# Posts tagged as “cycle”

Write an algorithm to determine if a number n is happy.

happy number is a number defined by the following process:

• Starting with any positive integer, replace the number by the sum of the squares of its digits.
• Repeat the process until the number equals 1 (where it will stay), or it loops endlessly in a cycle which does not include 1.
• Those numbers for which this process ends in 1 are happy.

Return true if n is a happy number, and false if not.

Example 1:

Input: n = 19
Output: true
Explanation:
12 + 92 = 82
82 + 22 = 68
62 + 82 = 100
12 + 02 + 02 = 1


Example 2:

Input: n = 2
Output: false


Constraints:

• 1 <= n <= 231 - 1

## Solution: Simulation

We can use a hasthable to store all the number we generated so far.

Time complexity: O(L)
Space complexity: O(L)

## Optimization: Space reduction

Since the number sequence always has a cycle, we can use slow / fast pointers to detect the cycle without using a hastable.

Time complexity: O(L)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Given the head of a linked list, return the node where the cycle begins. If there is no cycle, return null.

There is a cycle in a linked list if there is some node in the list that can be reached again by continuously following the next pointer. Internally, pos is used to denote the index of the node that tail’s next pointer is connected to (0-indexed). It is -1 if there is no cycle. Note that pos is not passed as a parameter.

Do not modify the linked list.

Example 1:

Input: head = [3,2,0,-4], pos = 1
Output: tail connects to node index 1
Explanation: There is a cycle in the linked list, where tail connects to the second node.


Example 2:

Input: head = [1,2], pos = 0
Output: tail connects to node index 0
Explanation: There is a cycle in the linked list, where tail connects to the first node.


Example 3:

Input: head = , pos = -1
Output: no cycle
Explanation: There is no cycle in the linked list.


Constraints:

• The number of the nodes in the list is in the range [0, 104].
• -105 <= Node.val <= 105
• pos is -1 or a valid index in the linked-list.

Follow up: Can you solve it using O(1) (i.e. constant) memory?

## Solution 1: Hashtset

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(n)

## Solution: Fast slow pointers

Time complexity: O(n)
Space complexity: O(1)

## C++

Given a 2D array of characters grid of size m x n, you need to find if there exists any cycle consisting of the same value in grid.

A cycle is a path of length 4 or more in the grid that starts and ends at the same cell. From a given cell, you can move to one of the cells adjacent to it – in one of the four directions (up, down, left, or right), if it has the same value of the current cell.

Also, you cannot move to the cell that you visited in your last move. For example, the cycle (1, 1) -> (1, 2) -> (1, 1) is invalid because from (1, 2) we visited (1, 1) which was the last visited cell.

Return true if any cycle of the same value exists in grid, otherwise, return false.

Example 1:

Input: grid = [["a","a","a","a"],["a","b","b","a"],["a","b","b","a"],["a","a","a","a"]]
Output: true
Explanation: There are two valid cycles shown in different colors in the image below:



Example 2:

Input: grid = [["c","c","c","a"],["c","d","c","c"],["c","c","e","c"],["f","c","c","c"]]
Output: true
Explanation: There is only one valid cycle highlighted in the image below:



Example 3:

Input: grid = [["a","b","b"],["b","z","b"],["b","b","a"]]
Output: false


Constraints:

• m == grid.length
• n == grid[i].length
• 1 <= m <= 500
• 1 <= n <= 500
• grid consists only of lowercase English letters.

## Solution: DFS

Finding a cycle in an undirected graph => visiting a node that has already been visited and it’s not the parent node of the current node.
b b
b b
null -> (0, 0) -> (0, 1) -> (1, 1) -> (1, 0) -> (0, 0)
The second time we visit (0, 0) which has already been visited before and it’s not the parent of the current node (1, 0) ( (1, 0)’s parent is (1, 1) ) which means we found a cycle.

Time complexity: O(m*n)
Space complexity: O(m*n)

# Problem

Given a linked list, determine if it has a cycle in it.

Can you solve it without using extra space?

# Solution1: HashTable

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(n)

# Solution2: Fast + Slow pointers

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(1)

# Problem

https://leetcode.com/problems/find-eventual-safe-states/description/

In a directed graph, we start at some node and every turn, walk along a directed edge of the graph.  If we reach a node that is terminal (that is, it has no outgoing directed edges), we stop.

Now, say our starting node is eventually safe if and only if we must eventually walk to a terminal node.  More specifically, there exists a natural number K so that for any choice of where to walk, we must have stopped at a terminal node in less than K steps.

Which nodes are eventually safe?  Return them as an array in sorted order.

The directed graph has N nodes with labels 0, 1, ..., N-1, where N is the length of graph.  The graph is given in the following form: graph[i] is a list of labels j such that (i, j) is a directed edge of the graph.

Example:
Input: graph = [[1,2],[2,3],,,,[],[]]
Output: [2,4,5,6]
Here is a diagram of the above graph. Note:

• graph will have length at most 10000.
• The number of edges in the graph will not exceed 32000.
• Each graph[i] will be a sorted list of different integers, chosen within the range [0, graph.length - 1].

# Idea: Finding Cycles # Solution 1: DFS

A node is safe if and only if: itself and all of its neighbors do not have any cycles.

Time complexity: O(V + E)

Space complexity: O(V + E)