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花花酱 LeetCode 662. Maximum Width of Binary Tree

Given a binary tree, write a function to get the maximum width of the given tree. The width of a tree is the maximum width among all levels. The binary tree has the same structure as a full binary tree, but some nodes are null.

The width of one level is defined as the length between the end-nodes (the leftmost and right most non-null nodes in the level, where the null nodes between the end-nodes are also counted into the length calculation.

Example 1:

Input: 

           1
         /   \
        3     2
       / \     \  
      5   3     9 

Output: 4
Explanation: The maximum width existing in the third level with the length 4 (5,3,null,9).

Example 2:

Input: 

          1
         /  
        3    
       / \       
      5   3     

Output: 2
Explanation: The maximum width existing in the third level with the length 2 (5,3).

Example 3:

Input: 

          1
         / \
        3   2 
       /        
      5      

Output: 2
Explanation: The maximum width existing in the second level with the length 2 (3,2).

Example 4:

Input: 

          1
         / \
        3   2
       /     \  
      5       9 
     /         \
    6           7
Output: 8
Explanation:The maximum width existing in the fourth level with the length 8 (6,null,null,null,null,null,null,7).

Solution: DFS

Let us assign an id to each node, similar to the index of a heap. root is 0, left child = parent * 2, right child = parent * 2 + 1. Width = id(right most child) – id(left most child) + 1, so far so good.
However, this kind of id system grows exponentially, it overflows even with long type with just 64 levels. To avoid that, we can remap the id with id – id(left most child of each level).

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(h)

C++

Java

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1505. Minimum Possible Integer After at Most K Adjacent Swaps On Digits

Given a string num representing the digits of a very large integer and an integer k.

You are allowed to swap any two adjacent digits of the integer at most k times.

Return the minimum integer you can obtain also as a string.

Example 1:

Input: num = "4321", k = 4
Output: "1342"
Explanation: The steps to obtain the minimum integer from 4321 with 4 adjacent swaps are shown.

Example 2:

Input: num = "100", k = 1
Output: "010"
Explanation: It's ok for the output to have leading zeros, but the input is guaranteed not to have any leading zeros.

Example 3:

Input: num = "36789", k = 1000
Output: "36789"
Explanation: We can keep the number without any swaps.

Example 4:

Input: num = "22", k = 22
Output: "22"

Example 5:

Input: num = "9438957234785635408", k = 23
Output: "0345989723478563548"

Constraints:

  • 1 <= num.length <= 30000
  • num contains digits only and doesn’t have leading zeros.
  • 1 <= k <= 10^9

Solution: Greedy + Recursion (Update: TLE after 7/6/2020)

Move the smallest number to the left and recursion on the right substring with length equals to n -= 1.

4321 k = 4 => 1 + solve(432, 4-3) = 1 + solve(432, 1) = 1 + 3 + solve(42, 0) = 1 + 3 + 42 = 1342.

Time complexity: O(n^2)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Solution 2: Binary Indexed Tree / Fenwick Tree

Moving elements in a string is a very expensive operation, basically O(n) per op. Actually, we don’t need to move the elements physically, instead we track how many elements before i has been moved to the “front”. Thus we know the cost to move the i-th element to the “front”, which is i – elements_moved_before_i or prefix_sum(0~i-1) if we mark moved element as 1.

We know BIT / Fenwick Tree is good for dynamic prefix sum computation which helps to reduce the time complexity to O(nlogn).

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

C++

Java

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1504. Count Submatrices With All Ones

Given a rows * columns matrix mat of ones and zeros, return how many submatrices have all ones.

Example 1:

Input: mat = [[1,0,1],
              [1,1,0],
              [1,1,0]]
Output: 13
Explanation:
There are 6 rectangles of side 1x1.
There are 2 rectangles of side 1x2.
There are 3 rectangles of side 2x1.
There is 1 rectangle of side 2x2. 
There is 1 rectangle of side 3x1.
Total number of rectangles = 6 + 2 + 3 + 1 + 1 = 13.

