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花花酱 LeetCode 1825. Finding MK Average

You are given two integers, m and k, and a stream of integers. You are tasked to implement a data structure that calculates the MKAverage for the stream.

The MKAverage can be calculated using these steps:

  1. If the number of the elements in the stream is less than m you should consider the MKAverage to be -1. Otherwise, copy the last m elements of the stream to a separate container.
  2. Remove the smallest k elements and the largest k elements from the container.
  3. Calculate the average value for the rest of the elements rounded down to the nearest integer.

Implement the MKAverage class:

  • MKAverage(int m, int k) Initializes the MKAverage object with an empty stream and the two integers m and k.
  • void addElement(int num) Inserts a new element num into the stream.
  • int calculateMKAverage() Calculates and returns the MKAverage for the current stream rounded down to the nearest integer.

Example 1:

Input
["MKAverage", "addElement", "addElement", "calculateMKAverage", "addElement", "calculateMKAverage", "addElement", "addElement", "addElement", "calculateMKAverage"]
[[3, 1], [3], [1], [], [10], [], [5], [5], [5], []]
Output
[null, null, null, -1, null, 3, null, null, null, 5]

Explanation MKAverage obj = new MKAverage(3, 1); obj.addElement(3); // current elements are [3] obj.addElement(1); // current elements are [3,1] obj.calculateMKAverage(); // return -1, because m = 3 and only 2 elements exist. obj.addElement(10); // current elements are [3,1,10] obj.calculateMKAverage(); // The last 3 elements are [3,1,10]. // After removing smallest and largest 1 element the container will be [3]. // The average of [3] equals 3/1 = 3, return 3 obj.addElement(5); // current elements are [3,1,10,5] obj.addElement(5); // current elements are [3,1,10,5,5] obj.addElement(5); // current elements are [3,1,10,5,5,5] obj.calculateMKAverage(); // The last 3 elements are [5,5,5]. // After removing smallest and largest 1 element the container will be [5]. // The average of [5] equals 5/1 = 5, return 5

Constraints:

  • 3 <= m <= 105
  • 1 <= k*2 < m
  • 1 <= num <= 105
  • At most 105 calls will be made to addElement and calculateMKAverage.

Solution 1: Multiset * 3

Use three multiset to track the left part (smallest k elements), right part (largest k elements) and mid (middle part of m – 2*k elements).

Time complexity: addElememt: O(logn), average: O(1)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1824. Minimum Sideway Jumps

There is a 3 lane road of length n that consists of n + 1 points labeled from 0 to n. A frog starts at point 0 in the second laneand wants to jump to point n. However, there could be obstacles along the way.

You are given an array obstacles of length n + 1 where each obstacles[i] (ranging from 0 to 3) describes an obstacle on the lane obstacles[i] at point i. If obstacles[i] == 0, there are no obstacles at point i. There will be at most one obstacle in the 3 lanes at each point.

  • For example, if obstacles[2] == 1, then there is an obstacle on lane 1 at point 2.

The frog can only travel from point i to point i + 1 on the same lane if there is not an obstacle on the lane at point i + 1. To avoid obstacles, the frog can also perform a side jump to jump to another lane (even if they are not adjacent) at the same point if there is no obstacle on the new lane.

  • For example, the frog can jump from lane 3 at point 3 to lane 1 at point 3.

Return the minimum number of side jumps the frog needs to reach any lane at point n starting from lane 2 at point 0.

Note: There will be no obstacles on points 0 and n.

Example 1:

Input: obstacles = [0,1,2,3,0]
Output: 2 
Explanation: The optimal solution is shown by the arrows above. There are 2 side jumps (red arrows).
Note that the frog can jump over obstacles only when making side jumps (as shown at point 2).

Example 2:

Input: obstacles = [0,1,1,3,3,0]
Output: 0
Explanation: There are no obstacles on lane 2. No side jumps are required.

Example 3:

Input: obstacles = [0,2,1,0,3,0]
Output: 2
Explanation: The optimal solution is shown by the arrows above. There are 2 side jumps.

