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花花酱 LeetCode 2560. House Robber IV

There are several consecutive houses along a street, each of which has some money inside. There is also a robber, who wants to steal money from the homes, but he refuses to steal from adjacent homes.

The capability of the robber is the maximum amount of money he steals from one house of all the houses he robbed.

You are given an integer array nums representing how much money is stashed in each house. More formally, the ith house from the left has nums[i] dollars.

You are also given an integer k, representing the minimum number of houses the robber will steal from. It is always possible to steal at least k houses.

Return the minimum capability of the robber out of all the possible ways to steal at least k houses.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [2,3,5,9], k = 2
Output: 5
Explanation: 
There are three ways to rob at least 2 houses:
- Rob the houses at indices 0 and 2. Capability is max(nums[0], nums[2]) = 5.
- Rob the houses at indices 0 and 3. Capability is max(nums[0], nums[3]) = 9.
- Rob the houses at indices 1 and 3. Capability is max(nums[1], nums[3]) = 9.
Therefore, we return min(5, 9, 9) = 5.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [2,7,9,3,1], k = 2
Output: 2
Explanation: There are 7 ways to rob the houses. The way which leads to minimum capability is to rob the house at index 0 and 4. Return max(nums[0], nums[4]) = 2.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 109
  • 1 <= k <= (nums.length + 1)/2

Solution 1: Binary Search + DP

It’s easy to see that higher capability means more houses we can rob. Thus this can be formulate as a binary search algorithm e.g. find the minimum C s.t. we can rob at least k houses.

Then we can use dp(i) to calculate maximum houses we can rob if starting from the i’th house.
dp(i) = max(1 + dp(i + 2) if nums[i] <= C else 0, dp(i + 1))

Time complexity: O(n log m)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Solution 2: Binary Search + Greedy

From: dp(i) = max(1 + dp(i + 2) if nums[i] <= C else 0, dp(i + 1)) we can see that if we can pick the i-th one, it will be the same or better if we skip and start from dp(i + 1). Thus we can convert this from DP to greedy. As long as we can pick the current one, we pick it first.

Time complexity: O(n log m)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2559. Count Vowel Strings in Ranges

You are given a 0-indexed array of strings words and a 2D array of integers queries.

Each query queries[i] = [li, ri] asks us to find the number of strings present in the range li to ri (both inclusive) of words that start and end with a vowel.

Return an array ans of size queries.length, where ans[i] is the answer to the ith query.

Note that the vowel letters are 'a''e''i''o', and 'u'.

Example 1:

Input: words = ["aba","bcb","ece","aa","e"], queries = [[0,2],[1,4],[1,1]]
Output: [2,3,0]
Explanation: The strings starting and ending with a vowel are "aba", "ece", "aa" and "e".
The answer to the query [0,2] is 2 (strings "aba" and "ece").
to query [1,4] is 3 (strings "ece", "aa", "e").
to query [1,1] is 0.
We return [2,3,0].

Example 2:

Input: words = ["a","e","i"], queries = [[0,2],[0,1],[2,2]]
Output: [3,2,1]
Explanation: Every string satisfies the conditions, so we return [3,2,1].

Constraints:

  • 1 <= words.length <= 105
  • 1 <= words[i].length <= 40
  • words[i] consists only of lowercase English letters.
  • sum(words[i].length) <= 3 * 105
  • 1 <= queries.length <= 105
  • 0 <= li <= ri < words.length

Solution: Prefix Sum

Let sum[i] := number of valid strings in words[0:i]

For each query [l, r], answer will be sum[r + 1] – sum[l]

Time complexity: O(n + q)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2558. Take Gifts From the Richest Pile

You are given an integer array gifts denoting the number of gifts in various piles. Every second, you do the following:

  • Choose the pile with the maximum number of gifts.
  • If there is more than one pile with the maximum number of gifts, choose any.
  • Leave behind the floor of the square root of the number of gifts in the pile. Take the rest of the gifts.

Return the number of gifts remaining after k seconds.

