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Posts tagged as “math”

花花酱 LeetCode 810. Chalkboard XOR Game

Problem

We are given non-negative integers nums[i] which are written on a chalkboard.  Alice and Bob take turns erasing exactly one number from the chalkboard, with Alice starting first.  If erasing a number causes the bitwise XOR of all the elements of the chalkboard to become 0, then that player loses.  (Also, we’ll say the bitwise XOR of one element is that element itself, and the bitwise XOR of no elements is 0.)

Also, if any player starts their turn with the bitwise XOR of all the elements of the chalkboard equal to 0, then that player wins.

Return True if and only if Alice wins the game, assuming both players play optimally.

Example:
Input: nums = [1, 1, 2]
Output: false
Explanation: 
Alice has two choices: erase 1 or erase 2. 
If she erases 1, the nums array becomes [1, 2]. The bitwise XOR of all the elements of the chalkboard is 1 XOR 2 = 3. Now Bob can remove any element he wants, because Alice will be the one to erase the last element and she will lose. 
If Alice erases 2 first, now nums becomes [1, 1]. The bitwise XOR of all the elements of the chalkboard is 1 XOR 1 = 0. Alice will lose.

Notes:

  • 1 <= N <= 1000.
  • 0 <= nums[i] <= 2^16.

Solution: Math

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(1)

 

 

花花酱 LeetCode 812. Largest Triangle Area

Problem

题目大意:给你一些点,求用这些点能够成的最大的三角形面积是多少?

https://leetcode.com/problems/largest-triangle-area/description/

You have a list of points in the plane. Return the area of the largest triangle that can be formed by any 3 of the points.

Example:
Input: points = [[0,0],[0,1],[1,0],[0,2],[2,0]]
Output: 2
Explanation: 
The five points are show in the figure below. The red triangle is the largest.

Notes:

  • 3 <= points.length <= 50.
  • No points will be duplicated.
  •  -50 <= points[i][j] <= 50.
  • Answers within 10^-6 of the true value will be accepted as correct.

Solution: Brute Force

Time complexity: O(n^3)

Space complexity: O(1)

 

花花酱 LeetCode 453. Minimum Moves to Equal Array Elements

Problem

题目大意:给你一个数组,每次可以把其中n-1个数加1,问最少需要多少次操作可以使得数组中的元素都相等。

https://leetcode.com/problems/minimum-moves-to-equal-array-elements/description/

Given a non-empty integer array of size n, find the minimum number of moves required to make all array elements equal, where a move is incrementing n – 1 elements by 1.

Example:

Input:
[1,2,3]

Output:
3

Explanation:
Only three moves are needed (remember each move increments two elements):

[1,2,3]  =>  [2,3,3]  =>  [3,4,3]  =>  [4,4,4]

Idea

Assuming the sum of array is S, the minimum element of the array is min and minimum number of moves is m.

Each move will increase the sum of array by n – 1. Finally, every element becomes x. So we have:

  1. S + (n – 1) * m = x * n
  2. min + m = x

We got: m = S – n * min

Solution: Math

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(1)

C++

Python

 

花花酱 LeetCode 507. Perfect Number

Problem

题目大意:判断一个数的因数和是不是等于它本身。

https://leetcode.com/problems/perfect-number/description/

We define the Perfect Number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of all its positive divisors except itself.

Now, given an integer n, write a function that returns true when it is a perfect number and false when it is not.

Example:

Input: 28
Output: True
Explanation: 28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14

Note: The input number n will not exceed 100,000,000. (1e8)

Solution: Brute Force

Try allnumbers from 1 to n – 1.

Time complexity: O(n) TLE for prime numbers

Space complexity: O(1)

Solution: Math

Try all numbers from 2 to sqrt(n).

If number i is a divisor of n then n/i is another one.

Be careful about the case when i == n/i, only one should be added to the sum.

Time complexity: O(sqrt(n))

Space complexity: O(1)

C++

 

花花酱 LeetCode 553. Optimal Division

Problem

https://leetcode.com/problems/optimal-division/description/

题目大意:给你一个连除的表达式,让你加一些括号使得表达式的值最大。

Given a list of positive integers, the adjacent integers will perform the float division. For example, [2,3,4] -> 2 / 3 / 4.

However, you can add any number of parenthesis at any position to change the priority of operations. You should find out how to add parenthesis to get the maximum result, and return the corresponding expression in string format. Your expression should NOT contain redundant parenthesis.

Example:

Input: [1000,100,10,2]
Output: "1000/(100/10/2)"
Explanation:
1000/(100/10/2) = 1000/((100/10)/2) = 200
However, the bold parenthesis in "1000/((100/10)/2)" are redundant, 
since they don't influence the operation priority. So you should return "1000/(100/10/2)". 

Other cases:
1000/(100/10)/2 = 50
1000/(100/(10/2)) = 50
1000/100/10/2 = 0.5
1000/100/(10/2) = 2

Note:

  1. The length of the input array is [1, 10].
  2. Elements in the given array will be in range [2, 1000].
  3. There is only one optimal division for each test case.

Solution: Math

For: X1/X2/X3/…/Xn, X1/(X2/X3/…/Xn) > X1/X2/(X3/…/Xn) > X1/X2/X3/(…/Xn)

X1/(X2/X3/…/Xn) is the max value.

Time complexity: O(n)

Space complexity: O(n)

C++