Constraints:

  • obstacles.length == n + 1
  • 1 <= n <= 5 * 105
  • 0 <= obstacles[i] <= 3
  • obstacles[0] == obstacles[n] == 0

Solution: DP

Time complexity: O(n*k)
Space complexity: O(n*k) -> O(k)

C++

C++/O(1) Space

花花酱 LeetCode 1823. Find the Winner of the Circular Game

There are n friends that are playing a game. The friends are sitting in a circle and are numbered from 1 to n in clockwise order. More formally, moving clockwise from the ith friend brings you to the (i+1)th friend for 1 <= i < n, and moving clockwise from the nth friend brings you to the 1st friend.

The rules of the game are as follows:

  1. Start at the 1st friend.
  2. Count the next k friends in the clockwise direction including the friend you started at. The counting wraps around the circle and may count some friends more than once.
  3. The last friend you counted leaves the circle and loses the game.
  4. If there is still more than one friend in the circle, go back to step 2 starting from the friend immediately clockwise of the friend who just lost and repeat.
  5. Else, the last friend in the circle wins the game.

Given the number of friends, n, and an integer k, return the winner of the game.

Example 1:

Input: n = 5, k = 2
Output: 3
Explanation: Here are the steps of the game:
1) Start at friend 1.
2) Count 2 friends clockwise, which are friends 1 and 2.
3) Friend 2 leaves the circle. Next start is friend 3.
4) Count 2 friends clockwise, which are friends 3 and 4.
5) Friend 4 leaves the circle. Next start is friend 5.
6) Count 2 friends clockwise, which are friends 5 and 1.
7) Friend 1 leaves the circle. Next start is friend 3.
8) Count 2 friends clockwise, which are friends 3 and 5.
9) Friend 5 leaves the circle. Only friend 3 is left, so they are the winner.

Example 2:

Input: n = 6, k = 5
Output: 1
Explanation: The friends leave in this order: 5, 4, 6, 2, 3. The winner is friend 1.

Constraints:

  • 1 <= k <= n <= 500

Solution 1: Simulation w/ Queue / List

Time complexity: O(n*k)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++/Queue

C++/List

花花酱 LeetCode 1822. Sign of the Product of an Array

There is a function signFunc(x) that returns:

  • 1 if x is positive.
  • -1 if x is negative.
  • 0 if x is equal to 0.

You are given an integer array nums. Let product be the product of all values in the array nums.

Return signFunc(product).

Example 1:

Input: nums = [-1,-2,-3,-4,3,2,1]
Output: 1
Explanation: The product of all values in the array is 144, and signFunc(144) = 1

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1,5,0,2,-3]
Output: 0
Explanation: The product of all values in the array is 0, and signFunc(0) = 0

Example 3:

Input: nums = [-1,1,-1,1,-1]
Output: -1
Explanation: The product of all values in the array is -1, and signFunc(-1) = -1

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 1000
  • -100 <= nums[i] <= 100

Solution: Sign Only

No need to compute the product, only track the sign changes. Flip the sign when encounter a negative number, return 0 if there is any 0 in the array.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1819. Number of Different Subsequences GCDs

You are given an array nums that consists of positive integers.

The GCD of a sequence of numbers is defined as the greatest integer that divides all the numbers in the sequence evenly.

  • For example, the GCD of the sequence [4,6,16] is 2.

subsequence of an array is a sequence that can be formed by removing some elements (possibly none) of the array.

  • For example, [2,5,10] is a subsequence of [1,2,1,2,4,1,5,10].

Return the number of different GCDs among all non-empty subsequences of nums.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [6,10,3]
Output: 5
Explanation: The figure shows all the non-empty subsequences and their GCDs.
The different GCDs are 6, 10, 3, 2, and 1.

Example 2:

Input: nums = [5,15,40,5,6]
Output: 7

Constraints:

  • 1 <= nums.length <= 105
  • 1 <= nums[i] <= 2 * 105

Solution: Math

Enumerate all possible gcds (1 to max(nums)), and check whether there is a subset of the numbers that can form a given gcd i.
If we want to check whether 10 is a valid gcd, we found all multipliers of 10 in the array and compute their gcd.
ex1 gcd(10, 20, 30) = 10, true
ex2 gcd(20, 40, 80) = 20, false

Time complexity: O(mlogm)
Space complexity: O(m)

C++