Example 1:

Input: gifts = [25,64,9,4,100], k = 4
Output: 29
Explanation: 
The gifts are taken in the following way:
- In the first second, the last pile is chosen and 10 gifts are left behind.
- Then the second pile is chosen and 8 gifts are left behind.
- After that the first pile is chosen and 5 gifts are left behind.
- Finally, the last pile is chosen again and 3 gifts are left behind.
The final remaining gifts are [5,8,9,4,3], so the total number of gifts remaining is 29.

Example 2:

Input: gifts = [1,1,1,1], k = 4
Output: 4
Explanation: 
In this case, regardless which pile you choose, you have to leave behind 1 gift in each pile. 
That is, you can't take any pile with you. 
So, the total gifts remaining are 4.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= gifts.length <= 103
  • 1 <= gifts[i] <= 109
  • 1 <= k <= 103

Solution: Priority Queue

Keep all numbers in a priority queue (max heap), each time extract the top one (largest one), then put num – sqrt(num) back to the queue.

Tip: We can early return if all the numbers become 1.

Time complexity: O(n + klogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1061. Lexicographically Smallest Equivalent String

You are given two strings of the same length s1 and s2 and a string baseStr.

We say s1[i] and s2[i] are equivalent characters.

  • For example, if s1 = "abc" and s2 = "cde", then we have 'a' == 'c''b' == 'd', and 'c' == 'e'.

Equivalent characters follow the usual rules of any equivalence relation:

  • Reflexivity: 'a' == 'a'.
  • Symmetry: 'a' == 'b' implies 'b' == 'a'.
  • Transitivity: 'a' == 'b' and 'b' == 'c' implies 'a' == 'c'.

For example, given the equivalency information from s1 = "abc" and s2 = "cde""acd" and "aab" are equivalent strings of baseStr = "eed", and "aab" is the lexicographically smallest equivalent string of baseStr.

Return the lexicographically smallest equivalent string of baseStr by using the equivalency information from s1 and s2.

Example 1:

Input: s1 = "parker", s2 = "morris", baseStr = "parser"
Output: "makkek"
Explanation: Based on the equivalency information in s1 and s2, we can group their characters as [m,p], [a,o], [k,r,s], [e,i].
The characters in each group are equivalent and sorted in lexicographical order.
So the answer is "makkek".

Example 2:

Input: s1 = "hello", s2 = "world", baseStr = "hold"
Output: "hdld"
Explanation: Based on the equivalency information in s1 and s2, we can group their characters as [h,w], [d,e,o], [l,r].
So only the second letter 'o' in baseStr is changed to 'd', the answer is "hdld".

Example 3:

Constraints:

  • 1 <= s1.length, s2.length, baseStr <= 1000
  • s1.length == s2.length
  • s1s2, and baseStr consist of lowercase English letters.

Solution: Union Find

Time complexity: O(n + m)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 2523. Closest Prime Numbers in Range EP407

Given two positive integers left and right, find the two integers num1 and num2 such that:

  • left <= nums1 < nums2 <= right .
  • nums1 and nums2 are both prime numbers.
  • nums2 - nums1 is the minimum amongst all other pairs satisfying the above conditions.

Return the positive integer array ans = [nums1, nums2]If there are multiple pairs satisfying these conditions, return the one with the minimum nums1 value or [-1, -1] if such numbers do not exist.

A number greater than 1 is called prime if it is only divisible by 1 and itself.

Example 1:

Input: left = 10, right = 19
Output: [11,13]
Explanation: The prime numbers between 10 and 19 are 11, 13, 17, and 19.
The closest gap between any pair is 2, which can be achieved by [11,13] or [17,19].
Since 11 is smaller than 17, we return the first pair.

Example 2:

Input: left = 4, right = 6
Output: [-1,-1]
Explanation: There exists only one prime number in the given range, so the conditions cannot be satisfied.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= left <= right <= 106

Solution: Sieve of Eratosthenes

Use Sieve of Eratosthenes to find all primes in range [0, right].

Check neighbor primes and find the best pair.

Time complexity: O(nloglogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++