may return the solutions in any order.

Example 1:

Input: function_id = 1, z = 5
Output: [[1,4],[2,3],[3,2],[4,1]]
Explanation: function_id = 1 means that f(x, y) = x + y

Example 2:

Input: function_id = 2, z = 5
Output: [[1,5],[5,1]]
Explanation: function_id = 2 means that f(x, y) = x * y

Constraints:

  • 1 <= function_id <= 9
  • 1 <= z <= 100
  • It’s guaranteed that the solutions of f(x, y) == z will be on the range 1 <= x, y <= 1000
  • It’s also guaranteed that f(x, y) will fit in 32 bit signed integer if 1 <= x, y <= 1000

Solution1 : Brute Force

Time complexity: O(1000*1000)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++