Example 2:

Input: mat = [[0,1,1,0],
              [0,1,1,1],
              [1,1,1,0]]
Output: 24
Explanation:
There are 8 rectangles of side 1x1.
There are 5 rectangles of side 1x2.
There are 2 rectangles of side 1x3. 
There are 4 rectangles of side 2x1.
There are 2 rectangles of side 2x2. 
There are 2 rectangles of side 3x1. 
There is 1 rectangle of side 3x2. 
Total number of rectangles = 8 + 5 + 2 + 4 + 2 + 2 + 1 = 24.

Example 3:

Input: mat = [[1,1,1,1,1,1]]
Output: 21

Example 4:

Input: mat = [[1,0,1],[0,1,0],[1,0,1]]
Output: 5

Constraints:

  • 1 <= rows <= 150
  • 1 <= columns <= 150
  • 0 <= mat[i][j] <= 1

Solution 1: Brute Force w/ Pruning

Time complexity: O(m^2*n^2)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

花花酱 LeetCode 1503. Last Moment Before All Ants Fall Out of a Plank

We have a wooden plank of the length n units. Some ants are walking on the plank, each ant moves with speed 1 unit per second. Some of the ants move to the left, the other move to the right.

When two ants moving in two different directions meet at some point, they change their directions and continue moving again. Assume changing directions doesn’t take any additional time.

When an ant reaches one end of the plank at a time t, it falls out of the plank imediately.

Given an integer n and two integer arrays left and right, the positions of the ants moving to the left and the right. Return the moment when the last ant(s) fall out of the plank.

Example 1:

Input: n = 4, left = [4,3], right = [0,1]
Output: 4
Explanation: In the image above:
-The ant at index 0 is named A and going to the right.
-The ant at index 1 is named B and going to the right.
-The ant at index 3 is named C and going to the left.
-The ant at index 4 is named D and going to the left.
Note that the last moment when an ant was on the plank is t = 4 second, after that it falls imediately out of the plank. (i.e. We can say that at t = 4.0000000001, there is no ants on the plank).

Example 2:

Input: n = 7, left = [], right = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7]
Output: 7
Explanation: All ants are going to the right, the ant at index 0 needs 7 seconds to fall.

Example 3:

Input: n = 7, left = [0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7], right = []
Output: 7
Explanation: All ants are going to the left, the ant at index 7 needs 7 seconds to fall.

Example 4:

Input: n = 9, left = [5], right = [4]
Output: 5
Explanation: At t = 1 second, both ants will be at the same intial position but with different direction.

Example 5:

Input: n = 6, left = [6], right = [0]
Output: 6

Constraints:

  • 1 <= n <= 10^4
  • 0 <= left.length <= n + 1
  • 0 <= left[i] <= n
  • 0 <= right.length <= n + 1
  • 0 <= right[i] <= n
  • 1 <= left.length + right.length <= n + 1
  • All values of left and right are unique, and each value can appear only in one of the two arrays.

Solution: Keep Walking

When two ants A –> and <– B meet at some point, they change directions <– A B –>, we can swap the ids of the ants as <– B A–>, so it’s the same as walking individually and passed by. Then we just need to find the max/min of the left/right arrays.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Java

Python3

花花酱 LeetCode 1502. Can Make Arithmetic Progression From Sequence

Given an array of numbers arr. A sequence of numbers is called an arithmetic progression if the difference between any two consecutive elements is the same.

Return true if the array can be rearranged to form an arithmetic progression, otherwise, return false.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [3,5,1]
Output: true
Explanation: We can reorder the elements as [1,3,5] or [5,3,1] with differences 2 and -2 respectively, between each consecutive elements.

Example 2:

Input: arr = [1,2,4]
Output: false
Explanation: There is no way to reorder the elements to obtain an arithmetic progression.

Constraints:

  • 2 <= arr.length <= 1000
  • -10^6 <= arr[i] <= 10^6

Solution 1: Sort and check.

Time complexity: O(nlog)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Java

python3

Solution 2: Rearrange the array

Find min / max / diff and put each element into its correct position by swapping elements in place.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

C++