# Huahua's Tech Road

You are given an array of positive integers arr. Perform some operations (possibly none) on arr so that it satisfies these conditions:

• The value of the first element in arr must be 1.
• The absolute difference between any 2 adjacent elements must be less than or equal to 1. In other words, abs(arr[i] - arr[i - 1]) <= 1 for each i where 1 <= i < arr.length (0-indexed). abs(x) is the absolute value of x.

There are 2 types of operations that you can perform any number of times:

• Decrease the value of any element of arr to a smaller positive integer.
• Rearrange the elements of arr to be in any order.

Return the maximum possible value of an element in arr after performing the operations to satisfy the conditions.

Example 1:

Input: arr = [2,2,1,2,1]
Output: 2
Explanation:
We can satisfy the conditions by rearranging arr so it becomes [1,2,2,2,1].
The largest element in arr is 2.


Example 2:

Input: arr = [100,1,1000]
Output: 3
Explanation:
One possible way to satisfy the conditions is by doing the following:
1. Rearrange arr so it becomes [1,100,1000].
2. Decrease the value of the second element to 2.
3. Decrease the value of the third element to 3.
Now arr = [1,2,3], which satisfies the conditions.
The largest element in arr is 3.


Example 3:

Input: arr = [1,2,3,4,5]
Output: 5
Explanation: The array already satisfies the conditions, and the largest element is 5.


Constraints:

• 1 <= arr.length <= 105
• 1 <= arr[i] <= 109

## Solution: Sort

arr[0] = 1,
arr[i] = min(arr[i], arr[i – 1] + 1)

ans = arr[n – 1]

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Design a system that manages the reservation state of n seats that are numbered from 1 to n.

Implement the SeatManager class:

• SeatManager(int n) Initializes a SeatManager object that will manage n seats numbered from 1 to n. All seats are initially available.
• int reserve() Fetches the smallest-numbered unreserved seat, reserves it, and returns its number.
• void unreserve(int seatNumber) Unreserves the seat with the given seatNumber.

Example 1:

Input
["SeatManager", "reserve", "reserve", "unreserve", "reserve", "reserve", "reserve", "reserve", "unreserve"]
[[5], [], [], [2], [], [], [], [], [5]]
Output

[null, 1, 2, null, 2, 3, 4, 5, null]

Explanation SeatManager seatManager = new SeatManager(5); // Initializes a SeatManager with 5 seats. seatManager.reserve(); // All seats are available, so return the lowest numbered seat, which is 1. seatManager.reserve(); // The available seats are [2,3,4,5], so return the lowest of them, which is 2. seatManager.unreserve(2); // Unreserve seat 2, so now the available seats are [2,3,4,5]. seatManager.reserve(); // The available seats are [2,3,4,5], so return the lowest of them, which is 2. seatManager.reserve(); // The available seats are [3,4,5], so return the lowest of them, which is 3. seatManager.reserve(); // The available seats are [4,5], so return the lowest of them, which is 4. seatManager.reserve(); // The only available seat is seat 5, so return 5. seatManager.unreserve(5); // Unreserve seat 5, so now the available seats are [5].


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 105
• 1 <= seatNumber <= n
• For each call to reserve, it is guaranteed that there will be at least one unreserved seat.
• For each call to unreserve, it is guaranteed that seatNumber will be reserved.
• At most 105 calls in total will be made to reserve and unreserve.

## Solution: TreeSet

Time complexity: O(nlogn)
Space complexity: O(n)

## C++

You are given a 0-indexed string s that has lowercase English letters in its even indices and digits in its odd indices.

There is a function shift(c, x), where c is a character and x is a digit, that returns the xth character after c.

• For example, shift('a', 5) = 'f' and shift('x', 0) = 'x'.

For every odd index i, you want to replace the digit s[i] with shift(s[i-1], s[i]).

Return s after replacing all digits. It is guaranteed that shift(s[i-1], s[i]) will never exceed 'z'.

Example 1:

Input: s = "a1c1e1"
Output: "abcdef"
Explanation: The digits are replaced as follows:
- s[1] -> shift('a',1) = 'b'
- s[3] -> shift('c',1) = 'd'
- s[5] -> shift('e',1) = 'f'

Example 2:

Input: s = "a1b2c3d4e"
Output: "abbdcfdhe"
Explanation: The digits are replaced as follows:
- s[1] -> shift('a',1) = 'b'
- s[3] -> shift('b',2) = 'd'
- s[5] -> shift('c',3) = 'f'
- s[7] -> shift('d',4) = 'h'

Constraints:

• 1 <= s.length <= 100
• s consists only of lowercase English letters and digits.
• shift(s[i-1], s[i]) <= 'z' for all odd indices i.

## Solution: Simulation

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

You want to build n new buildings in a city. The new buildings will be built in a line and are labeled from 1 to n.

However, there are city restrictions on the heights of the new buildings:

• The height of each building must be a non-negative integer.
• The height of the first building must be 0.
• The height difference between any two adjacent buildings cannot exceed 1.

Additionally, there are city restrictions on the maximum height of specific buildings. These restrictions are given as a 2D integer array restrictions where restrictions[i] = [idi, maxHeighti] indicates that building idi must have a height less than or equal to maxHeighti.

It is guaranteed that each building will appear at most once in restrictions, and building 1 will not be in restrictions.

Return the maximum possible height of the tallest building.

Example 1:

Input: n = 5, restrictions = [[2,1],[4,1]]
Output: 2
Explanation: The green area in the image indicates the maximum allowed height for each building.
We can build the buildings with heights [0,1,2,1,2], and the tallest building has a height of 2.

Example 2:

Input: n = 6, restrictions = []
Output: 5
Explanation: The green area in the image indicates the maximum allowed height for each building.
We can build the buildings with heights [0,1,2,3,4,5], and the tallest building has a height of 5.


Example 3:

Constraints:

• 2 <= n <= 109
• 0 <= restrictions.length <= min(n - 1, 105)
• 2 <= idi <= n
• idi is unique.
• 0 <= maxHeighti <= 109

## Solution: Two Passes

Trim the max heights based on neighboring max heights.
Two passes: left to right, right to left.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

A string is considered beautiful if it satisfies the following conditions:

• Each of the 5 English vowels ('a''e''i''o''u') must appear at least once in it.
• The letters must be sorted in alphabetical order (i.e. all 'a's before 'e's, all 'e's before 'i's, etc.).

For example, strings "aeiou" and "aaaaaaeiiiioou" are considered beautiful, but "uaeio""aeoiu", and "aaaeeeooo" are not beautiful.

Given a string word consisting of English vowels, return the length of the longest beautiful substring of word. If no such substring exists, return 0.

substring is a contiguous sequence of characters in a string.

Example 1:

Input: word = "aeiaaioaaaaeiiiiouuuooaauuaeiu"
Output: 13
Explanation: The longest beautiful substring in word is "aaaaeiiiiouuu" of length 13.

Example 2:

Input: word = "aeeeiiiioooauuuaeiou"
Output: 5
Explanation: The longest beautiful substring in word is "aeiou" of length 5.


Example 3:

Input: word = "a"
Output: 0
Explanation: There is no beautiful substring, so return 0.


Constraints:

• 1 <= word.length <= 5 * 105
• word consists of characters 'a''e''i''o', and 'u'.

# Solution: Counter

Use a counter to track how many unique vowels we saw so far. Reset the counter whenever the s[i] < s[i-1]. Incase the counter if s[i] > s[i – 1]. When counter becomes 5, we know we found a valid substring.

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)